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Experience of the microanalysis of the emotional relations of family of "new Russians" of the XVI century



ROSSIYA: SOCIAL and PSYCHOLOGICAL CUTS of HISTORY

N.L. PUSHKAREVA

EXPERIENCE of the MICROANALYSIS of the EMOTIONAL RELATIONS of FAMILY of "NEW RUSSIANS" of the XVI CENTURY

According to archive materials history of the emotional relations in family of not notable, but rich noblemen of Protopopovykh is tracked (whom the author calls "new Russians" of the 16th century). In essence, before us the first documentary recorded case in the Russian history when the "sgovorenny" bride refused a marriage with the unloved groom and defended the choice. Reconstruction of this episode breaks stereotypic perception of an era of Ivan the Terrible as time of suppression of the personality when the narrowness of space of private life allegedly excluded non-standard behavior.

History XVI of Russia of a century for us is an era of Ivan the Terrible, capture of Kazan, oprichnik terror and executions. Ideas of the emotional world of people of that time are in no small measure fixed by the known picture of I.E. Repin which reflected impulsive and cruel character of the tsar. We seldom think of whether there was at that time rough political passions some private, private life painted by other emotions - not fear, but love, not rage, but pity and compassion, not "neglect", but sympathy.

Of course about the story of emotions even if history of family and the family relations - the subject having more than sesquicentennial tradition in the Russian science - is presented generally by works by the marriage right, but not researches of life and daily occurrence (Orshansky 1879; Grigorovsky 1896; Zagorovsky 1902; Dobrovolsky 1903, etc.). Interest in "the story of feelings the" of people living long before us, outposts which is promptly growing recently -

Historical psychology and sociology of history 2/2009 100-119

lyat in a new way to look also at family history, and at some everyday incidents of a preindustrial era, to enter them in a context of "legal framework" of that time, specifically defining a role and value of norms of written law in private human life (that is in that sphere of its daily occurrence which depended on individual, private decisions).

Researchers whom history of private life of medieval rus and "Muscovites" of the 16-17th centuries interests usually address quite traditional circle of sources - to documents of personal origin (letters), an epigrafika, marginal notes of books, and for their small number - to literary and hagiographical monuments. Most less often for this purpose office work documents are used. And it is clear. Hundreds of supplementary, donative, appointed and testamentary acts which were filled on a uniform cliche, according to one traditional scheme, apparently, can be of no use to the researcher of "the story of feelings". These "gramotka" most often not by owners of land or a personal property, and hired clerks were written. In most of them only the essence of the performed operation is stated, and it is almost impossible to imagine what feelings the one who made the transaction had. And meanwhile, dictating the text appointed or supplementary, the person could feel joy, disappointment, disappointment and other feelings. Exceptions are rare, and search in a clause of the document of some "personal" inserts usual for those times is unimaginably labor-consuming. The bad safety of many documents turns the probability of detection of these interpolation into almost fruitless task. And it is difficult to transfer joy of the researcher whose look unexpectedly snatched out from close lines some supplementary or spiritual emotionally charged "mention" of the author. It is always good luck: emotional "break" pushes to reflections about circumstances of commission by the person of his act, about its feelings, about its inner world and the system of its values.

In a collection of diplomas of Troitse-Sergiyev of the monastery which is stored in hand-written department of the Russian state library in Moscow there are many documents allowing to present the history of collecting by this monastery of land riches. Among them there are acts of the 15-16th centuries concerning family rodovovogo clan of Protopopov-Mezetsky-Pronsky who were repeatedly making a contribution to this largest and most powerful monastery. Most of them is by men (heads of families and them

brothers, uncles, deverye, etc.) which had wide powers according to the order immovable property. But occur both "women's" supplementary and spiritual (wives and widows), and among them - Spiritual a certain Marfa Protopopova's (will), belonging to the middle of the XVI century (Spiritual... 1560-1561). The "characters" mentioned in this Dukhovnoy allow to reconstruct not only the peculiar family genealogy synchronizing various rhythms and types of sociohistorical time (societies in general, generation, individuals), but also to lift the veil of secrecy over private life of contemporaries Vasily III and Ivan il Terribile.

The originator Dukhovnoy - Marfa Protopopova was the main character of the events which were taking place about four centuries ago. As allow to establish other acts from the same collection on the Suzdal and Bezhetsk Counties, Marfa was a wife of the certain Vasily Kuzmich serving in the middle of the 1520th years as the archpriest of court Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Vasily Kuzmich's position also allowed his wife, children and grandchildren to carry a surname of Protopopova (Kobrin 1983: 50). Rather low social status of the spouse of Marfa (the position of the archpriest was smaller on the importance, than the dean's position - famous Sylvester, the author of "Domestic tyranny" became him a bit later) considerably amplified the fact that court cathedral was the place of its service. There Vasily Kuzmich had from time to time an opportunity to communicate not only with the sovereign's confidants, but also with the grand duke Vasily III. It is curious that the grand duke Vasily III called of the humble origin, not notable archpriest in the will of 1523 the confessor ("confessor") (Spiritual. 1523).

We do not know of Vasily Kuzmich and Marfa Protopopovykh's everyday life. It is possible to guess what mark was left on their destinies by an era, time of the begun erosion of former values - blood and eminence only. At the beginning of the 16th century the personal wealth which in combination with nearness to "power structures" could compensate "thin breed" under favorable circumstances began to take their place gradually. Comparison to the present arises by itself: Vasily and Marfa Protopopovy were typical "new Russians" of the XVI century.

Judging by supplementary, the patrimonial ancestral lands at them was not, but there were means to buy up them (RO RGB 1540: 326), than they were also engaged,

anxious with the fate of two children - the daughter Evfimiya and the son Ivan.

Gradually land acquisitions allowed not well-born family of Vasily Kuzmich to count on the favorable and successful device of fate of "children". And if about family life of the son Vasily Kuzmich and Marfa, Ivan, nothing is possible to establish, then it is possible to tell about the fate of their daughter that it developed successfully, having equaled hopes of the mother and father. Not notable, but rich girl managed to cast in the lot with the offspring of one of the most ancient though who is growing poor childbirth - the prince Ivan (Menshim) Mikhaylovich Mezetsky (Zimin 1975: 39-41). Specific masters of the city of Meshchovsk (Mezetska) Mezetskiye's princes lost destiny at Ivan III and in the 16th century did not play already any political role. Ivan Mikhaylovich Mezetsky's father Mikhail Romanovich had some possession in Starodub Ryapolovsky (near Serpukhov), but already prince Ivan for those times was literally "landless": almost all its patrimonial possession were put-are repawned (Acts. 1975; Christmas 1897). Military business was for it a profession, he spent not enough time at home, having lost that the little it got that by inheritance from the father (Likhachev 1900: 85).

Could be the reasons which pushed the well-born prince to marriage with Ev-fimiya: the high social status of the alleged father-in-law (court archpriest), existence of a rich dowry on which Ivan counted or maybe that and another together. But what there were motives of the conclusion of similar marriage, its eccentricity is obvious especially as all initial rules dazzled then with instructions about the conclusion of marriages only about "a ditch -

it" 1.

In Evfimiya's dowry mother with the father as prompts Spiritual Marfa, gave only a personal property (money), having managed to spend nothing from earlier acquired land property. Probably, the newly appeared son-in-law so "overspent" that he could not - owing to the difficult financial position - dictate more favorable terms. Marriage with Evfimiya was necessary for it not less, than the family of the archpriest dreaming to become related with a princely surname. Ivan Mezetsky found rich relatives who - as show bills of sale of the diploma of Marfa

1 It was felt still by Daniil Zatochnik (12th century) which warned against a marriage "at the rich father-in-law". The subject "prelshcheniye" wealth of the bride as ways of finding of the angry wife passed through all Russian literature of the considered period (cf.: About seduced. b.).

and Vasily Protopopovykh - did not deny to the son-in-law assistance, redeeming the ancestral lands which is earlier put by him (Acts. 1505-1526: No. 214, 215, 219). In the XVI century the purchase by the nouveau riche of someone's patrimonial lands was in the nature of things, later (in the 18th century) actions of this sort would be prohibited by the law.

Apparently, Ivan Mezetsky did not feel any "complexes" from the fact that the father-in-law is engaged in his property affairs. But Vasily Kuzmich not without plebeian pride noted in spiritual that he bought not only a part of the patrimonial Lands of Mezetsky, but also dressed-put on the son-in-law dependent and also equipped him on monarchic service ("bought to the son-in-law on the money an armor about it and on his people, and horses") (Spiritual. 15311532). Most likely, while the son-in-law was in campaigns, Vasily Kuzmich considered it necessary to equip material well-being of his wife, the daughter.

In 1531 (or 1532?) year Vasily Kuzmich, having taken monkhood under the name of Vassian, died. His widow was fated to be engaged in property affairs of patrimonial clan now, and not one year: the protopopitsa endured the husband almost for three decades. Spiritual Marfa it was made in 1560-1561 and it is shown for a statement after her death on August 10, 1561.

The initial text of Dukhovnoy allows to learn that Evfimiya and Ivan's marriage was not childless. In 1532 at them the daughter named by Avdotya who by day of death of the grandfather was 1 year old and 20 weeks already grew. Therefore, the baby was born approximately in 1530 (or 1531) year. For the reasons for Avdotya unknown to us it was fated to remain the orphan soon: both her mom Evfimiya Vasilyevna, and the father Ivan Mikhaylovich early died so the grandmother had to bring up the girl. Through dry fabric of a legal monument to us - in more than four centuries! - humanity, special warmth of the attitude of Marfa towards the granddaughter broke, having concentrated only in one word - "a bit" which got to Spiritual. The girl had also the second trustee ("supporter") - her uncle, the eldest son of a protopopitsa of Marfa Ivan Vasilyevich Protopopov.

To them, trustees, the grandmother and the uncle, it was necessary later time to resolve an issue of Avdotya's marriage. Similar affairs in the Moscow families of the 16th century - especially so far as it concerned the first marriage - their parents and relatives managed not marrying, but. All "volitions" of brides were mediated by will of the family who brought "on them that to a vdaducha" (dowry). Annalistic columns are full of messages about the brides "brought" to princes: the verb "bring", "Vesti" among many values had also it as "zaklyu-

cheniye of conjugal ties". However, the priority of relatives in the solution of a question of a marriage was not legal restriction of women alone: marriage affairs of the sons marrying for the first time too, as a rule, were solved by parents.

Probably, not always "children" agreed with opinion and, the main thing, the choice of seniors who were guided in the decisions not personal and emotional, but material (in exclusive social strata - also political) motives. Otherwise would not get to the most ancient codes of laws regulating the marriage right, norms concerning the conflict situations connected with zamuzhestvo. So, in the 12th century the Charter of the prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich introduced very high penalties for compulsion of girls to marriage, especially if such coercion led to suicide of the "sgovorenny" bride (the Charter. 1952: 268-269). The most ancient Russian chronicle lips of the Polotsk princess Rogneda who did not wish "to undress a robichich" (the slave's son) - Vladimir Svyatoslavich who wooed it - and said that for it she "does not want", and "wants" for his brother, Yaropolk, recorded possibility, so to speak, of an unusual situation too. It is quite probable that it therefore was included in the chronicle that was if not single, then very rare.

Now it is not possible to define whether Avdotya Mezetskaya's tutors - "supporters" of her "volition" when choosing marriage party discussed. It is quite possible that the girl just wanted "to be in a lawful combination to the husband". The originality of perception of a marriage by the girl of the 16th century was that any, even the most unenviable marriage party was more preferable than a humiliating fate old devy2. In the 12th century the church law introduced the penalties imposed on parents "if the maid voskhoshcht in marriage, and the father and MATI do not dadit", and further this representation remained for centuries. Anyway, but Avdotya's trustees - the grandmother and the uncle - "zgovorit [her] with Vasilyem with Mikhaylovich with Vorontsov for his brother for Ivan Mikhaylovich". "Conspiracy" took place not earlier than 1546 and no later than 1547.

It is hard to say, than the young Avdotya's relatives who concluded line with I.M. Vorontsov and that was for them at that time the most important were guided: desire to become related with known (though not well-born) a surname or sober pragmatiche-

2 See the proverbs and sayings which are written down in the 17th century: "Without husband the wife - always the orphan"; "Life without husband - a nasty pool"; "Here to you kokuy (a headdress of "muzhatitsa") - with him also exult" (Zhelobovsky 1892: 13).

sky calculation on some additional everyday benefits. Perhaps, the initiative proceeded from the Vorontsov who was captivated appearance and youth of the girl which at that time was not and

15 years.

About the same what person was chosen by trustees in legal spouses to the pupil, it is possible to judge by some facts of his biography which got on pages of "The encyclopedic dictionary" Brockhaus and Efron (1892: 220). The named groom was the nobleman, the son of the glorified voivode M.S. Vorontsov. In the 1540th years Ivan was already visible figure in the tsar's environment. Ivan the Terrible welcomed his rank the dumny adviser, probably, not without the bases, feeling in it mind, thrift and such features of character which allowed to entrust it execution of important diplomatic missions. Later, in 1557 and 1567-1569, that is twice, the tsar sent I.M. Vorontsov with diplomatic errands (the first time to Lithuania, the second - to Sweden). But neither Marfa, nor her granddaughter could know about this future brilliant career those years.

On the contrary, in the 1540th years described by us Ivan Vorontsov's fate hung by a thread: the alleged groom of Avdotya nearly laid down life on an executioner's block. The chronicle reports that in 1546 he together with the brother V.M. Vorotsov (with whom Marfa Protopopova conducted negotiations on future marriage of the granddaughter) unexpectedly got to monarchic disgrace. The brother of the named groom - V.M. Vorontsov - was executed on July 21, 1546 on a denunciation of clerk G.Z. Gnilyevsky which, by the way, was mentioned in Vasily Kuzmich Dukhovnoy as one of the archpriest's creditors. Ivan Mikhaylovich was lucky: however, "neodinazhda" took away him to Kolomna on torture, and after that in addition seized all property, but this lucky person nevertheless survived (PSRL, t. 34: 27).

"Conspiracy" of relatives of Avdotya Mezetskaya with Vorontsov took place - it is almost possible not to doubt! - shortly before these events when Vorontsova were still treated kindly by the higher authority. Nevertheless marriage did not take place. "And on my sin, enemy I spo-ache, mine for Ivan did not pokhotet the grandson...", - Avdotya's grandmother, Marfa, in the Dukhovnoy wrote down. The grandmother had to pay a marriage penalty for "nepokhoteniye" of the granddaughter to the unaccomplished groom. In the diploma it is called "charge" (that is compensation for zaklyu-

a ceremonious row - the contract) it is also defined in the sum huge for those times - "five hundred Rublyov".

Similar message already in itself is unique. Stories of the Russian marriage right of domoskovsky time (10-15th century) are not known real incidents of "not a pokhoteniye" of grooms and brides to get married, and only the situation of refusal of the groom of the bride was provided in regulations ("behind litter ei 3 hryvnias and that is lost - pay that to it, and to the metropolitan of 6 hryvnias, and the prince executes") (the Charter. 1952: 54). Free will of the bride when determining future husband not only was not considered as obligatory, but - at least till 1697 - was not even zhelatelnym3.

Even more the specified sum of "charge" - five hundred rubles surprises. It is enough to remember that a worn marten fur coat in the middle

XVI centuries cost only 4 rubles, and the payment country "elderly" for transition from one mister to another equaled to one and a half rubles (Mankov 1951). But also for family - which, undoubtedly, Protopopovykh's family was prosperous - the sum of "charge" for payment was not simply big in itself, but is almost irreal. Actually it was impossible to pay it at once: such huge money could not exist available, houses, at the grandmother, for a rainy day physically could not be stored. And the credit, though existed at that time in Moskovia, in this case would not help: nobody on credit would give sum of this sort. So the figure broken by Vorontsov not so much determined the actual price material (and probably moral) compensations how many formulated an unattainable limit.

It is possible even to assume that in figure 500 there was some additional, sacral, secret sense. If 100 rubles were synonymous to a concept of wealth (that was reflected also in folklore: "Friend in court is better than a penny in purse", - and in literature of prepeter's time where all transfers of rich grants and gifts always or are equal to 100 rubles, or are multiple to number 100), 500 rubles were fivefold increase in this significant and symbolical sum (that in itself makes think on symbolical character of figure 5 too - five fingers, "I count up to five", church about five chapters...). The mention of this sum as the penalty sums for "besche-occurs in judicial documents of the 17th century

3 When "not lyubyashchisya among themselves sopruzhestvut, life of those husband and wife happens poorly and... children bezprizhitno", - the patriarch Adrian lamented concerning forced marriages, demanding from priests to crown only those who "to each other poyavit perfect consent" (see: Instruction. 1830).

a stya" (rape) devushki4, however in Marfa Dukhovnoy we come up against a reverse situation - moral insult of the groom.

Most likely, the custom of "otdarivaniye" of the groom affected by refusal of the bride, nevertheless existed long since, otherwise its echoes would not remain in texts of posadsky stories. So, in particular, "The parable about the old husband and the young maiden" (17th century) which told about the cunning and dexterous girl who managed to avoid an undesirable marriage came to an end with words: "Young - the maiden honor and glory, and to the old husband - a cow of fat" - that is a payoff (The story about old. 1988: 448). However in one of available at our disposal marriage line the penalty sum in case of refusal of the groom or the bride it is not specified. Most likely, it was always high: the emigrant Grigory Kotoshikhin (1906) knowing firsthand the Russian realities reported that the size of a penalty could reach also 5000, and even 10,000 rubles, but in found us sgovorny and line any data such did not meet.

Anyway, but to the grandmother Marfa Protopopova to find 500 rubles, it was necessary to think of how to catch them seriously. When the real wealth accumulated in land property when cash in circulation was not enough, and precious metals for production of a coin were imported from abroad, it had no other exit how to leave several former acquisitions. For the first time in the history of Protopopovykh's family the land property did not collect, and was alienated: Marfa left two villages situated near Moscow (possibly, Borisoglebsk and Koptsovy as being repeatedly mentioned in former documents of family of Protopopovykh, they are absent among Mezetsky' possession) (Kobrin 1983).

What was the cause of "not a pokhoteniye" of Avdotya? Knowing I.M. Vorontsov's biography, there is a strong temptation to explain the girl's act with unwillingness to go in marriage for disgraced, to cast in the lot with the shady character and the unreliable person. But the reason as it seems to us, was other. If Avdotya's refusal to marry Vorontsov was caused it by disgrace at gosu-

4 "Her Stepan, Mavrutka, in the room at himself forced, and it, Mavrutka, in that at him, Stepan, asked that over it did not repair that nasilovaniye... and the maid is told to give from belongings of the one who will rape her" therefore awarded: "to give it, Stepan Korobyin, the maid Mavrutka 500 Rublyov" (PSZ 1830: 901).

giving, the grandmother should not have spread huge money: to marry the granddaughter "she would not pokhotet". And it should not pay her such huge "charge". It is probable when "conspiracy" was organized, clouds were not condensed over the groom's head yet, and Avdotya's marriage with Ivan Vorontsov fell apart for some other reasons, and shortly before the events connected with disgrace him and his brother (that is till 1546).

"Mention" in spiritual Marfa's text offers an explanation to a situation: "Yaz, Marfa, behind the vnuka paid a charge five hundred her Rublyov for tears (her tears for the sake of)... exactly This recognition unexpected for the legal document, avaricious on emotion, also forces the reader of monotonous texts of private-law acts to allocate Spiritual Marfa from hundreds of similar "gramotok". To allocate and think: what events could push Avdotya Ivanovna Mezetskaya to manifestation of unexpected willfulness, and her grandmother - to commission of an extraordinary act? As one more person - the prince Yury Ivanovich Shemyakin-Pronsky who died by then called Avdotya's husband is mentioned in Marfa Dukhovnoy's text 1560-1561 further (several sheets later) - there are all bases to assume that the girl refused to marry Ivan Vorontsov as other person became the elect of her heart. That is if the similar assumption is right, calculations of relatives broke about quite unexpectedly the arisen "love triangle".

Even if not to assimilate to novelists, dreaming on this subject, it is difficult not to admit the fact of unexpectedness of the decision of Avdotya for her grandmother. Most likely, first, when trustees made marriage sgovorny, Avdotya did not show the relation to the choice by the grandmother Marfa of her marriage party in any way. Life of the girl was literally "programmed" on a usual marriage, but some event changed all her life, changed all plans. The accident intruded in measured life.

Appropriate to remember an interesting remark of the French historian L. Febvre (1991) that we got used to consider historical events, processes and the phenomena in categories of mechanics (rise - descent, progress - regress, development - degradation), but mental processes, he believed, it is necessary to analyze by means of other conceptual framework taken not from mechanics, and from electricity: flash, category, difference of poles. It is possible to assume, as in events which caused Avdotya's decision to refuse marriage with Vorontsov, just that was main -

Kaya flash, sudden feeling, passion. Everything promptly broke suddenly. "Tears" (which Marfa Protopopova remembered, making spiritual), arrangements of relatives began. Probably, they puzzled more than once over where Avdotya could "slubitsya" with Yury, possibilities of communication with representatives of an opposite sex were in Moskovia the 16th century - an age of blossoming of "teremny solitary life" - more than ogranichennymi5.

Most likely, business happened in church, maybe, even in that Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin where the archpriest Avdotya's grandfather once served and where it went to the confessor. The church was the basic and nearly the only place which with the permission of the head of the family, tutors or husbands was visited by both unmarried girls, and "muzhatitsa". So, at least, the foreigners who visited Moskovia in the 16-17th centuries presented daily life of Muscovites. However if to consider accident of acquaintance of Avdotya and Yury as a peculiar "point of intersection of multi ordinal regularities", then it is quite definitely possible to notice interrelation of processes of the eminence and social definition of the Russian nouveau riches of the 16th century (to which Marfa and her granddaughter belonged) and process of gradual awakening of consciousness of the person (both Avdotya, and her grandmother).

Avdotya and Yury's unexpected acquaintance, as well as all this story in general, created, probably, a scandal, having become a source of strong emotional experiences of both Protopopovykh, and Vorontsov, and Pronsky. These strong (stressful) experiences forced all participants of history to glance in themselves. It is enough to pay attention that 15 years later after the memorable events the grandmother, making Spiritual, involuntarily fell into some nervousness when stated the history of purchase and sale of the villages situated near Moscow. She obviously tried to explain to herself as suddenly she made such decision - whether "on my sin whether enemy I sponoit..." Most likely, both sins, and enemies was at this woman much...

Marfa could not but understand that against her will, as well as against the will of other trustee, Avdotya - how loved - would never go, would not risk. Under all laws of that time, girls could not marry, "how long having the power over them will not express consent to sozhitiye" (Canons. b.). Approval a mustache -

5 "Maidens are not allowed to get acquainted independently, still to tell that with each other about marriage business less or to make an engagement" (Kotoshikhin 1906: 149). All marriage issues were resolved on shows.

lovny "elect" was accurately formulated initial condition for marriage ("... we speak to a siyazha if autocracy, vshche and on a vlastiya of parents an essence copulating to marriage..." (Kotoshikhin 1906: 12), and all conflict situations on this soil are jurisdictional to patriarchal court. Even in literature of the 16-17th centuries the episodes with manifestations of maiden "volitions" concerning the choice of the elect (cases with Fevronia who caused a marriage as a payment for treatment of the prince Pyotr, or with the trickster Ksenia from "The story about the Tver Otroche the monastery", long fooling one groom, another was not found yet, richer and notable) are more similar to imaginations of authors of texts, than to the facts of real family life.

Spiritual Marfa shows that our habitual conclusions about predefiniteness of a course of life of any medieval person demand specification. Life constantly gave rise to situations of the conflict with traditional installations, it is only difficult to tell - how often.

Without wishing to turn family life of the granddaughter into "infernal tortures of not lovely marriage", Marfa did not begin to insist on Avdotya's marriage (as she called her home-style - Dunyasha? Dunyashka?) with Vorontsov. What moved it, it is a lot of seen on the century when she made the decision to leave two recent acquisitions, so painfully until then collected? Why heart of the grandmother trembled when she heard Avdotyina entreaties and saw her "tears"? We never learn about it any more. It is only possible to build guesses about Marfa Protopopova's character - the uncommon personality who made an extraordinary act.

Her life was for certain extremely rich with events (remembering which she wrote down in spiritual about the sins and enemies). Yes differently also could not be: Marfa personified - we will use the term of one of fathers of modern sociology of P.A. Sorokin - "the ascending social mobility". She wholly learned, experienced on own skin that advance from protopopitsa in a watchinnovladelitsa means.

How riches in her family accumulated? The position of the spouse of Marfa, Vasily Kuzmich, in itself would not give the chance neither to construct "stone chambers", nor to get "zemlitsa" in especially large sizes. But the proximity of the archpriest to the sovereign created - it can be assumed with definiteness - conditions for the numerous addresses of "small fry" of any rank and a rank asking "попечаловатися" about their business. And the archpriest, for certain, promoted it, and is not disinterested, and for a reward. That

this assumption is faithful to

>, it is visible from transfer of debtors and Vasily Kuzmich's creditors in its spiritual: as many of an environment of the archpriest were connected with palace department, to it was to whom to address, striving about chelobitnykh6.

And a protopopitsa Marfa, as well as her many contemporaries belonging besides to a social group of "nouveau riches" of the 16th century, had to count and gain constantly something, turning the gifts inflowing in family into land riches. The prohibitive decrees, the first in the history of the Russian private law, concerning investment of wives and daughters from well-born families with the earth through a dowry and inheritance belong to the middle of the XVI century. The prohibitive moments in laws on the real estate pushed and accelerated process of the birth of new owners (concerning whose wives and daughters no prohibitions, by the way, existed). "new Russians" also got these (bought up) the patrimonial ancestral lands at the former owners. Such art of enrichment both Vasily Kuzmich Protopopov, and his wife Marfa quite seized.

Reading Spiritual Marfa, it is easy to notice that in the history of her family the beginning of difficult social and economic process of the actual redistribution of land property in the Russian state is embodied and "animated". Its legal registration which dragged on for several centuries changed rules of law in the XVIII century, in the middle of the 16th century Vasily Kuzmich and Marfa stood at his origins, making enemies ("enemy spona") and not always in the just ways getting next "селцо" ("my grekha").

It seems, as the attitude of spouses towards "zemlitsa" was special, other than neglect of it of well-born successors of the large ancestral lands. It was a pity to leave any acquisition which got not without effort. Therefore Marfa, making Spiritual and remembering as she had to sell two villages, again and again endured the act. She was a widow of the influential person as Vasily Kuzmich was acquainted with elite "on the duty station". She was proud of the fact that she managed to marry the daughter (Avdotya's mother, Evfimiya) not to some "commoner", that is not to the nobleman of humble origin, and to the well-born prince. It had the basis to be happy with itself as exactly thanks to her worldly wisdom the family managed to get nedyuzhin-

6 Mentioned in spiritual Vasily Kuzmich M.Yu. Zakharyin, I.Yu. Shigona Podzhogin, the prince V. F. Lopata Obolensky, kN. I.I. Kubensky held various positions and were influential people (Zimin 1964: 187-189).

ny "pomestiyets". And, of course, accumulating the solid capital, Marfa dreamed that her daughter and the granddaughter were not satisfied with what has already been achieved that also they increased greatly family property too, saw future wellbeing of descendants in this skopidomstvo. And still - as it was a pity to leave saved up! - Marfa arrived not as dictated her principles, "crossed" through herself, the ambitions...

Thinking of Marfa's act, it is difficult not to note also that it on own knowledge of life and on the example of the daughter faced relativity of borders and various establishments both within a layer, and beyond its limits. It faced as we would tell now, from devianty, a deviation from normal social behavior (because Marfa's movement and then her daughters from one social stratum in another, certainly, was devian-that, though quite widespread). Most likely, the fact of commission of a deviant act in the past defined Marfa's readiness (when she became a grandmother) for commission of the new extraordinary act based already on emotions. In other words, Marfa who once broke norms there were also other silly conventions of society at all any more.

Ordinary persons, having got to higher social group, usually blindly copy, imitate in trifles to representatives of so-called society. Persons extraordinary under such circumstances find sometimes freedom of the internal choice unprecedented until then. They expand borders of permitted and make acts which interpretation sometimes appears it cannot do to their environment. Marfa Protopopova, it appears, just was also such personality. Having suffered much in life after the death of the husband, she least of all wanted sufferings to accompany life of her beloved granddaughter and pupil. Collecting lands, scaring together a fortune, Marfa was the good assistant to Vasily Kuzmich.

But whether she loved it? In any case, she precisely wished the "little" not the, and the better lot. And, by the way, the new elect of the granddaughter Ivan Shemyakin-Pronsky was a prince, and Ivan Vorontsov - just successful courtier. So the princely origin of the new groom restrained Marfa with losses. And therefore the grandmother made the decision to leave two villages (until the end of life regretting for it) and to pay an enormous penalty, having agreed to marriage of the granddaughter at her choice and taste. Thus, Spiritual Marfa became the most rare monument of the Russian right which recorded cancellation of a marriage row because of the bride's disagreement on a marriage.

The document and modern to it annalistic and office work sources allow to reconstruct the course of the events which followed Avdotya's refusal of a marriage with I.M. Vorontsov. As for the unluckiest groom, he, as we know, managed "to keep afloat" big-time politics. But probably its fate would be even more successfully, become he the relative of the widow of the royal confessor. And the property it was seized as it was possible to understand, right after receiving "charge" by it in 500 rubles (probably, well-wishers reported "where follows" that from it was what to take!).

And at this time prepared by Protopopovy-Mezetskiye for a wedding. Having reconciled to loss of family property, Avdotya's uncle presented to new family - continuation of clan of Protopopov - as a wedding gift "sazhenye" (cervical ornament with stones) the late wife what the grandmother in the will did not fail to tell about.

Celebrated a wedding. To Avdotya it was executed full by then

16 years. This age was at that time for girls the most widespread age of marriage: it was not allowed to marry more young than 12 years, and from 20 easily it was possible to get to "vekovush". So it is possible to think that Avdotya in the persistence to refuse marriage with one groom and desire to marry another was not capricious at all, and accepted the conscious, independent, "adult" decision.

Exact date of a wedding of Avdotya with Yury is unknown. It can be calculated if to consider that the steward Yu.I. Shemyakin-Pronsky is for the first time mentioned among young aristocrats in 1546, and then in 1547 - as the participant of wedding ceremonies of Ivan IV with Anastasia Romanova (he could participate in them if he was only married). It also allows to think that Avdotya and Yury's marriage was made in 1546 when the unaccomplished first groom was put "for police officers on Kolomna".

How the mezetsky princess with the elect was died? Should she have cried, pushing thereby the grandmother to sale of villages for payment of a penalty by Vorontsov?

On the birth Yury Shemyakin-Pronsky belonged to the known branch of the Ryazan princes - owners of the city of Pronsk "from the vicinity". His father, Ivan Shemyaka, was a gallant fighter for what it was noticed still by Vasily III, and in 1544 was granted boyars -

stvo. Ivan Shemyaka soon after the wedding syna7 died and, apparently, to "child" - to Yury, Avdotya's elect, - despite the nobility, in inheritance left nothing essential. Yury was rather poor. Everything, than the young couple owned, was prior to a wedding Avdotya's property. So with security of sons-in-law with Protopopov, frankly speaking?

Daniel David
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