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The Omsk militia school in the system of professional education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation: development stages



k to ANNIVERSARY of ACADEMY

UDC 93 © M.A. Kozhevina, 2010

The Omsk militia school in the system of professional education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation: development stages

M.A. Kozhevina *

The main stages of development of militia education in Russia are allocated, the key moments in development which influenced high-quality changes in the organization of training of qualified personnel for law enforcement agencies are defined. The place and a role of the Omsk Russian Interior Ministry Academy in this process are defined.

Omsk Russian Interior Ministry Academy.

At the time of emergence of the Soviet state the militia was formed on the basis of ideas of need of general arms of the people. But for the short period from public body of protection of interests of workers it was turned into structure of the power and since May, 1918 had constant staff and executed special functions. Exactly from now on experience of the personnel policy of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of RSFSR begins to develop.

The organizational period of formation of a system of militia education falls on 1918 — 1922. The first Soviet militia courses appeared in 1918. Since 1920 the schools and courses were organized everywhere. They were called differently: command and technical courses of militia, courses of red militiamen, militia courses, schools of militiamen and t p

A specific place in the history of militia school was held by the Omsk or All-Siberian courses of militia the Siberian region which is torn off from the center by civil war and foreign intervention was forced to organize independently peaceful life, creating own authorities. The militia attracted in the ranks everyone and sympathizers

On April 17, 1920 Sibrevk issued the order on the beginning of work of courses of training for militia 1 At the same time on places provincial courses were created. Together with them the indicative group from 200 pedestrian and 100 horse militiamen was organized on August 17, 1920. It was purely military organization, but at the same time carried out theoretical training of militiamen. In 1921 the courses and indicative group were united in the All-Siberian courses of militia. On August 15, 1921 courses were renamed into the High Siberian command courses of the Soviet Workers' and Peasants' militia Considerably the status of courses was raised. They became educational the institutions training experts of higher qualification

It is important to note that the Omsk courses were an integral part of the system of training of police officers developing in the country three types of schools and courses Were allocated the First and second type was created in all provinces, areas or districts for training of the senior militiamen and initial police inspectors. Courses of the third type — the highest — trained average command structure. In Russia such courses were only in Petrograd and in Omsk

* Permanent author of our magazine.

However the created militia courses irrespective of the status carried out only primary vocational education. But they also could not apply for higher professional standard at least that a considerable part of students was illiterate and semiliterate. In some provinces the number of illiterate militiamen reached 25%, the percent semiliterate in militia made 30-35 2 therefore programs of militia courses and schools included the section in general education objects

Such decision was agreed with the state policy of elimination of illiteracy among the population of the Republic 3. According to the Decree of SNK of December 26, 1919. "About elimination of illiteracy among the population of RSFSR" all courses of preparation of militia shots at the same time were schools of the first step of uniform labor school 4.

The next stage of development of militia education is connected with development of special schools and covers the period from 1922 to 1952

On November 15, 1922 in life of the High courses there were high-quality changes. The First Petrograd and Second Omsk high courses of a komsostav of militia were respectively renamed by the order of GUM of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of RSFSR into the First Petrograd and Second Omsk school of an average komsostav of militia 5. Thus the content of work and a form of courses were brought into accord They trained commanders of militia of an average link, assignment of the status of school expanded these opportunities

Improvement of school work is connected and with the order of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of RSFSR of May 19, 1928, according to which three schools of an average nachsostav of militia and four schools of a younger nachsostav of militia were transformed to People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs schools (with the 1st on the 7th), of administrative and militia workers the Omsk school received the name the 2nd school of administrative and militia employees of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of RSFSR In it, along with militia and ugolovnorozyskny offices, the penitentiary office opened New educational institutions were created by the principle of uniform labor schools, had several steps of educational process and provided training of all categories of employees of militia at the same time

The Great Patriotic War qualitatively changed the personnel building of militia Arrival to militia of the demobilized officers and soldiers made favorable impact on strengthening of discipline, but in the majority they had no special knowledge, and at times elementary professional skills In the first post-war year at schools and studied at courses of militia

4680 people, from total number working in bodies of militia it made 1.3% (M.K. calculations) 6, all in militia having vocational education there were about 10% 7. Therefore, the others mastered a profession directly "in a workplace"

On February 8, 1947 the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR "About Actions for Preparation and Retraining of the Leading and Operational Personnel of Militia" was issued. This document defined actions for improvement of teaching and educational process in militia educational institutions According to the order the Omsk interregional school of militia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR on an equal basis with other schools of the country was renamed into school of the commanding structure of militia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR with the biennial term of training

The resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR "About Reorganization of Educational Institutions of the Ministry of State Security of the USSR" laid on June 15, 1952 the foundation for formation of militia education as the industries of the state system of legal education and to a new stage of development there Is a transition from the principle of training of a profession of the militiaman to the principle of professional education police officer System becomes new educational technologies and long experience of a civil system of training of specialists, less closed, more open and available to introduction, the Higher school of militia was transformed to the highest legal educational institution, and six schools of militia (Saratov, Tashkent, Odessa, Khabarovsk, Gorky and Leningrad) — to average special educational institutions like law schools with problems of training of the commanding structure for bodies of militia 8.

In May, 1955 the order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR on reorganization of seven more schools of militia including Omsk, in high special schools of militia of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR with the biennial term of training of 9 V school the persons having the finished secondary education Upon termination of high special school of militia to graduates were accepted was issued qualification of the lawyer and a special rank "militia lieutenant" were appropriated

In November, 1955 at the Omsk special school of militia, as well as in other similar educational institutions, the correspondence department with set of 300 people and of training of 3 years was open. In 1959 the commission of UUZ Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in the act following the results of check of school noted: "In general in work of the Omsk school there are positive sides demonstrating that the collective copes with tasks of teaching and educational work On education level, to experience and business qualities staff to posts corresponds Political and moral so1922 years.

CONTENTS:

No. 46/page. About introductions to effect of the new provision, curriculum and states of schools of an average komsostav of militia.

No. 46/page Moscow, on November 15, 1922.

Orders of Militia of the Republic of December 9th, 1921 for No. 465 and of May 15th, 1922 for No. 29/with the present order are repealed.

herewith об&являю:

a) Provision on schools of an average komsostav of militia.

b) Curriculum of schools of an average komsostav of militia and

c) staff of schools of an average komsostav of militia, каковы#! to consider put into operation from this number.

§ 3. .

Sootvt the first Petrograd and Second Omsk High Courses of a komsostav of militia: stvenno are renamed into the first Petrograd and Second Omsk school of an average komsostav of militia.

To chiefs of the first Petrograd and second Omsk school of an average komsostav of militia with obtaining this order immediately to start reorganization of schools, on the bases, об&явленных herewith the provision, the curriculum and staff of schools of an average komsostav of militia.

To carry out reorganization of schools in the following order:

a) Till December 20th of this year to finish all preparatory work on the organization, namely: to invite lecturers in all objects of an elementary grade, to get grants and textbooks, to adapt the room, to attend to receiving objects of ware and grocery supply {, etc.

b) In process of arrival of faces of variable structure immediately to _gropuskat them through the testing commission then to start classes which to begin no later than January 10th, 1923

c) To organize classes originally as a part of an elementary grade on which to enlist all consisting on the person at schools of students. To take a course of an elementary grade in an expedited manner and to finish its passing by September 10th, 1923

§ *> •

Began reorganization to inform on time to chiefs of schools on telegraph and in the subsequent weekly to inform on the reorganization course by mail.

Items: Chief of Militia of the Republic T. Hvesin.

Room of N of Militia of the Republic and deputy N Adm. - Org. Department V. Borodulin.

(On Administrative Organizational Department.

Truly: Chief Otdelen. Preparation N. Rogov.

standing of school healthy the Staff of school systematically participates in the political and economic events held by party and Soviet bodies for what the executive committee of the Omsk city council of deputies of workers in December, 1959 awarded school with the Certificate of honor".

The new stage of development of militia school in the country is connected with formation of the higher education system. In the mid-sixties. The government of the country undertook a number of the organizational measures directed to improvement of a law-enforcement system, strengthening of a system of departmental education. In the early sixties among the commanding structure of militia of only 10% had the higher legal education the Ministry of protection of public order of RSFSR left on February 13, 1965 in Council of ministers of the USSR with an initiative about creation on the basis of the Omsk high special school of militia and the Omsk office of a correspondence course of the Higher school of MOOP RSFSR of the Omsk higher school of militia 10

On June 2, 1965 such school was created by the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR It there was the second in the MOOP RSFSR system and the Siberia's first higher educational institution of militia profile 11. At school the full-time department (600 cadets) with training term 4 years and correspondence department (1500 listeners) with the term of training of 5 years opened. In 1966 the Irkutsk and Khabarovsk offices of faculty of a correspondence course of the Higher school 12 were transferred to it. Creation of OVSM MOOP RSFSR laid the foundation for further expansion of network of the highest militia educational institutions in Russia.

In 1969 the search of new organizational forms in activity of law enforcement agencies came to the end with the publication of the joint order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and the Ministry of the higher and secondary vocational education "About specialization of training for bodies of militia in educational institutions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR" Was decided to prepare separately shots for offices of criminal investigation department, BHSS, administration services and for GAI 13. For the Omsk higher school of militia the criminal and search specialization was defined

The last fifteen years can be designated as a new stage in development of a system of professional education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation its structure Changed, on the basis of branches of the higher schools new schools were created, old were transformed to legal institutes, academies, the universities

On July 1, 1995, according to the Russian Federation Government decree, the Omsk school of militia was renamed into the Omsk legal institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation the investigative faculty and the external studies Were open, in September, 1996 the faculty of an average educational link is formed. On February 4, 2000 the order of the Government of the Russian Federation on the basis of OmYuI Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation created academy.

The hard way from militia courses to the highest History of the Omsk School educational institution of militia is passed as reflects formation and development of the Russian militia which is inseparable from the fate of the people and the state In 90 years from its walls in a mirror more than 60 thousand experts of the average and top skills At the Omsk militia educational institution glorious past, the good present and the perspective future are produced

1 The state archive of the Russian Federation (further — GARF). T. 393. Op. 44. 45. L. 17.
2 V. Postnikov. Elimination of illiteracy and semi-illiteracy in militia//Workers' and Peasants' militia. 1923. No. 203. Page 11.
3 SU RSFSR. 1919. No. 67, Article 592.
4 The provision on uniform labor school which all educational institutions treated excepting higher education institutions (the first step of school gave primary education) was accepted VTsIK of RSFSR on October 16, 1918. (In the same place. 1918. No. 74, Article 812).
5 State archive of the Novosibirsk region. T. 1. Op 1 D 905 L 71
6 GARF. T. 9401. Op. 8. 12. L. 22.
7 In the same place D 78 L 4
8 The central archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (further — CA Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation). T. 76. Op. 1. 164. L. 202.
9 GARF. T. 9422. Op. 1. 1682. L. 140.
10 CA Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. T. 35. Op. 1. Of a 214-. L. 26-27.
11 At this time in the territory of the Soviet Union two higher schools worked — in Moscow and Kiev. The last was created on the basis of the Kiev branch of the Higher school in 1961 and was under jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR (In the same place F 76 Op of 1 D 111 L 80)
12 In the same place L 27
13 In the same place L 243
David Perez
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