The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

From the history of origin of the youth sports movement in Transbaikalia


L.K. Prokofieva

senior teacher of the Chita institute of the Baikal state university of economy and right


The end the H1H — beginning of the XX century in the history of Russia became the period of deep reforming of all parties of social and political and economic life. Objective processes of advance of Russia on the way of capitalism could not but affect life of our state. Industry development, active formation of the so-called middle class, growth of class consciousness of workers, their social gains, expansion of an education system and, at last, growth of the general cultural level — all this could not but promote instilling of skill sports, a part healthy lifestyle (and not really small) residents of Russia.

Among the Russian youth there was a big thirst for classes physical exercises, sport, but sufficient conditions for this purpose were available a little: the material resources were extremely weak, the acute shortage of experts in physical education was felt. The ministry of national education needed more than 1200 teachers for filling of a minimum of vacant positions from calculation at least for one teacher on one average educational institution.

At the beginning of the 1890th the famous Russian teachers and doctors P.F. Lesgaft, M.I. Pokrovsky, E.M. Dementiev, etc. created Society of assistance to physical development of the studying youth. By 1910 in Russia was to its 80 regional organizations. For children and teenagers walks and excursions, games and skating were arranged. Exactly by this time wide circulation in the Russian cities of skating rinks, gymnastic towns and platforms belongs. In Siberia the big activity was shown by the Irkutsk and Tomsk societies where the famous doctor Pirussky was the head. The similar organization and in Chita worked.

At the beginning of the 20th century in Russia the children's out-of-school organizations — so-called "amusing" troops, or just "amusing", and scout groups began to be created. First "amusing" were organized in the Odessa educational district in 1908. According to founders of such groups, they had to make analogy to "amusing" troops of Peter the Great, but in fact it was only visibility, an outer sheath.

One of ideologists of the movement "amusing", the councilor of state Lutskevich, noted that "... before & #34; потешными" groups set a task to save the national schools infected with revolutionary movement of 1905 from political propagandists". In orders of the Defense Ministry and Ministry of national education this initiative was held up as an example by everything to schools. It was recommended that troops of garrisons where "amusing" groups were created, rendered all assistance to these organizations. The militarized groups of "amusing" were gathered generally from children of the lowest estates. Retired corporals taught children to march a system, to sing front songs, to carry out receptions with wooden guns; also military charters were studied. The movement "amusing" was too militarized, narrow on the purposes.

In 1912, in honor of the 100 anniversary of a victory in Patriotic war of 1812, it was poveleno most high to cause to St. Petersburg on a review "amusing" groups from all regions of the empire including group of the Transbaikal railroad. "Preliminary preparation for a review of children from Adrianovk's stations, Manchuria, Shilka, Hilok, Cheeta, etc. was carried out in Irkutsk. It were children of working and railway employees, only 31 boys. On regimentals & #34; потешных" and their transportation to St. Petersburg and back Zabaykalskaya Road spent more than 4 thousand rub -

© L.K. Prokofieva, 2006


leu". From the description of regimentals of Transbaikal "amusing": "A headdress — a summer peak-cap of color khaki with a peak, Zabaykalskaya Road emblem. A soldier's blouse of color khaki, a uniform of black cloth, on a collar an emblem — the axe and an anchor. High boots, from chromic skin. On a belt belt initials Transbaikal railway".

Irkutsk and Transbaikal "amusing" were prepared for a review by officers of one of the Siberian shooting regiments led by the lieutenant N. Malkochi. Children were trained in drill elements, a ceremonial march, singing of patriotic songs, exercises of sokolsky and military gymnastics, an assault at arms, etc. In a summary company there were two drummers and also it had a banner. "Amusing" adequately passed the highest review in the capital of the empire.

The movement of "amusing" got personal approval of the emperor. It was offered to State Council to dig up resources on expansion of this business, but to the tsar there were reports of dignitaries in which it was said that training of youth in military science — reception two-edged, and kind of instead of the regiments betrayed to the government the personnel of revolutionary militia was not formed. Officially "amusing" nobody cancelled, but before World War I this movement gradually came to naught.

Practically along with "amusing" in Russia the scouting began to develop. Its homeland is England. The colonel R. Baden Powell was a founder of the movement. In 1899-1902 in the south of Africa there was a Boer war, one of the first wars for repartition of the world. Baden Powell paid attention that the intelligence service in troops of drills is born generally by teenagers. They perfectly are guided by areas, are able to read traces, to transfer difficulties of a camp life, long time to be in a cream puff (bush, the savanna) without food and water, etc. All this suggested Baden Powell an idea of education in the same way of the English children and teenagers. It developed the system of out-of-school education and training which was widespread not only in England, but also in dozens of the countries of the world.

Activity Baden Powell inspired the officer of one of the Guards regiments of the Russian army billeted in Tsarskoye Selo, Oleg Pantyukhov to organize the first

group of the Russian scouts into which seven boys originally entered. The scouting began to extend quickly in Russia. If "amusing" united in the ranks pupils of the lowest and elementary schools (generally children of working and small employees), then scout groups included pupils of vysshenachalny and real schools, gymnasiums (generally children enough wealthy parents). In groups of scouts much attention was paid to moral education in combination with physical exercises and trainings, and the importance was attached to promotion of activity and independence of children. The motto of the Russian scouts — "Faith in God, service to the Sovereign and the Fatherland, the help to neighbors. The Russian scout, be ready! — It is always ready!". Scouts had certain traditions: scout fire, oath, wearing uniform, etc. In the scout organizations the sokolsky gymnastics, track and field athletics, sports, first of all soccer were cultivated, campaigns and excursions, games on the area were arranged. By October, 1917 in Russia there were about 50 thousand scouts, their organizations worked in 143 cities of the empire. The all-Russian scout magazine "Bud Gotov!" and also a number of magazines in the provincial cities was issued, meetings of scouts were held.

The Russian scout movement declared the political neutrality more than once. Nevertheless with establishment of the Soviet power it was announced to alien new, communistic ideology. For the first time it was noted in resolutions of the 2nd congress of Komsomol in 1919. Then, in the early twenties, since formation of the pioneer organization, scout groups began to be dismissed, but till 1926 in resolutions of Komsomol congresses and conferences was expressed the need of fight against scouts.

The famous sculptor Innokenti Nikolaevich Zhukov (1875-1948) who was original originality was an ideologist and the organizer of scouting in Transbaikalia. He got an education in the Chita gymnasium, then at historical and philological faculty of the St. Petersburg university. In 1912-1914 he studied sculpture in Paris at Emile Bourdelle, took consultations from August Rodin which highly appreciated talent of the pupil. Warmly spoke of I.N. Zhukov's creativity by L.N. Tolstaya and A.M. Gorky with which he corresponded. I.N. Zhukov

IGEA news. 2006. No. 3 (48)

L.K. Prokofieva

published works on problems of education of youth. It belonged to those teachers who among the first raised a question of creation in Russia of a new system of out-of-school education and education of youth — scouting.

I.N. Zhukov actively participated in creation in Transbaikalia of scout groups. In 1917 only in Chita there were about 700 scouts. Content of activity of similar children's formations, according to him, had to promote civil formation of teenagers and also development of spiritual and moral qualities, religious and labor education, physical development, mastering the vital motive skills. Among scouts various competitions were often held thanks to what the sports competitive spirit got gradually into young people.

I.N. Zhukov was an active propagandist of physical culture and sport. In the spring of 1920 it organized the Chita's first youth track and field athletics competitions held on May 30 — 31 at Atamanovskaya Square. Entered run on various distances and long jumps the program of competitions. In the Vostochnaya Okraina newspaper it was noted that "if the Chita youth does not manage to break the All-Russian and amateur records, then nevertheless on these competitions records of the city of Chita will be set".

Summer of the same year I.N. Zhukov organized carrying out youth championship of Chita in soccer. "Transbaikal nov" wrote: "Interest in soccer within a year took deep root among the Chita youth..." The fact that seven teams took part in the championship of Chita in soccer of 1920 demonstrates to it: "Grammar-school boys", "Cooperative", "Sport", "Arrow", Dalnevokzaltsa, "Cadet", "Residents of Samara". The first three teams represented actually city youth, "Arrow" and Dalnevokzaltsa consisted of youth of the railway settlement of Dal -

ny Station (nowadays railway station Chita-1). "Cadet" — team of yunkersky school which was created by G.M. Semyonov. "Residents of Samara" — team of one of bodies of the general O.V. Kappel. Holding such competitions — business difficult. Certain knowledge and experience are for this purpose necessary. I.N. Zhukov, undoubtedly, knew rules of soccer and a technique of the organization of competitions, and his pedagogical talent is confirmed by all its activity in a sports youth and scout movement.

The mention of the first organized hikes in Transbaikalia belongs to 1918 when I.N. Zhukov developed on the basis of the scout organization a long game for the purpose of studying history and the nature of Transbaikalia ("The Transbaikal forwarding case"). For participation in a game the certain preparation consisting in passing of routes, holding excursions and competitions in the neighborhood of Chita was required.

I.N. Zhukov called teachers in their educational practice skillfully to use tendencies of children to collectivism, travel, adventures, it is correct to interpret a children's initiative, to operate it. The mass form of involvement of teenagers in the children's association based on these pedagogical principles can be considered the same "The Transbaikal forwarding case". Pedagogical activity of I.N. Zhukov should be considered as an important contribution to development of the idea of new pedagogics which dominating trends are development of identity, independence, a personal initiative of children and teenagers, strengthening of attention to issues of education and personal development through physical culture and sport.

Emergence of sports associations, the movement "amusing" and scouts and also work of teachers devotees on physical training and familiarizing with sport of younger generation had significant effect on rise and further development of the sports movement of youth of Transbaikalia.

IGEA news. 2006. No. 3 (48)

Joseph Matthew Britton
Other scientific works: