The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Influence of Russian Orthodox Church on the level of religiousness of Siberians

8. In the same place. - Page 233.

9. Edging I. Tsit. soch. - Page 422.
10. Archimandrite Platon. Orthodox moral theology of 1994. - Page 84.
11. V.F. Asmus. Edging ethics//I. Tsit's Edging. soch. - Page 6-7.
12. Edging I. Tsit. soch. - Page 413.
13. Edging I. Tsit. soch. - Page 413-414.
14. V.D. Kudryavtsev-Platonov. Initial bases of philosophy. Page 186-187.
15. Edging I. Tsit. soch. - Page 475.

L.A. Tresvyatsky


In article on historical material problems of a role of orthodox church in the course of settling and development of Siberia and in formation of mentality of Siberians are covered.

L. A. Tresvyatskiy


The article based on historical material highlights challenges of the Orthodox Church role in the process of settlement and development of Siberia and in shaping the mentality of Siberians.

Siberia became populated by the "different outlaws" seeing in it the edge rich with furs, forests and fields [1]. The Russian colonists realized themselves Orthodox Christians, that is why on new lands they reproduced fundamentals of religion, traditional for them, in life, war and peace. Together with groups of Sagittariuses surely there were icons and also representatives of clergy. All this allowed Russian Orthodox Church to give to Yermak's campaign and in general process of accession of Siberia to Russia a religious shade. At will of the archbishop Kiprian the necrology to ermakovy Cossacks" for their glorification as injured for Orthodoxy was made ". The Christian doctrine of a sermon of the Gospel allowed to see the natural process approved by orthodox church and consecrated with God's force, just and sacred business in accession of Siberia.

The Russian people were a link between Europe and Asia. The dialectics of opposition and cooperation with other people was based on division of the world into two parts. The first part - the orthodox kingdom to which not orthodox world resisted. Other world was perceived as aggressive which should have resisted. Not -


>. - Trinity-Sergius Lavra,

- Sergiyev Posad, 1915. -

looking at the got independence at the end of HU of a century and lack of obvious external threat for Russia, national consciousness kept the memory of possible danger. It was promoted by such event which, having stunned Russia, led it into the lead the orthodox world - falling of Constantinople in the middle of HU of a century. The Russian Orthodoxy was capable to apply for the leading role. Accession of Siberia was the successful embodiment of ideas of the special mission of Russia as orthodox state in relation to other people.

At a boundary of HU1-HU11 of centuries the Russian Cossacks were very interested in bringing of Orthodoxy to the new region, it consoled them in extremely difficult conditions and gave courage in fight against the Siberian people. In the 20th years of the 17th century the situation changed. The Russian colonists, feeling like owners, did not wish to follow orthodox standards of behavior constantly. It is the main reason for which the Siberian clergy constantly entered collisions with representatives of different population groups. The conflicts with voivodes happened because of a speech of the Siberian bishops against the oppressions and lawlessness not compatible to Christian outlook created by the authorities. The conflicts with the simple population happened on the soil of manifestation from the people of such acts which contradicted norms of Christianity. The Russian Orthodox Church constantly sought to strengthen due initial orthodox outlook in national consciousness. The church power acted as the intermediary and the arbitration judge between the conflicting parties.

Process of formation of spiritual culture of Orthodoxy in Siberia is difficult and ambiguous. According to P.N. Butsinsky, in the middle of the 17th century "customs of Siberia... were cruel and the dissoluteness reigned both in the world, and in monasteries" [2]. Further Butsinsky writes: ". Before Kiprian's arrival to Siberia the monks and nuns lived together in the same monastery. Therefore the full debauchery reigned in the Siberian monasteries: monks whored with nuns and with wordly people. Many monks and nuns took off from themselves a chernetsky dress, and lived in some houses with wordly people, and in the life were broken a set by nothing from these last" [3]. It was written by the person who strongly worried about Orthodoxy in Siberia, but did not begin to suppress those facts which were. The role of the Siberian arch-flamens was not in closing eyes to the similar facts, and to take great pain to eradicate customs of both the Siberian society, and the Siberian clergy.

With the Russian colonists the orthodox church really had problems. Still the first Siberian metropolitan Kiprian complained of absence at Cossacks, peasants and other Russian population of due Christian morals, alien to Siberia, and respect for requirements of orthodox church. It is necessary to consider that in jails the church, as a rule, wooden surely was under construction. Colonization of new territories raised the vital issue of increase in number of priests and opening of new arrivals. For example, the difficult situation of believers in Tyumen is confirmed by the diploma of 1600 of the tsar Boris Godunov: ". And in a jail of the temple is not present; and it on the posad of bottoms one is also low-power, and another there is no priest, and in that there is no priest, and in that to it and all people burden great." [4]. This problem was partially solved. Next year it was authorized to construct behind the Tyumen jail parish church for the sake of Boris and Gleb, and in the jail - the big temple.

At development of Siberia the best and worst lines of human nature were really shown. The Russian people sought to reproduce independently on the new place basic elements of orthodox culture which fixed given terri-

to thorium for immigrants. Problems of moral behavior of the orthodox population and representatives of church managed to be solved by means of organizational administrative measures. The fact is that orthodox culture possesses a number of means of internal and external impact on flock. The absence of the normal organization of activity of Russian Orthodox Church in Siberia led to lowering of the level of church discipline. With the advent of the independent Siberian diocese the church discipline was repeatedly enhanced. Among clergy, monks, initial standards of behavior were, etc. restored. At the beginning with the priest the bishop conducted a "dushespasitelny" conversation. It it appeared, as a rule, enough that the behavior of the priest changed. The guilty priest if internally did not change, but was afraid of possible punishments which could lead to deterioration in his financial position. The most effective was appointment of the priest from city arrival in rural or the translation from big arrival on smaller. The fact is that the personal wellbeing of the priest depended on the number of parishioners and a sort of their activity. Large arrivals allowed the priest not to live in misery, and in city arrivals the flock was richer and much more generous.

The most great difficulties on recovery of norms of Orthodoxy as it was noted, were at the beginning of the 17th century. The fact is that Siberians, having received "freedom" in a sin (alcoholism, fornication, extortion and so forth), persistently resisted spiritual doctoring of church. First, in Siberia it was lacked the Russian women of orthodox religion [5]. Cossacks and other "free people" lived fornication with foreign female (it were Tatars, Kalmyks, Voguls, ostyak, etc.). As women were not orthodox religion, Cossacks had a "plausible" pretext not to enter with them church marriage. It should be noted that only marriage on an orthodox ceremony even if it was secret and without special publicity, admitted society.

Secondly, the Siberian Cossacks, coming to the European Russia, deception and an arrangement brought to Siberia the Russian women allegedly as the future wives. There women or were lost in cards, or violently were on sale to other Cossacks, i.e. the peculiar "female slave trade" prospered. Moreover, many Russians ceased to carry crosses, did not observe posts and fast days. It demonstrates to temporary, but serious undermining influence of orthodox culture on the Russian immigrants. The clergy was forced to crown marriages without announcement, casual people who went back to the world after a while took the vows. The Russian Cossacks lived as conquerors and winners to whom everything is permitted [6].

The Russian Orthodox Church tried to break the situation. Having entered the obvious conflict with temporal power, still Kiprian sent to the patriarch Filaret the message about those defects which were created by the "orthodox" population in Siberia, having accused some representatives of local government in abuse of the situation. On February 11, 1622 the patriarch Filaret in the special diploma demanded to stop spiritual decomposition of the Russian population. The diploma was read on all Siberian churches in the presence of many people. It was an incitement to settlement in Siberia of those rules of religious life which were peculiar for the European Russia [7]. Not all Siberian voivodes began to promote the bishop Kyprianou. To frighten and in view of obvious lawlessness Kiprian sent to the tsar the complaint to the Tobolsk voivode Matvei Godunov. Charges in its address were so significant that special investigation was organized. Gradually the authority of the spiritual power on Siberia was uk-

replen. Sluzhily people began to realize that the relations in Siberia should not differ from accepted in the European Russia essentially. The archbishop Kiprian made the most complex work on strengthening of Orthodoxy in Siberia. It was "already easier" for the subsequent Siberian bishops, and gradually it was succeeded to improve spiritual and moral life of Siberians considerably.

of One of the most "developed" subjects is relationship of orthodox church and the Russian people. The main methodological error of a number of researchers consists in unwillingness to consider essence of the spiritual fundamentals of Orthodoxy which are an ideological support of life of church. Orthodoxy an essence Christianity which cornerstone the faith in the Lord and his precepts to which activity of church submits is. That is why Orthodox Christians consider church the Christ's Body. Misunderstanding of it leads to emergence of far-fetched ideas of "national Orthodoxy" or "religious syncretism of Orthodoxy". "national Orthodoxy" is understood as the distorted form of perception of Christianity by the people where fancifully Christian and pagan representations are crossed. I.P. Basharov writes: "Crafts as a part of the activity of the Russian people which is completely controlled by Orthodoxy on representations of fishermen and hunters, also were depending on Christian sacral images. Field men carried out all general elements of an orthodox cult which are not connected only with trade activity. Christian images were perceived, first of all, as a source of power which at the time of the introduction of the person in relationship with the nature, in case of implementation of requirements of Orthodoxy by it, acted as his patron, and in the most critical situations - and the savior" [8]. The fact is that the orthodox church as spiritual structure is the active beginning, and the people - passive. Not the people bring up church, and the church influences it. The orthodox church is some kind of "pillar and the statement of the truth", and to any pagan manifestations attempting upon an essence of orthodox dogma, worthy repulse was always given.

For spiritual culture of Orthodoxy and the Russian people religious holidays are of particular importance. A.A. Makarenko writes: "In a concept about a holiday the radical Siberian peasants, as well as Russian, enter an element of need of complete cessation of important works of the house and out of it. In practice rural areas, however, execution of works, not only on Sundays., but sometimes and on big holidays is allowed. The reasons - a lack of working hands, a harvest season, cleaning of bread, complex fishing" [9]. Researchers of "national Orthodoxy" established that "Easter in Siberia was called & #34; паской" sacred or red week. It was considered as one of the main country holidays, carefully prepared for it, this holiday kept many elements of a spring pre-Christian agrarian cycle of the ceremonies devoted to a razgoraniye of the sun and spring sowing" [10] in Siberia. At peasants the special role of "the national calendar" which essence is that the cycle of agricultural works was verified with orthodox holidays which was quite a lot is traced. The Siberian peasants esteemed Saints though many superstitions remained [11].

N.A. Minenko about it notes: "It is unlikely, in particular, it is fair to consider that to the middle of HGH of century in the representations functioning for Maslenitsa, standards of behavior, collective moods beliefs in a possibility of active impact on the nature remained that the Russian peasants of Siberia continued to put a certain magic contents in ceremonialism of such holidays as a Semik, the Trinity,

New year. Externally many festive actions, really, reminded the pagan rituals which consigned to the past. However the pagan point of these actions, in any case in H1H of century, was reliably forgotten" [12] V of everyday life peasants reckoned time not on months and numbers, and by religious dates and posts: from Christmas till Easter, from Easter till the Baptism of the Lord, from Pokrov to Kazan, etc. Even the cycle of agricultural works paid off on the religious Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar.

In difficult conditions orthodox priests had to act in Siberia. The Yakut clergy, first, carried out usual occasional offices, secondly, was engaged missionary activity, thirdly, sought to increase the moral level of sluzhily people who "do not carry crosses" [13]. The Yakut priests bore humiliations with local authorities. For example, the voivode P. Golovin put the confessor monk Simeon in prison, and the celibate priest Porfiriya on his order in general was subjected to tortures. The petty tyranny of the voivode P. Golovin came so far that even church services were temporarily stopped, but gradually in Yakutsk steadily functioning clergy consisting in the middle of the 17th century of four priests and one deacon [14] was created.

Orthodox Christians in Siberia sought to join complete church life. So, "... the initiative of construction of most parish churches in Siberia of the XVIII century came from wordly society. It was made out still by the petition, or the application of the world to the bishop" [15]. The population felt the constant need for a spiritual okormleniye, that is why communication with clergy was not limited only to a temple framework. M.M. Gromyko writes that there was "a custom to invite the priest to houses for service of a prayer; constant strannopriimstvo which was followed by stories by wanderers on spiritual subjects and requests of owners for prayers for them in monasteries and at the known shrines.; the religious and moral subject sounded in family in the edifications, remarks and instructions addressed to children; the studying children and competent adults quite often read aloud the Gospel, lives of Saints, the Psalter and other spiritual literature; the alms were given to beggars..." [16].

To start spiritual life the baptism was important. Children were brought to the temple ". to Christ for the eighth day after the birth. This day in the sacrament of baptism the Lord washes them from an original sin, removing from them a damnation. In an anointing sacrament, following directly behind a baptism, the Lord adopts the child to himself, granting it grace" [17]. Not everywhere in Siberia there was an opportunity to reach quickly even the nearest church. In this case the Russian peasants on Indigirka "did usually without priest. Poured warm water in a clean basin, lowered in it a silver cross then water became & #34; святой". The godfather several times dipped the child the head and legs into water with words: & #34; We Christen the God's slave Nikolay (Peter, etc.) & #34;. God father and mother were honored almost on an equal basis with parents. In case of the death of the last they sponsored the godsons" [18]. Thanks to such orthodox forms of behavior there was the real churching of Christians.

It is always difficult for one to follow Christian standards of behavior, and arrival allowed to strengthen belief of the certain person. To development of church parish life there is an approval of spiritual culture of Orthodoxy in Siberia [19]. It is difficult not to agree with N.D. Zolnikova's opinion: "The Siberian arrivals by the beginning of the 18th century, apparently, in many respects were reminded by North Russians..." [20]. Positions of researchers on the attitude of members of parish community towards priests are very contradictory. Let's give examples. N.D. Zolnikova claims: "Changes of the status of clergy in siste-

me absolutism comprised a steady trend of its separation from flock" [21]. S.V. Kuznetsov correctly notes: "The opinion on allegedly disrespectful attitude of peasants towards priests is based on a limited circle of sources and has no communication with national ideals and religious practice. The superstitions occurring concerning priests (for example, to meet the priest - a bad sign, etc.) had rather a character of a pagan remnant and did not reflect real practice of relationship of the priest and his flock. The respect for a priestly dignity was combined with the insistence shown by parishioners to its carrier" [22]. L.N. Harchenko recognizes a special role of priests since ". the clergy still belonged to the most educated part of local society." [23]. Ideas of a role of the priest in management of arrival are also contradictory [24].

Level of moral ethical standards of Siberians was much lower, than in the European Russia. The lack of the prepared church shots led to the fact that the elective principle of priests was widespread in Siberia. On the one hand, such priest was held in respect among parishioners as the most pious of the local environment. On the other hand, the "chosen" father substantially depended on arrival and could follow his tastes, without noticing those unseemly acts which were made among members of the religious community. Moreover, the "chosen" fathers did not have enough knowledge of conducting church services and in general they could be more independent in relation to the ruling bishop, than the appointed priests. For strengthening of spiritual culture of Orthodoxy in Siberia the priests extremely devoted to service to God were required.

Long enough and unsuccessfully the Russian Orthodox Church in Siberia combated gamblings, chess, etc. The Russian scientists absolutely correctly recorded the negative relation of church to chess within the Russian medieval culture and the tolerant relation to them since the period of transformations of Peter I [25]. Will be to note enough that chess was equated to gamblings (cards, bones, etc.) and to fortune-telling. Tolerance of chess in later time was explained by the fact that a game was so popular in a people at large that ROC it was forced to recede. It is necessary to agree that a chess game is not magic action or devilish guessing.

The Russian Orthodox Church sought to increase moral level in Siberia. In the second half of HUP-HUSh a century the Siberian bishops really managed to affect spiritual life of Siberians. The metropolitan Innokenti (Kulchitsky) personally influenced flock through lectures and sermons. He directed many to a way of moral correction. Siberians, though were more free behavior, than Christians of other dioceses, but spontaneously always reached for God. Life in Siberia was extremely difficult. Though Siberians counted on the forces, but, getting to especially dangerous conditions of survival, they hoped only for the God's help. In it the special character of Siberians consisting in free behavior, but respect for orthodox belief is shown.

In the second half of HUS of a century the process of organizational strengthening of church continues: temples are under construction, the number of priests increases, new dioceses appear [26]. Favorable conditions for further impact on a people at large were created. In the second half of HUS of a century in the Irkutsk diocese there were 145 churches in which 89,578 males and 83,699 female persons [27] were parishioners. Thus, on average it was the share of one temple extremely big

the number of parishioners - 1194. N. Sapozhnikova notes: "The network of churches in Siberia was much more rare, and church supervision for national consciousness is weaker, than in the European Russia" [28].

Considering long distance between the temple and certain Siberian villages, we come to a conclusion that a part of Siberians had no opportunity regularly to attend church services and to join sacraments. That is why construction of new churches and attraction of additional number of priests to Siberia continued to be relevant. The weak votserkovlennost of a part of the population and its scattered arrangement did not promote the fastest eradication of negative habits, for example, of early marriages. At this conjuncture the Irkutsk bishop Sofrony in 1756 forbade priests to crown juveniles and marriages between relatives [29]. Thus fight against most worst country customs which harmed both a spiritual, and corporal state continued.

The Russian Orthodox Church in the activity traditionally was guided, first of all, by the peasantry. In the 18-19th centuries the readiness with which Siberian peasants for the sake of construction of the temple went on various burdens and the victims is noted ", allows to speak about high degree of commitment of their official church" [30]. In the 19th century there was a tradition going from the last centuries that the initiative of construction of parish temples, chapels, houses of worship proceeded not from official church bodies or priests, and directly from laymen. The written application went to the bishop to consideration through Spiritual board, is later through decent.

Temples quite often were under construction on donations of the Siberian merchants. For example, in 1836 the Tomsk merchant Stepan Ivanovich Popov offered for "needs of Siberia" the considerable capital [31]. In those places where there was a church, the local community willingly joined orthodox values on own initiative. M.M. Gromyko precisely notices: "The orthodox belief as the phenomenon mass and especially voluntary in prayers out of temples since served them at requests of parishioners was obviously expressed: the initiative in this case was not for the priest, and behind community or certain laymen" [32].

Orthodox culture is negative to money-making. She opposes not wealth, and only warns that material values are capable to seize souls, to make them slaves. Something similar occurred in Yeniseisk in the middle of the 19th century. The Yenisei gold mines made big profit, in the city there were many wealthy people who constantly fell into revelry and alcoholism. Really, the moral atmosphere was undermined. People were interested in a profit, money, and about God began to forget.

Alcoholism was one of the main problems with which priests dealt. On this matter the Russian Orthodox Church conflicted to "interests" of the state and dealers. It is no secret that the state substantially filled up the budget at the expense of "drunk" money. But the culture of consumption of alcoholic drinks at the Siberian population was not on the ball. Favorable conditions for accustoming to drinking of foreigners were created. At the end of X! X centuries the priest Terenti Kanshin wrote about leisure of foreigners of the Kondomo-Eniseysky volost: "Alcoholism at us is terribly developed - drink a grain self-race, buy state vodka. Our foreigners spend a few days in a year sober. We, of course, at each opportunity admonished the parishioners to lag behind this harmful as a hobby and passion bodies. The next day bypassed houses but in the morning -

vokreshchenny for admonition that they began to fast. Some expressed consent, and others refused, referring to absence of money for candles to God. Seemed to us their otgovor are insolvent. For wine drinking there is both time, and money and while will call to God to pray, to fast, urgent matters and many other interfering reasons" will be [33] now.

1. N.A. Abramov. City of Tyumen. From the history of the Tobolsk diocese. - Tyumen, 1998. - Page 97.
2. P.N. Butsinsky. Settling of Siberia and life of her first monks. - Kharkiv, 1889. - Page 294.
3. In the same place. - Page 285.
4. Annexes to the book: G.F. Miller. History of Siberia. - M.; L., 1941. - Page 155.
5. V.Yu. Sofronov. Torches of the earth Siberian (biographies of arch-flamens of the Tobolsk and Siberian 1620-1918). - Yekaterinburg, 1998. - Page 18.
6. Abramov N.A. Tsit. soch. - Page 102.
7. In the same place. - 103.
8. I.P. Basharov. Labor traditions and folk beliefs of the Russian trade population of East Baikal region (the end of HK - the first third of the 20th century). Special 07.00.07: avtoref. yew.... to. and. N - Vladivostok, 2002. - Page 27.
9. A.A. Makarenko. Siberian national calendar. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1993. - Page 31-32.
10. The peasantry of Siberia during a capitalism era. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1983. - Page 323.
11. Ostrava L.V. Some remarks on the nature of country religiousness (on materials of post-reform Siberia)//the Peasantry of Siberia HUS - the beginnings of the 20th century (class fight, public consciousness and culture). - Novosibirsk, 1975. - Page 177.
12. N.A. Minenko. Cultural history of the Russian peasantry of Siberia in the period of feudalism. - Novosibirsk, 1986. - Page 87.
13. P.A. Slovtsov. Historical review of Siberia. - M, 1838. - T. 1. - Page 166.
14. Yakutia in HUP of century: essays. - Yakutsk, 1953. - Page 228-229.
15. N.D. Zolnikova. Office work materials about church construction as a source on stories of parish community of Siberia (the beginning of HUS of century - the end of the 60th of HUS of century)//Hand-written tradition ХУ^ХК of centuries in the east of Russia (Archaeography and a source study of Siberia). - Novosibirsk, 1983. - Page 104.
16. M.M. Gromyko. Orthodox ceremonies and customs in the Russian country house//Orthodox belief and tradition of piety at Russians in HUSh-HK centuries: ethnographic researches and materials / otv. edition O.V. Kirichenko, H.V. Poplavskaya. - M, 2002. - Page 86.
17. N.E. Pestov. Modern criticism of orthodox piety: experience of creation of a Christian world view//Religion and society: abstract collection / otv. edition L.V. Skvortsov. - M, 1999. - Page 105.
18. A.G. Chikachev. Russians on Indigirka: historical and ethnographic essay. - Novosibirsk, 1990. - 189 pages
19. In "Siberia throughout the entire period there is a process of formation of a parish system, with continuous increase in number of arrivals, a variety of their forms. The prevailing type of arrivals for this territory throughout HUI - the beginnings of the XX century were rural arrivals. Peasants and the poselena were the main category of the population in them. Initiators of opening of arrivals generally were parishioners" [A.M. Adamenko. Parishes of Russian Orthodox Church in the south of the Tobolsk diocese of HUP-HK of centuries: avtoref. yew.... to. and. N - Kemerovo, 1998. - Page 23].
20. N.D. Zolnikova. The Siberian parish community in HUS of century - Novosibirsk, 1990. - Page 178.
21. In the same place. - Page 165.
22. Smiths S.V. Orthodox parish in Russia to HK of century//Orthodox belief and traditions of piety at Russians in the 18-20th centuries: ethnographic researches and materials. - M, 2002. - Page 167-168.
23. L.N. Harchenko. Distribution of orthodox spiritual literature and spiritual education in Eastern Siberia (XVII - the second half of HK of century). History essays. - Irkutsk, 2001. Page 166.
24. N.D. Zolnikova writes: "In the 18th century the Siberian population kept belief in correctness of the control over parish church and even orders it" [N.D. Zolnikova. The Siberian parish community in the 18th century - Novosibirsk, 1990. - Page 180]; L.V. Ostrovskaya notes: "Judging by applications, aversions of peasants for clergy carried not basic, but personal character: insisting on removal of one clergyman, they asked to replace it with another. At the same time peasants showed also readiness for compassion to the defendant them" [L.V. Ostrovskaya. Applications in a consistory and the Synod as a source for studying social psychology of the peasantry of post-reform Siberia//Sources on culture and class fight of the feudal period. - Novosibirsk, 1982. - Page 168]; N.A. Mukhortova does the conclusion: "Heads were elected by society from socially active and influential population groups. Expansion of the sphere of control of clergy of community life which was followed by destruction of wordly control." [Mukhortova N.A. Dolzhnost of the churchwarden in the Siberian city parish community of the second half of XVIII - the first quarter of the 19th century//History of the Russian spiritual culture in hand-written heritage of the 16-20th centuries - Novosibirsk, 1998. - Page 144]; V.A. Yesipova notes: "In Siberia the memory of the wide rights of parish community. & #34 still remained; On old памяти" applications on change of the priest, on an award for him or punishment were formed. However during the considered period on them mostly the standard resolution & #34 appeared; to leave without последствий"." [V.A. Stavlennicheskiye put Yesipov priests and deacons of the Tomsk diocese of the second half of HK of century as a historical source//History of the Russian spiritual culture in hand-written heritage of the 16-20th centuries - Novosibirsk, 1998. - Page 67].
25. I. Mayzelis. To a question of origin and development of chess//Chess in the USSR.-1952. - No. 10, 12; It. To history of chess in Russia//Chess for 1957: sb. the article - M., 1958.
26. See in more detail: A.M. Adamenko. Parishes of Russian Orthodox Church in the south of the Tobolsk diocese of the 17-19th centuries: avtoref. yew.... to. and. N - Kemerovo, 1998.
27. I.M. Pokrovsky. The Russian dioceses in the 16-19th centuries, their opening, structure and limits. - Kazan, 1913. - T. 2. Applications. - Page 15.
28. N. Sapozhnikova. Religious motives in behavior of the peasantry of Siberia 19th century//Religion and church in Siberia: collection of scientific articles and documentary materials. - Tyumen, 1990. - Issue 1. - Page 68.
29. Irkutsk diocesan sheets. - 1898. - No. 14.
30. Ostrava L.V. Applications in a consistory and the Synod as a source for studying social psychology of the peasantry of post-reform Siberia//Sources on culture and class fight of the feudal period. - Novosibirsk, 1982. - Page 175; T.V. Baturina supplements: "All persistence of parishioners in requests for construction of church can be referred to their high religiousness, apparently. Without denying it, nevertheless it should be noted existence of motive of not less strong - aspiration to convenience in manifestation of the religiousness" [T.V. Baturina Russian Orthodox Church and country resettlements to Siberia at a boundary of the 19th century 07.00.02.: yew.... to. and. N - Novosibirsk, 1999. - Page 176].
31. GARF. T. 109. Op. 66. 39. L. 2.
32. M.M. Gromyko. Services out of the temple//Orthodox life of the Russian peasants of XK-XX of centuries. Results of ethnographic researches. - M, 2001. - Page 103.
33. Yershov V.V., Kimeeva V.M. Tropoyu of missionaries. Altai spiritual mission in the Kuznetsk region. - Kemerovo, 1995. - Page 17.
Margaret Myra
Other scientific works: