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(on excavation of 1999) 1 N.P. Matveeva

The author publishes the materials obtained from the diggings of the Early Iron Age necropolis Staro-Lyibaevo 4 situated in the forest-steppe Trans-Urals. Single and common burials are located in the mounds dia. 12-16 m encircled by a rounded or polygonal closed ditch. The planigraphy of the graves: circular around one center, position of the deceased: stretched on the back with their heads oriented to the North, North West, and North East. By the graves and in the ditches, one can observe traces of funeral feasts and repast. Judging from characteristic features of the burial rite and accessories, burial ground could be dated between the I-III cc. A.D., and attributed to the Sargatka culture of West Siberian forest-steppe.

The burial ground on the site of a radical terrace of the right bank of the Iset River in the mixed forest leaving to Staritsa Shchetkovo the lake was open for I.V. Zhilina in 1982, is examined by prospecting group of IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in 1995 [Matveev, Volkov, Larin, etc., 1997, page 150]. It is localized on the extremity of the mixed wood in 4, 5 km to SSZ from of Old Lybayevo of the Za-vodoukovsky region of the Tyumen region.

All there are 41 barrows. Not opened embankments are at a wood edge, are extended by a chain on the line the northwest — the southeast, well zadernovana, have traces of robbery and hunting holes on badgers (fig. 1). These are 18 barrows: 1-13, 16-18, 21, 22. Also six opened barrows found along the sandy country road parallel to above-mentioned at distance of 15-30 m from them belong to the same group, probably. Other group numbering 15 barrows in the form of an uneven chain is focused on the line the North — the South and there is from a wood edge directly through an arable land to Staritsa Shchetkovo the lake.

The group of barrows is not up to the end clear. It is not possible to divide them into groups according to orientation of chains yet as intervals are approximately identical. Height of embankments is from 0.2 to 1.5 m, diameter is from 7 to 30 m. In total it was succeeded to investigate five barrows. In 1998 the author investigated the barrow 1 which was in the forest, in 1999 — the barrows 31, 34, 35 located on an arable land [Matveeva, 2000]2. Imperceptible on a surface


Work is performed within the Federal target program "State Support of Integration of the Higher Education and Funamentalny Science" (CO 174 project).


Field researches were conducted by in common Tyumen State University and IPOS Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science under the direction of

Fig. 1. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. The plan of arrangement of the studied barrows in the central part of a necropolis.

the barrow 39 is found by A.V. Matveev's excavation in 1998 [Matveev, Matveeva, Kryukova, 1999] on the bank of Staritsa in the square of the settlement of fedorovsky culture. Follows from this fact that are well visible only large

the author also the population forest-steppe Pritobolya in bronze and early iron centuries" and Presidium of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science "Ancient farmers and cattle-farmers of Western Siberia" were supported by grants of TyumGU "Paleoeko-nomik.

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I \disorder of a vessel of I about I — a bead on point duty — a tree

aa I — ceramics of I I — coal G-® I — a pole from a column

I \bones Guo I — iron subject I tb5 I — ditch depth

Fig. 2. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plan of constructions of a barrow 31.

objects, at thorough tool shooting in the field to shoots grain can be found still embankments.

From barrows 31, 34, 35 there are Neolithic-eneolita materials which can be considered the remains of nondurable settlements on the bank of nowadays dried up lake for which region it is dated mogilnik1.

These materials are considered in Article E. N. Volkova, N.P. Matveeva published in "The bulletin of the Tyumen State University"

Barrow 31. The biggest of the studied objects, was in the center of a chain of embankments, through it the temporary country road (fig. 2) ran. Diameter of a barrow is about 16 m, height of 0.45 m (fig. 2, 3). Around the funeral platform the polygonal closed ditch with poorly expressed corners is tracked. Its width fluctuates from 1.2 m from the southwest party to 2 m from northwest. The ditch had depth from 0.3 to 0.6 m, a trapezoid form in a section. In filling and beyond its limits bones of animals are found, sargatsky I suck several disorders -

Fig. 3. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Stratigraphy and cuts of holes of a barrow 31.

Dov from the South, West and northwest side. And two congestions of crocks from the crushed pots were directly in the middle of its filling (from the northwest), one (from North side) — at the bottom (see fig. 6, 5, 6). The arrangement of vessels, perhaps, is connected with the sequence of a construction of graves in a barrow. A number of disorders are found in an embankment, on the buried soil, represent the funeral feast remains on the dead. In emission from extortionate holes in the southeast sector the rectangular iron buckle with a mobile uvula is found (see fig. 12, 25). In filling of a ditch from the southeast party it is found to a pryaslitsa, turned from a crock (see fig. 7, 15); from the northwest party — a blue glass bead (see fig. 7, 9).

Barrow stratigraphy following: 1) an arable layer — 25-35 cm; 2) an embankment — dark gray sandy loam; 3) yellow sandy loam — emission from ditches and graves. In holes outside a ditch there was a gray-brown sandy loam — a cultural layer of an era of the eneolit (see fig. 3).

Several holes with finds of ceramics and flint belong to the early period: holes No. 14, 6-8, 12-14. They superficial (0.1-0.4 m), in a section rectangular or trapezoid, apparently, economic appointment. Holes No. 9, 1o are left, probably, bugrovshchi-ka. Holes No. 15, 16 are stolbovy, it is possible from a hitching post. Origin of hole No. 5, deepening in a ditch wall from the North, not quite clear. In the podkurganny platform not less than eight burials were located. Originally we recorded five graves and several extortionate holes which were not containing finds. But when processing material it is established that near rectangular deepening (hole No. 11) bones of the baby are found in the southwest sector therefore it is referred to graves (pogr. 6). As in the northeast sector, in an internal ring, bones of the baby, near a vessel from depth of-40 cm are also found (see fig. 13, 11), it is possible that was still

Fig. 4. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plans and cuts of burials 1 and 2 barrows 31

one destroyed burial, or at death's door 4, or let in its filling what because of robbery cannot be established — burial 8 (?). Remains of the baby are found also in the northwest sector, between hole No. 9 which is originally taken for an extortionate manhole and the central grave. The hole this irregular shape, with an uneven bottom, and also was robbed. We found it possible to treat it as burial 7, considering also planigrafichesky aspect: it enters a ring of peripheral burials along with the graves 1, 2, 6 located at identical distance from the center.

Numbering of burials is given in the order of a research, burial 3 is central (see fig. 2).

Burial 1 is located

in 0.5 m to SSZ from the center. The sepulchral hole has a subrectangular shape with the rounded corners, the sizes of 2.65x1.65x0.57 m, is focused by a long axis on the line the northeast — the southwest (fig. 4). Along long walls, zaplechik about 30 cm wide, face walls — steep were observed. Filling — the meshany black earth with impregnations of yellow loam. Things and bones of a skeleton in a grave held not peculiar standard position, are scattered, apparently, by badgers.

Burial belonged to the woman 3540 let1. The fragment of the right jaw of the man at the age of about 50 years got there, probably, from a grave 3 as a result of activity of rodents. Traces of wood did not remain. In the head (?), northeast end of a grave, in the place close to initial, the large vessel with the broken bottom turned down by the mouth is found (see fig. 8, 2). Near it two fragments of an iron knife are found. In a zone, the corresponding chest part at usual accommodation of the dead it is extended on a back, there was scattered glass beads, strongly irrizirovanny. They were several dozen, but they broke up in hands as powder. In the same congestion three silver plaques and one bronze ring, a glass blue barrel-shaped bead, a bead of brown color and also white which probably were transparent are found (see fig. 7, 5-7, 17, 20). To the west of the center of a sepulchral hole were a skull buried, a congestion of bones of extremities, there was a small vessel in the same place (see fig. 8, 1). Under


Paleontropologichesky definitions are executed an edging. east. sciences A.N. Bagashev with the assistance of A.L. Antonov.

the skull in temporal area cleared away a golden earring at the left (see fig. 7, 2). Near a skull two more bronze rings (see fig. 7, 18, 19), one silver nashivny plaque, a glass small barrel-shaped bead of blue color, several beads of white color, a spindle-shaped beads with a striate ornament are found (see fig. 7, 8, 12, 13, 20).

Burial 2 was in the southeast sector of a barrow. The sepulchral hole had the oval form, the sizes of 1.7x1.25x0.5 m, is focused in the area of SZZ-YuVV (see fig. 2, 4). Steep walls, traces of wood did not remain. Planigrafichesky and stratigraphic observations show that the grave was let in already existing embankment: it cut internal border of a ditch. Filling is black, with impregnations of yellow loam. The bones found in a sepulchral hole (a considerable part of a skeleton was absent), belonged to the boy of 9-10 years and the woman of 40-50 years. But the camera is too small for pair burial therefore it is possible that bones of a skeleton of the woman got there at robbery of other graves of a barrow. Crocks of one vessel (see fig. 8, 3) and an iron knife are found.

Burials 3 and 4 are located in the geometrical center of a barrow, the space dividing them is the central site of podkurganny space of all funeral construction (fig. 2, 5). At initial cleaning at the level of the continent both graves looked as one grandiose sizes. Then it was divided into two cameras complemented with ledges from the North and the South. These ledges are traced on depth of 1020 cm and are, certainly, traces extortionate in cops.

Burial 3. The grave is focused on the line the North — the South with an insignificant deviation to the West, has a subrectangular shape, sizes 3.2x1.8, depth of 0.5 m (see fig. 5). The deviation from the correct configuration is that a southwest part of burial is cut off on a straight line (as it turned out subsequently — at excavation of a late grave 5). Walls of a funeral hole steep, only along the western wall the step about 20 cm wide is observed. The grave not less than is twice robbed, from the South and the northeast extortionate manholes are well visible. A part of things and bones of human skeletons was found in their filling and in emissions, in particular fragments of vessels (fig. 6, 2; 13, 13). For example, in the center of a barrow

Fig. 5. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plans and cuts of burials 3-5 barrows 31.

in the northwest sector there were the woman's bones at the age of 30 years. Perhaps, she was buried in a barrow later, but her bones mixed up with bones main buried at robbery.

Finds appeared already at a depth of 20 cm from continent level, in particular a product fragment from a bronze wire (fig. 7, 4), the broken pot with notches on a nimbus (fig. 8, 11). In a northern half of a grave the remains of four human skeletons of bad safety were concentrated. The arrangement of bones of skeletons is broken, but three skulls were located almost on one line. The face northern wall has several congestions of bones of animals: a shovel and a large edge, a part of a front leg and a pelvic bone of small cattle, a part of brisket of a ram (?) which, probably, were put in a headboard of the dead. At a depth of 20 cm from the level of the continent fragments of an iron knife or a dagger are found, fragments of a knife were near bones from the central piece of meat. Here, but is one horizon lower,

Fig. 6. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Ceramics from a barrow 31.

1 — the northeast sector, an external ring, filling of a ditch; 2 — the southwest sector, an internal ring, the top layer of filling pogr. 3;
3 — southeast sector, horizon 2, embankment;
4 — southwest sector, internal ring, horizon 2; 5, 6 — the northwest sector,

filling of a ditch.

pro-splitting (fig. 7, 21), some product from a horn (fig. 7, 30) are found. On the middle of east wall, at the edge of the grave, tips of arrows edges in one party, obviously, in a quiver lay a small group. In total naschity-

Fig. 7. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Stock from a barrow 31.

1, 14 — pogr. 5; 2, 5-8, 12, 13, 17-20 — jewelry from pogr. 1; 3, 10, 11, 16 — pogr. 4; 4, 21-30 — pogr. 3; 9 — the northwest sector, filling of a ditch; 15 — the southeast sector,

external ring, filling of a ditch. 1, 3, 4, 17-19 — bronze; 2 — gold; 5-8 — silver; 9-14, 20 — glass; 15, 16 — clay; the rest — a bone.

13 iron three-blade petiolar, 9 bone tips are howled (fig. 7, 22-29; 12, 2-12).

Thus, it was collective burial not less than four people. The individual 1 — the man of 55-60 years, the individual 2 — the baby, the individual 3 — the man of 60 years, the individual 4 — the woman of 40-50 years.

Burial 5. It is let in the central burial 3 later, occupied its foot end and cut off its southwest corner. It is revealed when cleaning filling of a sepulchral hole of burial 3 at a depth of-115 cm from conditional zero. Recorded in the form of the subrectangular deepening of 2.0x1.25 m in size 0.35 m in depth from continent level. The amount of this deepening quite corresponds sepulchral, with orientation the northwest — the southeast on a long axis (see fig. 5). The grave contained the remains of a skeleton of the child of 10 years. Fragments of the sargatsky pot decorated with two rows of "fir-tree" on a neck and a coat hanger (fig. 8, 4) and also glass two - are found

a private bead (fig. 7, 14), the bronze tip of an arrow (fig. 7, 1), trihedral with the internal trihedral sleeve and thorns, which is possibly relating to the above kolchanny set, fragments of indefinable iron objects, perhaps buckles.

Burial 4. The grave had a subrectangular shape, the sizes of 2.9x1.8 m, depth of 0.65 m, is focused in the area of SSV-YuYuZ (see fig. 5). The extortionate hole surpassed in the sizes sepulchral therefore contours of the last are established through 10 cm of dismantling of filling. Along long walls, zaplechik 30 cm wide (along east wall) and 35 cm are found (along the western wall). Burial contained remains of the women's burial plundered and spoiled by rodents. In the center of a sepulchral hole the congestion of bones of two individuals is revealed: men about 40 years and adult woman. At the bottom of a grave in corners and along walls several symmetrically located poles which could be holes of rodents are tracked, but,

Fig. 8. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Ceramics from burials 1 (1, 2), 2 (3), 3 (4), 4 (10, 12) and embankments (rest) of a barrow 31.

5 — the southwest sector, an internal ring, the horizon 2 (pogr. 6?); 6-9 — the southwest sector, an external ring, filling of a ditch; 11 — the northwest sector, an internal ring, filling

extortionate hole.

perhaps, arose as stolbovy and are connected with intra sepulchral designs. Disorder of a gorshkovidny vessel in which there was a cylindrical censer from the rough test with talc impurity with a geometrical pattern from rhombuses and poles on walls (fig. 8, 10, 12) is found in the southern part of a grave in 70 cm from its southern wall. When cleaning a bottom of a grave, fragments of two more vessels (fig. 13, 8, 9), a pryaslitsa (fig. 7, 16) are found. A part of stock, undoubtedly, is stolen. So, a part of bones of animals was painted in green color that indicates arrangement them in a copper or some other vessel. Also three phalanxes of fingers were painted in green color by oxides, but the ring was found only one. From jewelry blue barrel-shaped beads (fig. 7, 10, 11), a bronze ring with not close ends (fig. 7, 3) are found. Bones of animals from doleful gifts to the dead: pelvic, edges — are scattered on all grave.

Burial 6. Was in a rectangular hole with the rounded corners in the southwest sector, in 1 m south of burial 3. The sizes of a hole of 1.6x1.25 m, depth — 0.2 m from the level of the continent, a wall steep. Focused on the line the northwest — the southeast. Remains of the baby and two

small a pot, nail vdavleniye decorated with a corbel on a coat hanger (fig. 8, 5) belonged to it.

Burial 7. Was in an oval hole with an equal bottom and steep walls, after spoiled by robbers. The sizes were it 1.3x0.75 m, depth — 0.15 m. By a long axis it is focused on the line the North — the South. Separate bones of an incomplete infantile skeleton are nearby found.

Barrow 34. Located in 25 m to SSV from a barrow 31. It had diameter about 15 m, height of 0.35 m (fig. 9). The embankment regularly swung open therefore at breakdown it was not succeeded to define precisely its contours and the conditional center of a barrow turned out a little displaced to the southwest owing to what a northeast part of a ditch remained not investigated additionally; under an embankment there was a cultural layer of an era of the eneolit (fig. 10). Holes from columns No. 2-7, 10, 17, 19 indicated existence here in the ancient time of some land construction. Holes No. 1, 8-10, 11-16, 18, 22 were economic. Holes No. 20, 21 with small clay emissions did not contain finds; we believe that they are left bugrovshchik.

At excavation it is revealed that the ditch around the platform surrounded two main burials and had the polygonal form, presumably hexagonal. Ditch width to -

Fig. 9. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plan of a barrow 34.

depth — 0,250,35 m lebltsya from 0.8 to 1.1 m. From the inside of a ditch from the West the lens of a puncture of 1.0x0.4 m in size is recorded. The sizes of the platform outlined by a ditch — 11x13 m (see fig. 9). Disorder of a sargatsky pot with scallops is found in the northwest sector at a depth of 40 cm from a surface (see fig. 13, 6). The main burials 1 and 2 are connected with an era of early iron. Around them the lenses of continental emission which are cut through later by extortionate holes are tracked. All burials are robbed.

Burial 1 was side (fig. 11). Was in a trapezoid hole with the rounded corners and the remains of powerful longitudinal overlapping from thick birch logs (diameter of 20-30 cm). The camera sizes — 2.3x2.2 m. Emission from a hole is tracked in the form of the roller 0.4 m wide on East side of a grave. The grave is focused by a long axis on the line the northwest — the southeast. Along the long parties at a depth of 0.5 m zaplechik 0.65 m wide came to light. Further the grave is narrowed by a ledge. At the level of the continent the sizes of a hole were 2.25x1.12 m,

Fig. 10. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Stratigraphy and cuts of holes of a barrow 34.

depth — 0.86 m. In burial at a different depth in several congestions bones of two human skeletons are found: adult man and woman of 40-50 years. Bones of hands and legs are found at a southwest wall in the first horizon of filling, at the same depth fragments of the decayed tree from overlapping are noted. The skull lay at a northeast wall; vertebras, edges, phalanxes of fingers and a clavicle — in the head northwest end; a pelvic bone, bones of animals — in the center; tibial — along a southwest wall. Fragments of sargatsky ceramics, an iron knife, a bone buckle with a ledge and two cuts (fig. 12, 24) probably from a harness, fragments of indefinable iron objects are found. Bones of a skeleton of the man have traces of the begun to live changes (the bent clavicle with an outgrowth).

Burial 2. Central in a barrow, subsquared (see fig. 9). The sizes of the entrance hole spoiled by invasion of robbers — 4.25x3.0 m. Lenses of emissions,

made on the North and the southeast, slipped in a grave. At sample of filling of a grave the contours were reduced and took more correct form. The camera sizes at a depth of 0.5 m from the level of the continent were 2.5x3.2 m (see fig. 11). And from the northeast party the flat platform which was a step or formed from the inlet burial cut in the northeast region of the central grave came to light. The second assumption existence of two whole and two injured skulls in a grave and also a find in a joint pelvic speaks well, for femurs, beam and elbow bones of the left hand belonging to yet not decayed corpse at the time of robbery. The Paleoantropo-logichesky analysis allowed to assume presence of six individuals: two adult women and also women at the age of about 45 years, at the age of 40-50 years, 30-55 years, about 60 years. It indicates not one-act burials in this camera. The general depth of a grave — 0.86 m, at the bottom the general sizes ug-

Fig. 11. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plans and cuts of burials 1 and 2 barrows 34.

lubleniye made 2.0x1.5 m. Because of robbery only ceramics fragments, disorder of a small round-bottomed pot with heats on a coat hanger (fig. 13, 5), a pryaslitsa, blade fragments from an iron sword, iron three-blade a petiolar tip of an arrow (fig. 12, 20) are found.

Barrow 35. Located in 5 m to SSZ from a barrow 31. Represented a vskholmleniye with a diameter of 12 m, 0.3 m high. At excavation it turned out that because of plowing the sizes of an embankment were determined not absolutely truly, a part of a ditch did not get to an excavation with an initial radius of 6 m. Therefore to a northern half of an excavation the prirezka was made to investigate additionally all podkurganny platform and a ditch. Thus, it is revealed that the funeral construction had the suboval form of 14x16 m in size, judging by the sizes of the platform delineated by a ditch (fig. 14). The ditch had outlines of the closed ring of rounded shape, in a section trapezoid. Width of its from 1.2 to 1.7 m, depth — 0.5-0.7 m Kurgan was one-sepulchral.

Holes No. 1-4, 7 were belonging to the early periods of dwelling on this site of the coast. Hole No. 6 with a diameter of 1.2 m, 1.3 m in depth, from the residues of wood and burned bark on perimeter from above, with bronze era nimbus fragments, represented a well (?), the others — economic. Hole No. 5 diameter and 25 cm in depth, it is probable from a column, could belong to a hitching post of the early Iron Age, judging by confinedness to internal border of a ditch as it often meets in sargatsky barrows. Two small sargatsky sosudik found from the southwest party of a grave in a ditch and near it from within a fencing belong to the early Iron Age: one — not ornamented pot, another — apparently, with scallops (fig. 13, 2, 4).

Burial 1. Represented the extensive rectangular camera with the rounded corners, the initial sizes were it 4.5x3.2 m. Emission was fixed on perimeter in the form of a ring of yellow sandy loam. Then the hole got the correct rectangular outlines and the sizes of 3.25x2.25 m;

its depth — 1 m. Burial is robbed, in different parts at a different depth appeared


Fig. 12. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Objects of arms, a harness and an instrument of labor from barrows 31 and 34.

1-19 — pogr. 3 kurg. 31; 20 — pogr. 2 kurg. 34; 21-24 — pogr. 1 kurg. 34; 25 — kurg. 31, the southeast sector, emission from the central graves. 1-23, 25 — iron; 24 — a horn.

scattered several long bones of a skeleton; it did not get the most part. At a different depth almost whole small vessel with scallops (fig. 13, 1), fragments of a narrow-necked jug with the inflated trunk (fig. 13, 3) and also a large pot with a chain of nogtevidny vdavleniye on transition from a neck to a trunk (fig. 13, 7) are found. From things a congestion of bone plates from an armor (24 copies), with openings and leather thongs in them (fig. 15, 1-24), an iron bit and psaliya, strongly korrozirovanny (fig. 15, 3234, 36, 37, 39), fragments of a blade of a two-edged iron sword (fig. 15, 25), glass the transparent bead of a prismatic form of bluish color six-sided in the section (fig. 15, 35) and also indefinable iron objects (fig. 15, 26-31) are found.

Previously bones of a skeleton are defined by anthropologists as women's, age of the individual from 25 to 60 years. Perhaps, a part of this skeleton was buried in at the same time robbed barrow 34 where there were many skulls. On structure of stock the burial looks as characteristic of the man — the tyazhelovooruzhenny rider.

Among a sargatsky complex of things two fragments of medieval oh-kalsky ceramics which are perhaps indicating time of robbery of a grave were found.

Thus, three funeral constructions are studied. The burials investigated in them are made on the uniform ceremony inherent in sargatsky culture. They are located under embankments, have stock and

Fig. 13. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Ceramics.

From a barrow 31: 8, 9 — pogr. 4; 10-13 — from an embankment, including: 10 — the northwest sector, the horizon 1; 11 — the northeast sector, the horizon 2; 12, 13 — the southwest sector, the horizon 2 (pogr. 3). From barrows 34 and 35: 1, 3 — pogr. 1 kurg. 35; 2 — the southwest sector, kurg. 35, buried soil; 4 — the northeast sector, kurg. 35, cleaning at the level of the continent; 5 — pogr. 2 kurg. 34; 6 — the northwest sector kurg. 34; 7 — pogr. 1 kurg. 35, benthonic part.

ceramics, characteristic of this community. are let in an embankment, but their accessory to Burial 2 and 5-7 barrows 31 were later to sargatsky culture too is indisputable.

Chronology of barrows 31, 34, 35 burial grounds Staro-Lybayevskogo-4

Subject Century BC Century AD


Kurgan 31. Burial 1

A ring the Ring, bronze with an oval guard, the Knife, bronze with a rhombic guard, iron Plaques silver Busina a barrel-shaped, blue Earring with a guard and privesky, the decorated pyramids grain the Bead korotkotsilindrichesky deaf white glass

Proniz transparent, greenish glass White beads

A red bead, on a ceramic basis, cylindrical

A spindle-shaped, close beads to barrel-shaped,

the Beads, yellow with blue longitudinal strips, extended, barrel-shaped, blue

Knife iron

Iron knife & #43; & #43;

Tips of arrows iron, petiolar, three - & #43; & #43; bladed

Tips of arrows bone, petiolar, rhombus chesky

Tips of arrows bone, vtulchaty, rhombic

Arrow tip bone, petiolar, trihedral Pin bone

Barrow 31. Burial 4

A barrel-shaped, blue bead the Ring bronze with not close ends

Barrow 34. Burial 1 Buckle bone with a ledge and two cuts an arrow Tip iron the Buckle bone with the speaker shpenky

Iron Fished a knife iron

Barrow 34. Burial 2

Barrow 35. Burial 1

Barrow 31. Burial 2

| & #43; | & #43; |

Barrow 31. Burials 3 and 5

Sword iron dvulezviyny & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

Bone armor-clad plates & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

Annulate bit iron & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

Bead transparent six-sided & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

Bronze bead & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43; & #43;

We will characterize stock of a barrow 31. Things from burial 1 are dated as follows. Bronze rings (3 copies), from which two with the coming ends, flattened, with an oval guard, the third — from white bronze, similar to the first, but with rombiche-

a sky guard, have analogies in Central Asia in monuments of the 2nd century BC — 1st century AD [Mandelstam, 1966, page 121], in a barrow 2 burial grounds Abatsko-go-3 [Matveeva, 1994, page 67]. A golden earring from a wire core, with a loop, a round guard and privesky, ukrashenny-

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

& #43;

Fig. 14. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4. Plan and cuts of a barrow 35.

mi pyramids grain — the 1-3rd centuries AD, similar are in barrows of the I—IV centuries AD and the Siberian collection of Peter I [Matveeva, 1994, page 67]. Beads of several types: 1) barrel-shaped, 5x5 mm in size, from blue deaf glass, with a symmetric opening — 3rd century to N e — 4th century AD [Alekseeva, 1978, page 66]; 2) from white opaque glass, has cross structure, beads of the described type otme-

Chena at a boundary of the 6-5th centuries BC, however, according to E.M. Alekseeva, their most part is connected from 1-2nd centuries AD [1978, page 67]; 3) a prismatic form, vygranenny, oblong, from white transparent glass, has six sides, treats the 3rd century AD [In the same place, page 69]; 4) white beads — the 3rd one or IV century BC of century AD [In the same place, page 72]; 5) extended extended barrel-shaped, yellow with blue longitudinally linear

an ornament and dark blue — 3rd century BC — 1st century AD [Alekseeva, 1978, page 66]; 6) cylindrical, red color, on a ceramic basis — the 2nd one or IV century BC of century AD. Silver plaques of a rozet-covid form with openings for sewing of 6x6 mm in size, known practically during all early Iron Age have wide date of existing [Matveeva, 1993, page 114]. From instruments of labor the iron knife with an arcuate back and smooth transition to a scape — the type widespread is found in the early Iron Age. In general date of burial — 1st century AD

Fig. 15. Burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4.

Stock of burial of 1 barrow 35.

1-24 — a bone; 25-34, 36-39 — iron;
35 — glass.
2 the knife with an arcuate back and an ustupchik — the I—IV centuries AD, similar met in the burial ground Abatskom-3 is found in burial [Matveeva, 1994, page 99]. Burial 3 can be dated on tips of arrows (13 copies) of several types. They share on: 1) bone vtulchaty, in section rhombic, definitely not dated [Smirnov, 1961, page 58]; 2) bone petiolar, in section rombiche-

skiya; 3) iron petiolar three-blade, including: a) cut off at right angle; b) cut off at an acute angle. All iron are dated the 4th one or III century BC of century AD [Matveeva, 1993, page 106]; 4) bronze trihedral, with the internal trihedral sleeve, with the lowered thorns and an arcuate cut of base — the V—III centuries BC [Smirnov, 1961, page 61]. The pin with cylindrical navershiy — the V—III centuries BC and the 1-3rd centuries AD is found in a grave [Matveeva, 1993, page 77]. The general date of a ware complex — the 2nd one or II century BC of century AD

Two barrel-shaped beads from blue deaf glass, with a symmetric opening, similar to beads from burial 1 are found in burial 4; treat the 3rd one or IV century BC of century AD [Alekseeva, 1978, page 66]. Also bronze ring, round, smooth, convex, with not close ends is revealed; similarly found in the Tyutrinsky burial ground, but in general similar products are widespread everywhere [Matveeva, 1993, page 112]. Thus, the barrow 31 is dated the 1-2nd centuries AD

34 it is difficult to define date of a barrow as its stock has wide chronological range: within the 3rd one or III century BC of century AD

The type-setting armor is found in burial of 1 barrow 35. It consisted of squared bone plates the sizes of 5-6x2-3 cm with the drilled openings along the long parties and on corners. The next analogy — in Yazevo's burial ground, a barrow 3. Type-setting armors were widespread among tribes of a forest and forest-steppe strip of Western Siberia, the 4-2nd centuries BC is dated [Burial grounds, 1972, page 120-122]. A horse harness — a bit with the rings soldered on the one hand, links of an ochkovidny form — also widespread in the steppe and the forest-steppe of Eurasia in the early Iron Age of types. The bead from transparent-blue glass, prismatic, with a symmetric opening, six-sided is probably dated the 1-3rd centuries AD [Alekseeva, 1978, page 69-70]. A ring-shaped bronze beads is characteristic of a wide time span — the 6th one or IV century BC of century AD [Alekseeva, 1982, page 21]. Therefore date of a barrow 35 — the 1-3rd centuries AD

Pritobolya the burial ground Staro-Lybayevsky-4 differs from other monuments of sargatsky culture of the Average in some archaism of a funeral ceremony, long experience of tradition of construction one - and low-sepulchral barrows with the wide rectangular cameras calculated on not -

how many dead. Existence of a series of collective burials also distinguishes this necropolis from synchronous monuments to it, such as Savinovsky, Tyutrinsky, Krasnogorsk barques. For the last there was the rule a single trupopolozheniye in graves or, as an exception — pair: adult and child. At the same time the planigrafiya of a barrow 31 — circular arrangement of seven-eight graves around the main — is standard for the first centuries AD. All aforesaid of outposts -

lyat to assume that the necropolis existed several centuries and recorded the forms of funeral ceremonialism characteristic of average and late stages of sargatsky culture. Besides, property and social inequality in position of separate families, apparently, caused certain specifics of the sizes and quantity of graves in barrows, as well as their location in structure of a funeral complex.


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Tyumen, Institute of problems of development of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Karoline Babette
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