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Homo consumens of people consuming



PRIRODA And SOCIETY

HOMO CONSÚMENS - the PERSON the CONSUMING V.I. Lukyanenko, M.V. Habarov, A.V. Lukyanenko

According to the standard point of view, one of the main reasons for promptly approaching global environmental disaster the increase in population of the planet, unprecedented on the scales, Earth is. Sharing this point of view, authors of article consider, however, that they other not less important reason which they usually or mention casually or in general are silent, overconsumption of goods and services in industrially developed countries where many decades there is a purposeful formation of spiritless society of wasteful consumption is. According to authors, in the second half of the XX century the centuries-old process of formation of a new kind of the person which they suggest to call "the person consuming" - Homo consumens (from Latin consumo came to the end - to consume, spend; to destroy, lead to disappearance).

Homo consumens which is thoughtlessly using everything that was created by the Nature for billions of years of evolution for satisfaction of the unreasonably expanded requirements actively forces out Homo sapiens which is promptly losing the right to be called "reasonable", that is understanding the indissoluble communication with the Nature which generated it, capable to comprehend and control the behavior, to care for reproduction human carefully to use the natural resources which got to it in inheritance from the previous generations, to keep and increase them for future generations.

Several decades ago the outstanding Norwegian researcher and the traveler T. Heyerdal, performing with one of program reports at the World conference on the environment protection which took place in the summer of 1972 in the capital of Sweden Stockholm said: "About five thousand years ago the person for the first time began to rise against the nature - that nature which generated him and fed more than one million years. Five thousand years of technical progress, five millennia of new and new triumphs of the biped rebel, the only rebel among numerous children of the nature. The nature handed over hectare behind hectare, a tree behind a tree, a look behind a look, the river behind the river, and the person all came, everything expanded the gains, using the hands and a brain given it by the nature, inventing and using new tools, creating new materials... Still was considered as indisputable that each step alienating us by nature is a step forward for mankind. However now becomes more and more obvious that changes which

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the person imposes to primary environment, can do to him harm and even to cause world accident" 1.

And today, 37 years later, it is difficult not to agree with it, however to be fair it should be noted that the problem of negative impact of economic activity of the person on the environment surrounding it, first of all on a plant and animal life, arose much earlier - on a joint between late Mesolith and the early Neolithic, that is 10-12 thousand years ago. Having seized technology of receiving fire by friction of two pieces of wood, and further - cutting of sparks from flint by means of a flint, the person undertook offensive unprecedented earlier at the forests (so-called "fire" revolution) surrounding it. Having destroyed the enormous forests which turned over time into steppes, more available to hunting, by means of fire, the person caused the first large-scale environmental disaster during which died out many plant species and animals, including up to 40% of large mammals of Central and Southern Afriki2.

In the subsequent 5 thousand years, during era of the late Neolithic (with which Heyerdal also begins the counting of negative impact of the person on the nature), upon transition from collecting and hunting to agriculture and cattle breeding, that is to farming, there were further intensive data of a forest earth's mantle and release of space under fields, pastures and haymakings. This so-called "agricultural" revolution led to growth of population of Earth, at the same time and to increase in anthropogenic load of the surrounding environment. In general for the last 10 thousand years the area of the woods on Earth was reduced on 1/3, at the same time from 6.2 billion hectares of the virgin forests existing on Earth before distribution of settled agriculture, so far there were only 1.5 billion hectares. Meanwhile forest ecosystems are the most important element of formation and stabilization of the environment. Accumulating and evaporating water, they provide the main part (about 70%) of a continental moisture circulation, maintain stability of a river drain, reduce the speed of the movement of ground mass of air, work as filters at air pollution.

Multidimensional economic activity of the person accrued every millennium and gained cyclopean character during an era of the "industrial" revolution which passed then in "scientific and technical" revolution in HUSh-HH centuries of the past millennium. This period was marked by rapid development of industrial production. Thousands of the plants and factories, hundreds of huge industrial plants were built. Small towns turned into enormous agglomerations with the multimillion population. Impetuously the new cities and settlements grew, new airfields and highways appeared. Beds of the rivers were transformed, navigation channels were built, artificial "seas" - reservoirs were created, swamps were drained and deserts were irrigated.

As a result of large-scale economic activity of the person already at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century broken were ecosystems for 20% of the land area. However it was only the beginning of catastrophic losses because within the come XX century the increased technological power industrial

1 Heyerdal, T. Vulnerable sea. - L.: Hydrometeoizdat, 1973. - Page 14.
2 Ichas, M.O to the nature of live: mechanism and sense. - M.: World, 1994. - Page 496.

societies led another 43.8% of natural ecosystems to total destruction. In other words, for only one 20th century the area of sushi with the destroyed ecosystems was twice more, than for several previous millennia, and reached 63.8%3 today. Technogenic transformation of landscapes and destruction of natural ecosystems undermines bases of existence of many plant species and animals which part already disappeared, and another is on the verge of extinction.

Decrease in a biodiversity especially intensively goes at the level of microorganisms and invertebrate animals, first of all the most numerous class - insects to which share about 70% of percent of all animals inhabiting nowadays Earth fall. About 1 million types of a class of a _shes_ is already described, and annually entomologists open all new and new thousands of types. On design data of zoologists, annual losses of a species diversity at this level are from 1000 to 10 000 types. Certainly, scales of decrease in a species diversity among vertebrate animals are much lower, but also they are very great: only since the beginning of the 17th century 23 species of fishes, 113 bird species and 83 species of mammals irrevocably disappeared. And this process increases. According to the World union of conservation, under the threat of extinction there are more than 15 thousand plant species and animals, including 11% of 8.6 thousand recent bird species, 14% of 4.5 thousand recent species of mammals and 30% of 20 thousand recent species of fish.

The scientific and technological revolution, unprecedented rates transforming Earth face, proceeds. Its rates quicker and quicker, it is harder and harder than a task. Scales of economic activity increase every decade and reached the apogee in the second half of the twentieth century. The benefits which are born with itself by scientific and technical progress are so obvious, and rates of its development are so prompt that do not leave time for the comprehensive analysis of the next and especially remote consequences generated by this progress. Probably, therefore long time was considered that each step alienating us by nature is a step on the way of progressive development of humanity. However today it became clear (unfortunately, to not everyone) that it is necessary to pay for many technical achievements with expensive price: pollution of air, water and soil, degradation of the nature, the accruing decrease in a biodiversity, appearance of ecologozavisimy diseases of the person. Negative consequences of scientific and technical progress become more and more large-scale and painful every decade. As a result the problem of relationship of the Person and the Nature, industrial society and the environment, became one of the most acute global issues of the present which solution will demand from mankind of titanic efforts.

Analyzing the causes of promptly approaching global environmental disaster, most of researchers quite reasonably puts on the first place increase in population of the planet, unprecedented on the scales, Earth which rates shake. Today it is difficult to imagine that the person and the hominids preceding him needed several million years (from 2 to 5) to increase the number to the first hundred

3 Orsk, Yu.M., Danilov-Danilyan, V.I., Zalikhanov, M.Ch., Kondratyev, K.Ya., Kotlyakov, V.M., Losev, K.S. Environmental problems: what occurs, who is guilty and what to do? - M.: MNEPU, 1997. - Page 330.

thousands of individuals, and then up to 1 million in the lower paleolith and 3 million in the top paleolith. According to the available data, in recent times (in 8000) on Earth there lived only about 5 million people. By the beginning of our era the population increased to 200 million, and in 1800 the mankind reached a billion boundary. And if the first billion appeared during incomplete 10 thousand years (formally - for 1 million years), then following, the second, one billion "is gained" only in 130 years (in 1930), the third billion - in 30 years (in 1960), the fourth billion - in 15 years (in 1975), the fifth billion - in 12 years (in 1987) and the sixth billion - also in 12 years (in 1999).

In 2005 the population of the planet reached 6.5 billion people! According to demographers, it is more, than lived still for all human history whether to consider from the Neanderthal man or from Adam and Eve, and, therefore, an epitaph of ancient Romans "he joined the majority" became outdated as nowadays on Earth of people lives more, than is based in the earth.

Within the XX century there was the most powerful on force, "population explosion", the third in the history of mankind, owing to what the number of people on Earth increased from 1.6 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 1999. Strike also the rates of annual increase in population taking place in the 20th century: from 0.5% in 1900 up to 2.1% in 1967, with the subsequent decrease to 1.6% in 1997. Let's remind that in the Stone Age, 100 thousand years ago, the growth rate of the population was only 0.001%4. At the beginning of our era it increased to 0.05% (by 50 times), from 1650 to 1930 - to 0.5% (by 500 times) and in the second half of the 20th century - to 2.1% (by 2100 times!). Nothing similar in a class of mammals (Mammalia), especially in group of primacies (Primates) - and the person enters a suborder of the highest primacies (Anthropoidea), - never was and could not be because dynamics of number of each species is controlled by abiotic and biotic factors of the environment surrounding it tightly, including (or first of all) the level of security with food and also resistance to causative agents of numerous infectious diseases of a virus and bacterial etiology.

And Homo sapiens having the unique intelligence which allowed it to create powerful instruments of production and highly effective agricultural and industrial technologies managed to exceed the number biologically inherent in it on 5 orders, that is in 100 thousand times! 5 as a result if at the beginning of the past XX century biomass of the person together with the pets and cultural plants divorced by him made 1-2% of biomass of all natural types sushi6, then today it reached 20%, and biomass of the person approaches 400 million tons. Also there was all this mainly because the person eventually managed to protect himself from stern temper of the generated its Nature.

So, rapid growth of population is one of the main reasons for huge anthropogenic load of the biosphere and accruing time -

4 Kapitsa, S.P. Growth of the population of Earth as main global problem of mankind//Global problems of the biosphere: collection of articles / otv. edition of F.T. Yanshin. - M.: Science, 2001. - Page 40-61.
5 Akimov, T.A., Haskin, V.V. Ecodevelopment bases. - M.: Publishing house of Dews. house-keeper. academies, 1994. - Page 312; Kapitsa, S.P. Decree. soch.
6 Warmer, S., Feinstein, M., Coppinger, R., Clemens, E. Global Population Growth and the Demise of Nature//Environmental Values. - 1996. - No. 5. - P. 285-301.

rusheniye of land and water ecosystems. However another, not less important, in our opinion, cause of the coming global environmental disaster which or mention casually or in general are silent, overconsumption of goods and services in industrially developed countries where many decades there is a purposeful formation of spiritless society of "wasteful consumption" is. Sociologists consider that it arose in the USA in the 20th, and was created in the 50th of the past XX century.

Right after the end of World War II, in 1946, the Fortune magazine announced the beginning of "an abundance era" and approach of "a great American boom". The cynical position of the American businessmen was frankly formulated by the specialist in retail trade Victor Lebou: "Our extremely productive economy... demands that consumption became for us lifestyle (our italics. - A bus) that we turned purchase and use of things into a ritual that in consumption we looked for spiritual satisfaction, the statement of the "I". It is necessary for us that things were bought, jumped out and replaced with others in the increasing scales".

That everything new and new things will lead production to an istoshchitelno-m to use of natural raw materials, and the thrown-out things will create one more acute environmental problem (pollution by consumption waste), ideologists of consumer society "forgot" or did not find it necessary to tell credulous Americans. And they, and behind them and the most part of "gold one billion", residents of Western Europe, Japan and Canada (country of so-called "Group of Seven"), willingly listened to appeals "to buy in the increasing scales" because these appeals were turned to low in the person - his "greed" and "envy".

In search of the answer to a question of why at satisfaction, apparently, of all requirements surely appear new, the great Greek scientist and the philosopher Aristotle in the 3rd century BC came to a conclusion that put in "greed of mankind" which, according to him, "is insatiable". A bit later, in the 1st century BC, one century prior to Christ's coming, the Roman poet and the philosopher Tit Lucretius Kar wrote: "Acorns ceased to be pleasant to us. We do not want to sleep on the beds covered with a grass and leaves any more. To carry skins of wild animals too got out of fashion. Yesterday - skins, today - gold and purple. And these trifles make the life human miserable feeling of envy" (our italics. - Bus). And later two thousand years the great Russian writer Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, developing this subject, offered: "Look between people, from the poor to the rich man, and find the person who would have enough what he earns, on what he finds necessary, and you will see that you will not find also one on one thousand. Now bought an undergarment and galoshes, tomorrow - hours with a chain, the day after tomorrow - the apartment with a sofa and a bronze lamp, after - carpets to the living room and velvet clothes, after - the house, trotters, a picture in gilded frames".

In a word, and in Ancient Greece, and in the Roman Empire, and in pre-revolutionary Russia as well as nowadays in the countries of "gold one billion", people did not want and do not want to be satisfied with what have. At the same time to very few people from them comes to mind that overconsumption turns into the environmental problem comparable on the scales to a problem of impetuous increase in population which, in turn, leads to expansion consumer

of demand and, therefore, to production expansion all of new and new goods, and eventually - to exhaustion of natural resources and destruction of the biosphere.

Since 50th of the XX century the population of the planet grew twice while world production of goods and services increased by 7 times! Meanwhile the satisfaction of promptly growing needs for goods and services requires huge amount of raw materials which production and processing is among the most destructive and power-intensive human activities.

According to the available design data, today about 50 tons of raw materials a year for which processing nearly 800 tons of water are spent are taken and moves to one inhabitant of Earth on average. In the course of industrial processing of the extracted raw materials of 48 tons, or 96%, turn into waste and only 2 tons - in the final products which will also become over time otkhodami7. It is necessary to highlight that consumption of raw materials in developing countries is 5 times less than average world and makes only 10 tons counting on one person, and in the countries of "gold one billion" - in 25 times more (250 tons), and one American annually consumes in 37 times more (370 tons) raw materials and materials in comparison with the resident of developing country.

About 2/3 world consumptions, over 2/3 consumptions of aluminum nowadays became the share copper of industrialized countries, lead, nickel, tin, zinc and 3/4 volumes of consumption of energy which grew by 5 times while oil consumption - by 7 times. The average resident of the industrialized country consumes in 10 times more of steel, in 12 times more fuels and in 15 times more of paper, than the resident of any developing country, and one American in a year consumes goods and services in 10 times more, than the Chinese, and in 30 times more, than the Hindu.

Only during the period from 1940 to 1976 in the USA spent mineral raw materials more, than all mankind for all the history, since ancient times and finishing 1940 8 Consumption of steel per capita grew in the XX century by 4 time, copper - by 5 times, papers - by 7 times, concrete - by 16 times, plastic - by 20 times. At the beginning of the 90th the number of conditioners in dwellings increased in comparison with 1950 by 4.7 times (from 15 to 70%), color TVs - by 9.5 times (from 10 to 95%). Citizens of the USA own today twice a large number of cars and 25 times more often use air transport, than in 1950. The car became a symbol of the American culture: 20% of the American families have 3 and more cars, and over 50% of families - at least 2 cars. For ensuring a huge number of the road and air transportation in the USA about 30% of world oil production are annually spent. The country which population makes only 5% of the people living nowadays on the planet consumes about 40% of world resources.

The rapid growth of production and processing of raw materials which began after World War II for production of goods and materials in the developed countries with -

7 Losev, To. Page, Pots, V. , Kondratyev, To. I. , etc. Environmental problems of Russia. - M.: VINITI,
1993. - Page 350.
8 Young, J. E. Reducing Waste, Saving Materials//State of the World. - 1991. - P. 37-55.

it provozhdatsya by so sharp increase of amount of industrial and especially household waste. So, for example, production of only one personal computer requires 1.8 tons of various initial materials which lion's share turns into waste. At production of one Golden wedding ring there are 3 tons of waste, and by production of 1 ton of copper - 110 tons of waste. Only for the last century the energy consumption in the industrial countries was followed by allocation in the atmosphere about 3/4 total amounts of the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen which are the main reason of acid precipitation, and economic activity led for the same period to emission of 2/3 gases creating greenhouse effect. The industry of these countries is also a source of the most part of the chemical waste polluting air, water and the soil. In USA alone annually more than 200 million tons of toxic substances are released into the atmosphere. Wide circulation of conditioners and other household appliances leads to emission nearly 90% of galogensoderzhashchy hydrocarbons which, coming to the atmosphere, destroy an ozone layer of Earth.

Impetuous, wasteful consumption in industrialized countries became the most important part of life and held a firm place in the system of vital values. Traditional virtues, such as diligence, skill, decency, honesty and goodwill, stopped being a criterion of social value of the person. According to most of Americans, the main value today are money, and "the person costs exactly so much how many at him on the current account". At the same time very few people are concerned by origin of this money: whether are earned honestly whether are received in the fraudulent way or are simply stolen. The volume of personal consumption became the main criterion of vital success, and the volume of the made and sold goods - a key indicator of economic prosperity of the nation.

The most important mechanism of increase in sales volumes - production of convenient, but short-lived things. Quite recently, some 15-25 years ago, in developed and furthermore in developing, the countries the thrift was lifestyle and all tried to buy things which will serve long. However in the last several decades the convenience in the use became the most important requirement of the market to goods instead of their durability that led to reduction in production and trade in goods of long-term (reusable) use, to disorder of many industries of the service industry. Repair of things became rather more expensive and difficult to achieve. Justifying the created distorted system of values, the American journalist Wendell Berri (1987) wrote: "Our economy such is that we are not able to afford to care for things: work - the road, time - expensive, money - expensive, and raw materials, a basis of creative activity, is so cheap that we will do nothing to take care of it". Here it is appropriate to note that Americans deliver "cheap raw materials" to themselves from developing countries upon which purchase they pay pathetic pennies.

The growing expenses on repair of durable goods along with annual shift of fashion because of what goods quickly became outdated, led to the fact that many Americans began to throw out old things with ease, immediately buying new. The so-called modern fashion is only the trick of the trading companies calculated first of all on young and innocent consumers which true purpose is to provoke all new and new purchases. One of ame-

said to rikansky managers in an interview to the Washington Post newspaper: "To be put, it is necessary one or two pairs of shoes. To be fashionable (our italics. - The bus), is required infinite number of couples".

Other, not less effective way of continuous increase and maintenance of high sales volume - production of disposable things. In 1960 the famous American sociologist V. Pakkard wrote to monographs "Producers of Waste": "Historians, perhaps, will call our time an era of disposable things". And today, later almost half a century, this characteristic of the second half of the 20th century remains relevant. Moreover, many residents of industrialized countries perceive such situation as norm. As a result in the USA and other industrial countries the campaigns to do shopping became a main type of "cultural leisure" of the population. Americans spend 6 hours a week for this "leisure", and they visit shopping centers much more often than church or a synagogue. More than 90% of the American teenage girls called shopping the favourite pastime especially as to go to eat where: the quantity trade and shopping centers in the USA exceeds the number of high schools and is more than 40 thousand.

A specific place in promotion of ideology of consumerism in so-called "civilized countries" is held by advertizing which growth rates in the USA exceed growth rates of economy. It gets everywhere: to houses, apartments and offices, to training classes and offices of doctors, it is interwoven into plots of feature films, sounds between beeps in tubes of public telephones, it is transferred at bus stops and metro stations, captivated streets, came to highways and autobahns. Advertizing is transferred by more than 10 thousand TV and radio stations of the USA. It is counted that the typical American only up to 9 o'clock in the morning hears every day or sees from 50 to 100 advertisements. From 22 hours which the American teenagers spend weekly in front of the screen of the TV, advertizing makes from 3 to 4 hours, that is in 17-18 years of life they listen at least to 10 thousand television appeals something kupit9. Every day, from year to year, within many decades there is a purposeful cultivation of consumer habits. As a result the population of the USA already continuously buys more half a century and throws out necessary and not really necessary goods.

Today every third purchase in the world becomes Americans. The United States became epicenter of all types of overconsumption: raw, transport and food. Daily Americans dump about 50% of the food suitable for the use because tomorrow will bring fresher products. It is more favorable to it to throw out, than to reduce the price or just to give these products to the persons in need, needy citizens. Laws of market economy - "economy without soul" are that. In an impetuous pursuit of profit the market economy sweeps aside all ethical borders and reasonable restrictions, turning as a result from creating in the destroying force. It is counted that it is possible to feed with products which are daily dumped by the USA about 10 million people. Let's remind that today live in poverty

(for 1 dollar a day) and chronically more than 1.5 billion people, and 35 thousand are malnourished

10

daily die of hunger and poor nutrition.

9 Munro, D. Chambers World Gazetteer: An A-Z of Geographical Information. - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
10 Meadows, D.H., Meadows, D.L., Randers, Y. Outside growth. - M.: Progress, 1994. - Page 304.

In modern industrial and consumer society of the word "person" and "consumer" became synonyms for a long time. And it is not accidental! We believe that in the second half of the XX century the centuries-old process of formation of a new kind of the person which we suggest to call "The person consuming" - Homo consumens (from Latin consUmo came to the end - to consume, spend; to destroy, lead to disappearance, to destroy). Homo consumens which is thoughtlessly using everything that was created by the Nature for billions of years of evolution for satisfaction of the unreasonably expanded requirements actively forces out Homo sapiens which promptly loses (if did not lose any more) the right to be called "reasonable", that is understanding the indissoluble communication with the Nature which generated it, capable to comprehend and control the behavior carefully to use the natural resources which got to it in inheritance from the previous generations, to keep and increase greatly them for future generations, that is to care for reproduction of human.

Meanwhile modern Homo consumens surpassed Homo sapiens in aggression and cruelty long ago and has not equal even among vertebrate animals. Any other species does not destroy similar in such scales and does not torture similar with such refinement as it is done by "the person consuming". Throughout the last four millennia of people wages fierce wars with similar, improving murder tools, increasing the destructive force and the striking possibilities of the weapon created by it. In essence, all history of mankind is series of continuous bloody battles in which many tens of millions of people died, hundreds of the cities and thousands of cultural monuments are destroyed. Only in the XX century two world wars and dozens of local battles led to the general losses estimated from 100 mln11 up to 280 million chelovek12.

Creation in the middle of the XX century of weapons of mass destruction, terrible on the force, and use of an atomic bomb by Americans against already prostrate Japan in World War II became the lowest point of moral falling of the country leaders elected by the American society and turned the USA into the original empire of evil on Earth. It is difficult to understand logic of behavior of the person consuming, spending today for arms and eventually for destruction of life more than one trillion dollars, and on implementation of ecological programs for prevention of the coming global environmental disaster and preservation of life - is 100 times (!) less, only 10 billion dollars a year. And how here not to remember the gloomy prophecy of the ingenious French scientist, author of the first complete concept of evolution of wildlife Jean Baptiste Lamarck made by it nearly two hundred years ago: "It is possible to claim, perhaps, that appointment of the person kind of is in destroying the sort (our italics. - A bus), previously having made the globe unsuitable for dwelling".

We consciously focused attention to aggressions and cruelty of the person in relation to similar because this line is the cornerstone, in our opinion, of the cruel relation of Homo consumens to the Nature surrounding it, or as now it is accepted to speak, to the surrounding environment. Beskonech-

Glazachev, S.N., Kozlova, O.N. Ecological culture. - M.: Horizon, 1997. - Page 203.

12 Kapitsa, S.P. The general theory of growth of mankind (How many people lived, lives and will live on Earth). - M.: Science, 1999. - Page 190; It. Growth of the population of Earth as main global problem of mankind//Global problems of the biosphere: collection of articles / otv. edition of F.T. Yanshin. - M.: Science, 2001. - Page 40-61.

ny wars with the huge human victims could not but lead to moral losses: corrosion of moral ethical principles, decrease in level of spiritual culture, ignoring of Christian precepts of decent behavior. Not casually after end of the most bloody for all history of mankind of World War II in the USA there was an ideology of consumerism and consumer society with injurious uses of natural resources, huge amount of industrial and household waste, aggression and money-making, prostitution and drug addiction, characteristic of it, was created.

The leader of the countries of "gold one billion" - the USA, - consuming about 40% of world natural resources and nearly a half of all energy made in the world, throwing out more than 60% of all toxic waste and about 30% of one of greenhouse gases - C02, cynically uses the economic and military power for protection of so-called vital interests which come down to uninterrupted providing its economy with cheap mineral raw materials and the energy carriers got worldwide. And as soon as in any given country there is "threat" of decrease or the termination of extraction of raw materials and resources, Americans under cover of the far-fetched reasons ("protection of democracy", "human rights protection", "fight against totalitarianism" and other.) launch local wars, provoke the conflicts and "color revolutions". Also the relation of the American leaders to initiatives of the international community trying to brake at least development of global environmental disaster is very indicative. In the late nineties of the XX century one of the high-ranking heads of the USA said: "America will not sign any ecological project or an agreement in which the interests of business, its economic interests are infringed". It is quite clear that such position meets the opened or veiled condemnation in many countries of the world, to what final documents of Rio-92 in which the international community recognized that the system of values of the western civilization and consumer psychology inevitably conduct to the ecological deadlock can serve as the evidence.

This conclusion is considerably caused by the fact that so-called "values of culture" of consumer society were in acute contradiction to cultural values of the people of the majority of the countries of the world, and first of all - with culture and moral values of the people of the former Soviet Union and the present Russian Federation. In Russia as a result of centuries-old harmonious interaction with the Nature of all people (more than 100) inhabiting it the Russian superethnos which characteristic is expressly respect for the earth ("earth mother"), the woods ("wood father"), the rivers and lakes, for the Russian nature, unique on beauty, for everything that provides his spiritual and material life was created. From these sources - respect of the people for the Nature surrounding them (first of all to the earth) and to each other - in the Silver age (at a boundary XIX and XX centuries) holding a specific place in the history of the Russian culture there was "the Russian idea" - the idea of unity, conciliarity, not money-making and zhertvennosti13.

Unfortunately, with return to Russia of capitalism in its worst version ("wild", or "semi-criminal") the consumer hype captured

13 Glazachev, S.N., Kozlova, O.N. Decree. soch.; Glazachev, S.N. Sokhranit values of ecological culture of the world//Green world. - 1998. - No. 13. - Page 6-7.

considerable part (from 7 to 10% of the population) of the so-called middle class. Very quickly appeared and "new" stereotypes and examples of behavior of consumer society of the western type began to be imposed actively by mass media. As a result a provided part of our society fell into ugly "hysterical consumption". Sources of all benefits - work and creative activity, traditional moral values of our society - were mocked and pushed into the background, and money and volume of consumption became a criterion of value and success of the Russian Homo consumens. It is not necessary to doubt, however, that this temporary "eclipse of mind" will pass parts of our population as there passes any eclipse, and primordially Russian cultural wealth formed by the people throughout many centuries will return and will play the leading role in life of society again.

The outstanding thinker of the XX century Albert Schweitzer whose initial principle of outlook - "a worship for life" as a basis of moral updating of mankind, considered that a trouble of the western civilization that she tries to be satisfied with culture which is torn off from ethics. However spiritual and moral improvement of the individual has to be an ultimate goal of any true culture. New European culture considered that the spirituality will arise in itself - with growth of material well-being, but it did not happen. In the aggressive and consumer permissiveness new European culture is, in essence, an antithesis to Confucianism. A. Schweitzer considered that for "truly moral person any life is sacred, even that which from our, human point of view seems subordinate". Culture has to include ethics, ethics - the Nature, and through ethics culture in ecological humanity connects to the Nature.

The ecological humanity originating in Confucius's humanity, Socrates in Mahatma Gandhi, Leo Tolstoy and Albert Schweitzer's philosophy, is guided by the principle of harmony of the person and the Nature, recognition of equivalence of all live. According to many researchers, all disagreements dividing the modern world, its "values" various, often incompatible with each other are based on anthropocentrism ("the person - the tsar of the nature", "all for the person and for the sake of the person"). This obviously outdated anthropocentric paradigm needs to be replaced new, biosferocentrichny which basis ideas of equality and originality of all live have to be, that the person is a part of wildlife, violence over which will address against him sooner or later. The new ecological outlook has to be based on traditional humanity, that is on an exception of the idea of violence, on the true culture which is on our deep ubezhdeniyu14, a basis of the humane attitude not only towards the person, but also to the Nature which part is also the person. Without understanding of these conceptual provisions, without understanding of a primacy of ecology over economikoy15, without strict observance of an ecological imperative in daily economic deyateln

Patricia Haynes
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