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Urbanization in the Komi ASSR in 1930 the beginning of the 1950th.

a. A. Belovol


Work is presented by department of National history of the Syktyvkar state university.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor L.A. Maximova

Work is devoted to process of an urbanization in the Komi ASSR at 1930 beginning of the 1950th. These years the natural resources of the republic accustomed at the expense of labor camps. Expansion of their economic activity within extensive economy led to emergence of the new cities in which rates of development of the social sphere lagged from growth of industrial infrastructure far behind.

The work is devoted to the process of urbanization in the Komi ASSR in 1930-s - early 1950-s. At that time, development of natural resources of the Republic was carried out by the corrective-labor camps. Enlargement of their economic activities in the framework of extensive economy resulted in appearance of new towns where the rates of development of social sphere were greatly behind the growth

of industrial infrastructure.

In the 20th century Russia carried out historical transition from rural agrarian society to city and industrial that formed the basis of modernization of the country. Modernization in the USSR had the secondary or "catching-up" character, was carried out through the accelerated industrialization where the priority was given to development heavy (to the Komi ASSR - mining industry). The satellite of industrialization was the urbanization, but, being an industrialization by-product, it was least of all directed to improvement of the standard of living of people.

The main result of process of an urbanization is a creation of the new city. The city is a difficult phenomenon, in it it is possible to allocate city-forming (the enterprises of the production sphere) and gradoobsluzhivayushchy spheres (enterprises of the non-productive sphere) 1. Modern western experience shows that the first all objects of the gradoobsluzhivayushchy sphere, for comfortable stay of future population which, in turn, will be engaged in creation of city-forming objects - the plant, factory,

have to be created

mine, etc. Creation of large settlements in northern regions, let and rich with natural minerals, is economically not favorable. Therefore everywhere practice of creation small temporary, enough mobile settlements in which there live only workers is widespread in the world. And they work on a shift method. On such model settlements in the north of Canada, by the USA, in Skandinavii2 were created.

In the 1920th the region of Komi was underdeveloped economically. So, if in 1926 the share of urban population of the Komi ASSR made only 4.4% (on average in the USSR - more than 20%). But in only three and a half decades the number of urban population of the Komi ASSR increased almost by 50 times (and a share more than by 13 times) 3 whereas in the USSR for the same period - by 3.8 times, and in RSFSR - in 3.7 raza4. As a result of development the share of urban population of the Komi ASSR in 1960 for 8% exceeded a share of urban population in RSFSR and for 12% in the USSR, i.e. became some of the most few urbanized regions of the USSR of the Komi ASSR one of the vysokourbaniziro-

bathrooms. Such large-scale increase in population was reached thanks to violent colonization of the Komi ASSR, mainly prisoners corrective-labor lagerey5. These years the mechanical gain considerably exceeded estestvennyy6.

Corrective-labor the camp played the defining role in development of the Komi ASSR during the studied period. The facts say that the decision on use of labor of prisoners for development of national economy was made at the highest level; and the Komi ASSR was considered as one of perspective areas of development GULAG sistemy7. The camp method of development of the Komi ASSR was caused by many reasons: 1) availability of many minerals in the absence of necessary means for industry development by own forces; 2) big interest of "center" in natural minerals against the background of the developed forced industrialization; 3) load of places of detention and existence of the Solovki operating experience of work zaklyuchennykh8.

In the 1930-1950th in the territory of the Komi ASSR there were more than ten corrective-labor lagerey9. The extensive camp economy for increase in the outputs was forced to increase the number of working hands. Growth of number of prisoners and development of works of the camp in new territories led to formation of settlements, there are such new settlements as Vorkuta, Inta, Pechora, the additional incentive is given to other settlements, for example by the village Ust-Usa10. These camp settlements were created by various camp productions (oil derricks, mines, the plants). In them the administration of the camp, barracks for prisoners, houses for civilians, protection or administration of the camp and also various subsidiary objects (baths, infirmaries, dining rooms, etc.) 11 were located.

But not all new settlements became further the cities, only Vorkuta, Ukhta, Inta, Pechora, in them not only industrial facilities, but also scientific laboratories or even institutes, bodies of the civil power, etc. 12 around Ukhta were created Subsequently and Vorkuta settlements satellites began to be formed, many of which exist and now, and some enter city line. For example, near Ukhta, settlements Water were created, to Jara hectare, Sangorodok (nowadays the item of Shudayag), Distant, Vetlosyan13, all of them exist still.

Creation of industrial production of camp complexes was long and disease process, despite large volumes of financing, returns from them was a little as growth rates of production were inadequate put sredstvam14. During development of the territory of the Komi ASSR the camps had to solve the whole complex of problems at the same time. Therefore development of the territory (construction of facilities of zhilishchnobytovy appointment, systems water - electro and heat supplies, transport infrastructure - automobile and the railroads, the enterprises for production of construction materials, etc.) happened to development of industrial productions (works on production of oil, radium, coal, etc., their processing) 15. Moreover, in the conditions of camp economy the emergence of city-forming productions was followed by a set of problems, connected both with the shortage of labor and with their insufficient qualification, with lack of reliable and constant transport, with the shortage of the equipment and materials, shortcomings of planning and the organization of work, lack of experience of creation of the industrial enterprises in severe conditions of Severa16. In parallel with these two processes the studying the territory of the Komi ASSR, mainly geological issledovaniya17 came to the end. Thus, the means investing in development

the industries of the Komi ASSR in the 19301950th, were long-term investments which, as we know, pay off very long.

Change of the attitude of the camp administration towards labor was one of the main internal prerequisites of development of camp settlements into the cities. The first years of work of camps showed that even for prisoners it is necessary to create at least a minimum of the domestic conditions necessary at least for physical survival is housing, food, medical care, sanitary and hygienic actions, etc. However without civilian experts it is impossible to arrange the difficult production demanding not only concrete knowledge, for example, how to carry out drilling, but also abilities to find non-standard solutions in conditions severa18. Besides, experts of the convicts especially very valuable (N.N. Tikhonovich, A.Ya. Cream, etc.), after short term, as a rule, were released and translated on kolonizatsiyu19. But to receive a bigger efficiency from civilians for them it was necessary to create absolutely other domestic and welfare conditions - the certain housing, various enterprises providing domestic needs (laundry, a bath, etc.), to give the chance to order books, to visit any cultural institutions (theater, cinema, etc.), to call to it the family if he wishes that. That is growth of number of free inhabitants went not only due to arrival of new workers on free hiring and the device on the same beginnings of the released prisoners, but also including due to arrival of families of the former victims of political repression. And it was very much encouraged with the camp administration because all this worked for colonization of the Komi ASSR too. Male population in camps was much more, than zhenskogo20. A large number of the arriving women the extending sphere gradoobsluzhiva-absorbed everything

a niya - libraries, schools, baths, hairdressing salons, etc. Though part of them worked also as scientists, architects, etc.

Were engaged in studying the gradoobsluzhivayushchy sphere in Soviet period a little, at works there are only mentions

about it. It was reflection of a certain social order - to show big and important fulfillments, such as construction of mines in Vorkuta, but not creation of a system of city water supply in Ukhta.

The city unlike the village has also a peculiar building and planning, generally architecture. Completion of process of transformation of camp settlements into the cities happened not when industrial settlements received the status of the city but only after architectural registration of these new cities in the early fifties. This process was carried out too with active participation lagerey21.

It is possible to note that in the 1930th generally there was a development of the territories which are not inhabited earlier, their research, creation of all necessary infrastructure for industry development, creation of the minimum domestic conditions, in parallel there was a creation industrial proizvodstv22. Owing to specifics of development of the Komi ASSR in the 1930-1950th the process of creation of industrial productions was very slow. Besides, it should be noted that the extensive camp economy increased the outputs in many respects thanks to inflow of increasing number of prisoners. During industrial construction the camp economy sustained considerable losses because of inefficiency and the bad organization of production, but the camp created not only city-forming objects, but also gave rise to development of gradoobsluzhivayushchy objects, created a peculiar architectural appearance of the northern cities of Komi of ACCP23.

In the 1930-1950th in the Komi ASSR the process large-scale moderniza-was carried out

tion. From mainly agrarian region of the Komi ASSR became industrially developed. A source of this modernization was industrialization. Creation of new industrial productions and concentration around them the big mass of the population led to creation and development of the new cities. Thus, the urbanization was an invariable consequence of the accelerated industrialization.

The main feature of process of creation and development of the northern cities of the Komi ASSR during the studied period became it over expedited nature. For several decades in the north of the Komi ASSR the new cities were created, in territories where not only the cities, but also large settlements were not hitherto. The number of urban population in the Komi ASSR began to exceed all-union indicators much more.

However as camp submitted to "center", namely the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR, the state interests - creation and development of industrial productions were the main priorities of activity of camps after all, the main forces of camps were directed to it. However development of industrial productions went very slowly as camps not professionals economists and managers directed, and

security officers. In parallel there was a process of development of the territory, creation of the gradoobsluzhivayushchy sphere of settlements. However process was very slow and painful as owing to departmental interests the industrial enterprises subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR were not interested in it. But with increase in production, with increase in number of civilian workers there was a set of functions (development of child care educational and educational facilities, observation of a sanitary condition of the settlement, etc.) which the industrial enterprises subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR executed reluctantly. Therefore in some settlements in the 1930-1950th city councils which played further a big role in development gradoobsluzhivayushchy sfery24 were created at first settlement, and then.

Thus, originally seemingly cheap camp method of development of the terr - a ritoriya of the Komi ASSR in practice was, on the contrary, rather expensive as at extensive economic model especially large camp settlements gradually began to turn into the real cities with resident population. Besides, this process was followed more - mi by expenses and losses.

1 Urbanization and development of the cities in the USSR. L., 1985. Page 144-145.
2 V.M. Kotlyakov, G.A. Agranat. The Russian North - edge of great opportunities. [An electronic resource], - the access Mode:
3 Population//Komi Republic: Encyclopedia. Syktyvkar, 1997. T. 1. Page 57-59.
4 Urbanization and development of the cities in the USSR. L., 1985. Page 246-247.
5 GULAG: Head department of camps. 1918-1960: The collection documents / Under the editorship of the academician

A.N. Yakovleva; Sost. A.I. Kokurin, N. V. Petrov. M, 2002. S. 62.

6 Stallions V.V. I.L. Fauzer. Demographic processes in Komi in 20 century Syktyvkar, 2000. Page 26.
7 Birth of GULAG: a discussion in the top echelons of power: Resolutions of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) 1929-1930 / Publ. S.A, Krasilnikova//Historical archive. 1997. No. 4. Page 143-144, 152-153.
8 About the Solovki camp it is in detail written in the book: N.V. Upadyshev GULAG in the Arkhangelsk North. Arkhangelsk, 2004. Page 21, 26, 29.
9 N.A. frosts GULAG in the region of Komi. 1929-1956. Syktyvkar, 1997. Page 181.
10 A. L Belovol. Process of an urbanization of northern territories of the Komi ASSR in 1930 - the 1950th years//History of political repressions in the USSR in the 1930-1950th years: Materials of the All-Russian conference of students and graduate students. Syktyvkar, 2006. Page 48.
11 In the same place. Page 48-50.
12 In the same place. Page 48.
13 In the same place. Page 48.
14 To make sure of it, it is necessary just to compare tables in the following books: Coal treasury of the North: Collection of documents and materials. Syktyvkar, 1984. Page 301; Oil and Komi ASSR gas: collection of documents and materials. Syktyvkar, 1979. Page 259-260; N.A. Frosts GULAG in the region of Komi. 1929-1956. Syktyvkar, 1997. Page 181.
15 A.A. Belovol. Decree. soch. Page 48-49.
16 NARK. T. 1675. Op. 1. 1913. L. 92-93.; L.A. Maximova. Camp industrialization in Komi: experience of the analysis. Syktyvkar, 2005. Page 20; P.V. Aksenov. Last belief//Kazan. 1995. No. 9/10. Page 108-119; L.N. Malofeevskaya. The city on Big Inta. Syktyvkar, 2004. Page 35, 37, 53, 74, 79, 107.
17 HAPK. Storage No. 2. T. 1464. Op. 1. 1. L. 40-41.
18 A.A. Belovol. Decree. soch. Page 49-50.
19 A.S. Chuprov. Power industry of the Komi Republic. History of electrification and central heating of the national economy (1908-1965). Syktyvkar, 2000. T. 1. Page 222.
20 The interesting phenomenon of "dekabristka" of an era of Stalinism was studied by E. V. Markova. See books:

E.V. Markova, V.A. Volkov, A.N. Rodny, Clear V.K. GULAG mysteries of development of the North. M, 2001. Page 174-201; E.V. Markova. Vorkuta notes of a katorzhanka of "E-105". Syktyvkar, 2005. Page 171-218.

21 Archive of the Vorkuta interdistrict museum of local lore. Scientific supplementary fund. V. Lunev. What Vorkuta began with. Part 1. Page 24; A.A. Belovol. Architectural appearance of the cities of the Komi ASSR - inheritance of a camp urbanization//Works of the 4th interregional academic and research conference "Development of mineral resources of the North: problems and decisions". Vorkuta, 2006. T. 2. Page 360-364.
22 A.A. Belovol. Decree. soch. Page 48-49.
23 Maximova of L.A. Stalinskiye of the camp and development of the European Northeast//I.L. Zherebtsov, L. And. Maximova, N. M. Ignatova, And. F. Smetanin, M. V. Taskayev. Essays on stories poly-

tichesky repressions in Komi: Studies. a grant for students of higher educational institutions. Syktyvkar: Pokayaniye fund, 2006. Page 172-181; A.A. Belovol. Decree. soch. Page 46-51.

24 Archival department of Municipality Administration "CITY OF UKHTA". T. 14. Op. 1. D. 1. L. 21; D. 2. L. 21-22;
12. L. 45; 18. L. 7; V.V. Vychugzhanina. Some aspects of development of municipal authority of the Komi Republic in 1930-1940: Materials of the International scientific conference "Tatishchevsky readings: current problems of science and practice". T.: Humanities and education. Togliatti. 2004. Part 3. Page 302-307; V.V. Vychugzhanina. Historical conditions of formation of local government in the European North in 1930-1950: Materials XLIV of the International scientific student's conference "Student and Scientific and Technical Progress": History. Novosibirsk. 2005. Part 2. Page 54-55.
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