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Role of hunting and fishery in the culture of life support of the Mordovian people

t. N. Okhotina



Work is presented by department of archeology and ethnography of Research institute of the humanities at the Government of the Republic of Mordovia.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor L.I. Nikonova

In article the environment of the Mordovian edge and a role of hunting and fishery in lives of the Mordovian people, development of hunting and fishery in connection with the changing environment and their current state are characterized.

Natural conditions of Mordovia and the role of hunt and fishing in the life of the Mordovians are described in the article. The author views the development of hunt and fishing with a view to the changes in natural environment and its present condition.

The environment, the person (society) and the culture of life support represent the uniform interconnected system. The sociocultural complex as a part of this system in the historical development adapts to a certain environment (including to an animal and flora), providing to human collective existence at the expense of resources concrete sredy1. Hunting and fishery are a part of culture in which the certain layer which is expressed in adaptation of the person to the habitat is reflected.

The ancient mordva lodged in valleys of the Oka Rivers, the average Volga Current, Tsna, Moksha and Sura. About three centuries ago the territory of present Mordovia was almost entirely covered with the woods. The wood entered from the North several large massifs. One of them - the so-called Big Moksha wood - went generally on a right bank of the Moksha River up to a smykaniye with the Big sursky wood which held all sublime positions of the basin of the Sura River. In the West along the Vysha, Vada, Partsa River "language" of the large forest area entered. The big and impassable woods were in the central and northeast part of the republic on river. Mythical stone and to its inflows. Nowadays steppe areas in the central part of the republic are also covered with the woods. It is visible from works of M. Tsvetkov who specified that the woods reached from Moksha for the East almost on 700 kilometrov2. L.A. Geraklitov writes in the book "Arzamasskaya Mordva": "Strikes abundance of the woods, continuous massifs limiting the Arzamas County from the Northwest, the West and the South, and then in the form of more or less considerable islands disseminated through all area of the county. This forest wealth played a big role in economic life of Mordva" 3.

From olden days the Mordovian people preferred to lodge and live in forests where it was possible to find material for construction, the earth for pastures, etc. that promoted preservation and extension zhizni4. Residences of a mordva abounded with the rivers and lakes rich with fish. Forests, the rivers and lakes were the main livelihood of the population. People traded in hunting for a game and animals, fishing.

About that fauna which inhabited the extensive woods of primordially Mordovian edge acts of the 17th century give a concept. "But not to an uchn yaz, - we read in the bill of sale of record of the Mamontovy desert of the Mordvin of the Verkhotsensky volost (1640), - in that bortny ukhozhyakh and in any patrimonial grounds... in fish both in beaver catching and in any stanovy animals, in an elk and in a goat and in a pig zherebyev on a monarchic quitrent to give also on me, on Mi mouth, to take in the house to the great wonder-worker Nikola yes to a trudnik to the Mammoth on this of clumps - whose records to a charge 100 Rublyov" 5. In one of tradeswomen of the Alatyrsky mandative log hut we read, for example, the following: "And sold esm to them ty the ancestral lands for the future without repayment and their children. with a standing tree and with a stub and with a lying pack and with animals: both with an elk, and with a bear, and with a wolf, and with lisitseyu, and with kunitseyu. and with a water animal, with a beaver and with beaver rutting" 6. Huge forests, lakes, the rivers and swamps served as the place of a nesting ground various ptits7. Places of catching of a flying bird by means of hanged out setey8 are mentioned in documents of the 16-17th centuries "feather-vesishcha", i.e.

In 1718 in the bill of sale of the archpriest of cathedral church Temnikov of Alexey Danilov of bortny sites of the forest - Sanaksarsky and Knyazrsky - everything made a reservation to trifles "with fish lovlyam both from a vspruda, and with a feather-vesyi, and with beaver rutting, and with a ramenye, and with a pine forest and with any ptitseyu, and with efficient

and week a tree both with a stub, and with horned owls lump, and with a hare, and with a hawk nest, and with any animal, and with everyones a ground, for 5 rub all wholly". In the bill of sale the fact that within these ukhozhyev there were rivers and lakes attracts attention, martens, beavers were found, tetereviny and glukhariny places, places of nesting of hawks and falcons who were of great value as then hawk also the falconry and baby birds willingly raskupali9 still practiced are noted.

Hunting for wild animals was big help in population life. The abundance in the woods of elks, bears, boars, foxes, roes, hares, wood-grouses, black grouses made it available to most of the population. On Rubrukvis's news, for a mordva had broad value hunting (falcon) and beekeeping. "They have many pigs, honey, wax, a rich harness and falcons" - he says relatively mokshi10. As experienced hunters also S. Gerberstein characterized a mordva (1525-1527). He wrote that earth of a mordva "abound with precious bellows... a mordva are remarkable the longbows and differ in experience in firing" 11.

In the 17th century, judging by numerous indications of acts, hunting made still very important article in economy of a mordva: bortny ukhozhe and forest fiefdoms with their animal and a bird make the main jewelry mordvina12. They were listed in appointed diplomas on an equal basis with arable lands and bortny ukhozhayam. So, in Ivan IV's diploma given to the Mordovian feudal lord I. Keldyae-va also all hunting grounds are called: "animal catching", "beaver camps", etc. 13

In economy of a mordva the considerable value had also fishery. In many respects a favorable environment contributed to the development of this industry. In waters of Volga, Oka, Tsna, Sura and Moksha valuable breeds of fishes lived (sturgeons, belugas, a salmon, sterlets, pike perches, breams, catfishes, perches, crucians, burbots, pikes), many of which come -

whether in a high water to dozens of the small rivers and small rivers flowing across its ethnic territory (Pyana, the Mythical stone, Kudma, Vad, Par-tsa, Issah, Seryozha, Sivin, Satis, Sarka, Insar, Amusing, etc.) 14. So the Shatsky rivers differed in the 17th century in abundance of any fish. From Volga, sturgeons and a beluga, and usual fish in those rivers is as follows come into Tsna and the Midge: sterlets, pike perches, breams, go-catching, ides, burbots, crucians, perches, small fry, pikes, catfishes and raznyya small ryba15. Still the Caspian salmon came into XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century to Sura, and till 20th of the 20th century lived in cold right inflows forel16.

Fish catching was nearly in each Mordovian ancestral lands, along with the wood with any animal, fields, meadows and swamps. On Moksha and its inflows the mordva of the villages of Melsyana, Avkimanovo, Borki had fishing quitrent places. They complained on June 12, 1742 of peasants of the village Hobble which "blocked locks present summertime" in Urey's mouth and catch fish, and them not puskayut17. Quitrent books of the second half of the 18th century demonstrate that for certain peasants the hunting and fishery on small lakes had a certain value. Old Tsibayev's inhabitants Daroshka Irishev and Amelie Avoryasov in November, 1739 were on subglacial catching on the lake Knyazhevo under the village of Vedenyapino. "thieves' people locked them in a zimnitsa, took away a horse at the price of 3 rub, took a cart of fish - 5 rub, 2 fur coats mutton new - 2 rub, 2 axes - 30 kopeks, 2 ice picks iron - 15 kopeks" 18.

Hunting had mainly trade character: it was conducted for extraction of furs and partly meat. The furs extracted by the Mordovian hunters went for sale, for payment of natural duties of Russia and to Bulgars; it was exchanged for metal, iron tools, ornament objects and so forth I. Barbaro (1436) who visited Kazan noted that "this city makes considerable trade, supplying Russia,

Poland, Persia and Flanders bellows which receives from the North from dzhagatayev and moks (Moksha)" 19. Food of the Mordvin is in close compliance with its classes. During that time when the woods opened the extensive field for hunting, it was made by meat of wild animals and birds. Like the east relatives, the Mordvin was not picky the game which was rather coming to him hand. He did not divide animals and birds into edible and inedible: the hare, an owl, a falcon, forty, a raven at the beginning of the current century were eaten by the Mordvin near geese and ducks. The hare still remains favourite food mordvy20.

Fishery in economy of a mordva had generally consumer character, fish was used more for own needs. Fish consumed not only fresh, but also made for the future - dried, salted. For certain inhabitants Primokshanya fishery was a business subject. They caught fish for the purpose of sale. In 1704 the head of the clerk Vasily Nesterov Ivan Anisimov from the village of Novoprichistinskaya leased fishing places for 3 rub 6.5 kopeks for a year and used them till 1715. These are Lakes Kadorka, Lokhannoye, Tocheke, Inerka "with small ozerka", Tuserki, Venzenskoye, being at the Pushta River. The chain of lakes was under the village of Karayevo: Protomoynoye, Vykhovo "with small ozerka". In 1716 they were leased for three years by the temnikovsky posadsky person Danila Mikhaylov for a payment of 3 rub 9.5 kopeks 21 Fish was important goods not only on local markets, but also in Moscow, St. Petersburg and even abroad, especially sursky sterlet.

In XVII - the first half of the 18th century forest richness of edge was intensively developed. The state felled trees in unprecedented sizes for needs of shipbuilding, potash, distilling industry, plant owners - for needs of metallurgical production. Only for

one potash plant annually it was required to cut down from 30 to 40 square versts of the wood. Such plants from Ochi to Sura in separate years worked up to 20. Therefore, on the Mordovian earth in the first half of the 18th century the woods annually more than 500 square versts were destroyed. Strengthened trade presence in forests across Moksha and the population. In a large number prepared coal for the plants, smithies, cut down lindens for receiving a bass, a bast much, birch forests were cut down for needs smolokureniya22. In this regard woodiness of the republic decreased twice that led almost to full destruction of bears, elks, a feathery game. Due to the reduction of hunting grounds and reduction of quantity of fur-bearing animals the value of hunting gradually fell, the number engaged in hunting much more decreased. With deforestation of the river shoaled, and industrial drains aggravated decline in the trade fishing providing 40% of the diet living here naseleniya23 in the best times.

In the 19th century the hunting and fishery had small value in economy of the Mordvin, for personal needs only the peasants living on coast of the rivers near lesov24 were engaged in these crafts. So, on M.E. Evsevyev's materials, at the beginning of the 20th century in the village. New Verkhissa of the Insarsky County individuals were engaged in hunting and fishery a little and that. Hunting is made mainly on small fur animals: hares, foxes, polecats, ermines. Besides beat still wolves which not really mnogo25.

At the beginning of the 20th century in our country the wide system of actions for protection and reproduction of trade fauna was carried out. In the territory of the Republic of Mordovia in Temnikovsky district the reserve was organized. Hunting for elks, bears was everywhere forbidden. Restrictions of hunting on feathery dich26 are introduced. Now in the territory of the republic

23 1

deayat the hunting wildlife areas created for preservation, reproduction and restoration of number of wild, hoofed animals, a river beaver, muskrats, a pine-forest and natatorial game (Ardatovsky; Atyashevsky; Bolsheignatovsky; Zalesny in Staroshaygovsky and Krasnoslobodsky districts; Zubovo-Polyansky; Red and suburban; "Forest" in Atyuryevskom, Zu-bovo-Polyanskom and Torbeevsky areas; Prisurye; Chamzinsky) 27. In the rivers and the lakes of Mordovia there live only pikes, a penalty - si, tenches, perches, pike perches, a sterlet and other small grades of fishes.

With the middle of the 20th century the hunting and fishery addressed to some extent in entertainment, and any economic and trade value have no sport. Hunt generally a pine-forest and marsh game and also foxes, martens, polecats, hares. The fish products which are in still great demand at the population are got, mainly, in shops. So, in the village of Alkino of Kovylkinsky district only individuals are engaged in hunting a little. Hunt hares, wolves, foxes. In the village of Vechkenino of the same area in the river catch catfishes, breams, crucians, perches,

ide, ruffs, sazans. Fish sell malo28. In the village Selishchi of Bolsheignatovsky district of RM only fans were engaged in hunting. Hunt hares, foxes, ducks. In total amateur hunters in this village less than 10. Many of them have even no own gun. Nobody remembers hunting as trade. In the village of Chukaly only fans whose number is small are engaged in fishery. There are no rivers in bliz, and in a pond of fish it is not enough. In some villages, for example the village of Nizovka of Ardatovsky district, in collective-farm ponds breed fish. But fishery as trade anybody not pomnit29. Amateur hunters and amateur fishers unite in volunteer societies. In the Republic of Mordovia of such societies is more with a 10th total number more than 9 thousand people.

Thus, one may say, that Mordovia in the past was rich with the forest and the rivers. Hunting and fishery were one of the main sources of life of the Mordovian people. Due to deforestation, once continuous massif growing in Volga-Oka Entre Rios, shallowing of the rivers, hunting and fishery by the end of the 19th century lost trade character.

1 M.Yu. Martynova world of traditions and cross-cultural communication. M, 2004. Page 10.
2 Thin V.S. Woods of Mordovia (Woods Mordovian ASSR and prospects of their improvement). Saransk, 1976. Page 41.
3 Geraklitov A. Arzamasskaya Mordva. Saratov, 1903.
4 Russian Federation. GUNIIGN. I-1320. L.I. Nikonova. Traditional ways of maintaining health of a mordva. Saransk, 1993. L. 46.
5 Smirnov I.N. Mordva: East. - the ethnographer, an essay. Saransk, 2002. With 117.
6 In the same place. Page 118.
7 Russian Federation GUNIIGN. I-28. Stepanov P.D. Mordva (ethnographic essay). L. 8-9.
8 In the same place.
9 N.V. Zavaryukhin, L.A. Fyoklina. The monarchic ancestral lands on Moksha in XVP-XVSh of centuries Saransk, 2005. Page 147.
10 I.N. Smirnov. Decree. soch. Page 118.
11 Zhiganov of M.F. Hozyaystvo of a mordva in XSh-XVI of centuries//Researches on material culture of the Mordovian people. M, 1963. Page 67.
12 I.N. Smirnov. Decree. soch. With 118.
13 Documents and materials on stories Mordovian the ASSR. Saransk, 1940. T. 1. Page 153-154.
14 N.F. Mokshin. Material culture of a mordva: Etnogr. sprav. Saransk: Mordov. prince publishing house,
2002. 208 pages
15 I.I. Dubasov. Essays from the history of the Tambov region. Issue 1. M, 1883. Page 161.
16 N.F. Mokshin. Decree. soch.
17 N.V. Zavaryukhin, L.A. Fyoklina. Decree. soch. Page 101.
18 In the same place.
19 M.F. Zhiganov. Decree. soch. Page 67.
20 I.N. Smirnov. Decree. soch. Page 119.
21 N.V. Zavaryukhin, L.A. Fyoklina. Decree. soch. Page 101.
22 In the same place. Page 96-97.
23 N.F. Mokshin. Decree. soch.
24 In the same place.
25 TsGA RM. F.R.-267. M.E. Evsevjev. Materials on mordva ethnography. The ethnographies of the people of the USSR taken from archive of the State museum. Op. 1. 64. L. 12-18.
26 In the same place. Page 64.
27 V.I. Astradamov, V.B. Filimonov. Wildlife area//Mordovia: Entsikl.: In 2 t. T. 1: A-m Saransk,
2003. Page 331.
28 Russian Federation GUNIYA GN. I-244. Materials of the Mordovian expedition for 1956-1957. Reports of the chief of an expedition V.N. Belitser for 1953-57. And separately for 1957. Extract from N.I. Sprygina's archive. L. 97.
29 Russian Federation GUNIIGN. I-148. The Mordovian ethnographic expedition in 1953 on villages of the Bol-sheignatovsky area Mordovian the ASSR. Head V.N.L. Belitser. 118, 122.
Bill Rodriguez
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