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Category: History

Views of astrology in the Moscow Russia the 16th century



VESTNIK MGUS No. 2 (2)/2007

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uniform way of thinking. Values of the personality at service culture - to live on justice, keeping and increasing social optimism, eliminating thoughtless submission. "ser-vi" as "benefit" in real life is inseparable from justice (a reward on the level of abilities). In "benefit" the clarification of soul with introduction of the clientele relations and professional ethics reveals. Service culture unites in a whole professional ethics with humanity owing to what there is a priority of steady mood, high level of quality of products with its esthetic and ethical orientation.

Lessons of service culture are that if the person with his spiritual potential is unclaimed by society, then life of people is doomed to degradation and extinction. Any law cannot be realized if it is not supported with the law of service culture. Proceeding from the called theses it is possible to tell that service culture is the culture of chelovekosberegayushchy processes where laws of a ravnovesomost, harmony and real humanity (altruism) work. Service culture so far in many respects appears as the phenomenon virtual and therefore bears on itself required and predictive character with expectation of the time.

The list of the used literature

1. Station Talion//F.A. Brockhaus and I.E. Efron's Dictionary. - T 20. - M, 2006.
2. Non-violence philosophy: L.N. Tolstoy "About life, about a new zhizneponimaniye". - M, 1911; F.M. Dostoyevsky. Demons. - T 5. - M, 1975; M. Gandhi//In kN. "Great thinkers of the 20th century" / Author-originator A. Logrus. - M, 2002.
3. G. Shtorkh. Course of political economy. - T. 1. - SPb., 1881. - Page 291-292.
4. V.I. Vernadsky. Live substance. - M, 1978.

UDC 008

Views of astrology in the Moscow Russia

The 16th century

D.Yu. Badeev

Institute of archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

By historians of science it was already much written and told about development of scientific knowledge and representations in the Moscow Russia of the 16th century. However how to be with that knowledge which is beyond our ideas of science today and in the 16th century the attitude towards them was ambiguous. Until recently the historical science defined importance of any given phenomenon in the history, proceeding from knowledge and views modern at that time, and, without having found analogies, enlisted some of them in the category of the insignificant or little significant factors influencing the course of historical process. Such fate comprehended also astrology. Up to the 19th century the astrology was considered as "heresy", and later - "pseudoscience", as was the reason for an exception of this knowledge and ideas of them from among the objects of study.

If to address the domestic historiography covering a problem of development of astrology in the Moscow Russia, then it is possible to allocate here three directions which were noted in the work "Astrology through a prism of a historiography of history of astronomy" by V.K. Kuzakov. On the one hand, a part of researchers paid special attention to negative sides of astrology which, according to them, "distracted" forces from studying realities of the natural world of the nature. With another, there were scientists who were considering it necessary to note the rationality elements promoting display of realities of the nature in this phenomenon. Most of historians of science were careful

in the statements, they only fixed the fact of existence of astrology. The approach to the analysis of a historiography of this subject offered by V.K. Kuzakov has one shortcoming: it does not display development of knowledge of astrology in domestic historical science.

After weakening of church censorship in the second half of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century first who undertook studying problems of existing of astrology in Russia were the Russian philologists-Slavists (N.S. Tikhonravov, V.N. Peretts, M.N. Speransky, A.I. Sobolevsky, A.N. Pypin, etc.) who published the most part of texts of false and otrechenny books. M.N. Speransky and V.N. Peretts's works are especially interesting. These authors published monuments of "otrechenny literature", giving them characteristic and expressing the relation to astrology. The first considered that in astrology the pagan guessing and Christian outlook connected and that "universal psychological lines" were a basis - the aspiration to know the destiny. V.N. Peretts, publishing "Thunder nicknames" and Lunniki, wrote that this source was popular at the time because was based on studying real natural phenomena.

During the Soviet period interest in astrology was connected, first of all, with studying formation and development of scientific knowledge in the Moscow Russia. Practically all historians of astronomy, anyway, concerned astrology. Daniil Svyatsky in 1927 published article devoted to literature Novgorod and Moscow

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heresies of the end of XV veka2 and also small work about the astrologer Nikolay Lyubchaniniye and astrological almanacs in Russia in the 16th century. Svyatsky considered the heretics a circle of the intellectuals of that time dealing with problems of "science". And, though Svyatsky obviously exaggerated classes of heretics literature of the natural science, astronomo-astrological plan, he managed to draw the attention of historians of science to this subject!

The researcher M.A. Shangin on other approaches studying astrology as aspect of the Russian medieval culture! It puts a problem of specifics of cultures of the West and Russia when notes that in Russia the Greek astronomical manuscripts were included into culture, and in the West they lay on a surface of Latin culture. M.A. Shangin's work focuses attention on what till that time was overlooked domestic historical science. Astrology is represented as a common cultural phenomenon, as "a certain science" by means of which society tries to solve in a certain way one of issues of life. But, at the same time, in work is not present, in my opinion, the main thing - as astrology really functioned within the Russian cultural tradition.

In the late forties - the beginning of the 60th years in a domestic historiography the question of the general assessment of astrology and its influence on development of scientific knowledge is brought up. B.E. Raykov considered that on astrological literature "it is necessary to stop specially because... it reported to a wide range of readers data on the structure of the sky and earth" 6 I further the author says that in the conditions of the Moscow Russia the astrology "was to a certain extent the positive phenomenon".

The opposite point of view is represented by B.A. Vorontsov-Velyaminov who comes to a conclusion that in Russia the astrology did not gain such development as in the West: "sound judgments of the Russian people on the nature were the cause of it"! However the author of "Essays" does not consider so-called "national astrology" which was through penetrated by astrological "smack". Further approach to astrology from history of astronomy was continued by Kukarkiny B.V8 the Researcher "attempts of an explanation of natural phenomena intervention and will of supernatural forces" considers "as antiscientific, slowing down development of true science". B.V. Kukarkin carries astrology unconditionally in the category of "negative factors in development of true science".

In 1988 there is a work, already mentioned by me, V.K. Kuzakova. "Essays of natural science and technical representations in Russia the 10-17th centuries" 9 Author repeat the thesis which is put forward by M.A. Shangin.: astrology in it "the Russian option" belongs to culture. The feature of work is that the researcher assigns to astrology a part of a factor, the reception removing the psychological stress which reached during certain periods of history of a maximum.

Undoubtedly, all works mentioned above covered a problem of existence and development in Russia of astrological knowledge, but only some concerned a problem of views of an essence of astrology. In many respects it was connected with the nature of the presented sources - it is works of "otrechenny literature". This group of sources should be allocated separately. Being in the majority translated proizve-

the deniye borrowed from the Hellenistic, drevneiudeysky and Arab cultures they were apprehended by the Russian culture and are the basis for misticheskodukhovny tradition. It is necessary to distinguish those whose emergence in Russia contacts activity of the Moscow and Novgorod heresy of the end of the 15th century - "Secret secret" and Shestokryl from works of "otrechenny literature". "Secret secret" and Shestokryl appear in Moskovia at the end of XV, however compositions reached us in lists

The 16-17th centuries. These works allow to understand the relation to astrology of people who on other looked at life and religion.

The following group of sources - the publicistic compositions touching on an issue of the relation to astrology, astrology and religion, astrology and the power. Compositions of such publicists of the 16th century as Maximus the Greek, Ivan Peresvetov, Andrey Kurbsky, represent important sources on study directly views of people of astrology, their arguments of pros and cons. These views are original and at the same time reflect opinion of any given social, political groups. It is possible to refer to the mentioned group of sources also memoirs of the foreigners who visited Russia in the 16th century (J. Gorsey, Mr. Staden, etc.). Their memoirs allow to look at a situation with astrology at the Moscow yard. Besides, they represent a view from outside of the Russian daily occurrence. You should not forget about some bias of these sources.

the Considerable volume of information mentioning the relation to astrology of the temporal and spiritual power contains in official and state documents: chronicles, acts, azbukovnik. The leading place occupies Hundred-heads, the document of legislative character made by results of Stoglavy Cathedral of 1551 here.

From the listed number of sources we see what needs to be opened as it is possible more widely a variety of views and discrepancy of views on astrology in the Moscow Russia of the 16th century. Still domestic historical science noted only abhorrence to astrology from orthodox church and the power, referring generally to decisions of Stoglavy Cathedral of 1551. However whether so the situation actually unambiguously was?

Really, the official point of view of the authorities (both secular, and spiritual) came down to sharp criticism and condemnation by hobby and occupation for astrology because the last "was opposed to doctrines of church" and undermined authority of throne. On Stoglavy Cathedral of 1551 where the 18-year-old tsar John IV and the metropolitan Makari, appear, presided there was a full defeat of astrology: astrology was recognized as "heresy", and the books containing astrological knowledge were liable to destruction as "otrechenny". And on the Hundred-head not only "otrechyonny" heretical books, but also books of astronomical maintenance, transfers of antique authors on philosophy, medicine and others were withdrawn and destroyed. To people who "uchnut at themselves such books of a derzhata and honor from now on or uchnut others prelshchat and you learn" 1.1 great disgrace and punishment from the tsar threatened and renunciation, a damnation of church.

For a long time fix such relation to astrology -

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an elk in official ideology. It found reflection and in the Russian azbukovnik of the 16-17th centuries. In them, near definition of such astrological concepts as "women in labor", "fates", "zodiya", etc. there is a material convicting this knowledge: "a yak not the star movement, but trade of the Almighty of God life human is under construction..." 1 2 it is important to note that azbukovnik of the 16th century for fuller information on accusation of astrology send the readers to works by Maximus the Greek: ".a more extensively about this Maximus the Greek writes in a kniza.".

Maximus the Greek, a long time being in Europe, not by hearsay was the sign with this "pseudo-personalized wisdom". Most fully Maximus the Greek stated the opinion of astrology in the composition "A word against endeavoring a predrichata zvezdozreniye about future and about autocracy human". The scientist-monk at the beginning of the 16th century subjected to sharp criticism "shameful and false science" astrology. However arguments to which Maxim refers as the proof of falsity and insolvency of astrology attract attention. The author of "Word" refers as to opinion of antique philosophers: "Neither Socrates, nor Platon, nor Aristotle who are represented the most worthy and loving the truth Hellenic philosophers never inclined to deceptive guessing on stars that clearly is visible from their creations." 13, and uses the ideas of the Western European Renaissance: ".samovlastno existing and with free will the person on an image of god is created.". Such position contradicted views of iosiflyansky theorists who headed the Russian church. They were prone to denial of antique science ("the Hellenic besovaniye") and proceeded from full submission of the person to God's will.

But after all and the official power needed astronomical, medical knowledge which in the majority contained in "otrechyonny" astrological treatises. Not casually many of them remained in church and monastic lists. For example, the manuscript to the Trinity Sergeyeva of Monastery of the 16th century No. 177 contains the "otrechyonny" work "Astrology" and also a set of the texts combining the divine doctrine with astrological knowledge: "In the first day of the Moon Adam was created. If is born muzhesk the floor of oars will be and is reasonable in everything, the scribe will be wise, grekhov will be, and long lives. The taka and a female will be born is honest is faithful to the husband, the dream zbudtsya, to the patient the fear of death to three days if passes and cures...". The majority of these compositions were rewritten in monasteries throughout many centuries and went back to works of the Hellenistic culture. In same "Astrology" we meet a number of the fragments which are going back to the 10th century consistent with the text from Svyatoslav Izbornik, and also a number of articles, as follows from the name "Galinovo on Ipokrat", attributed to antique physicians - to Hippocrates and Galen. Astrological, astronomical knowledge got also into economic life of monasteries. Being one of the largest land owners by the 16th century, monasteries needed knowledge of agricultural astrology. Contains in the collection of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery of the 16th century published by Prokhorov hypermarket. "The legend is known lunnym year: when Seat also you sit down also cheloveka vracheva-t". In the composition are at the same time combined as recommendations about economic activity and

doctoring on days of the moon, and was given short characteristic (on weather and a harvest) the coming lunar year on age of the moon for March 1st.

Astrology takes the root and in the environment of temporal power. At the beginning of the 16th century at the Moscow grand-ducal yard there are first foreign physicians who carried out as well functions of court astrologers. Calling of foreigners was in many respects connected with backwardness, to be exact to tell, with total absence in Russia of scientific knowledge of Modern times. In the 16th century the astrology receives unknown distribution in all Western European countries: departments of astrology existed in Paduan, Bologna, Parisian and other universities. This heavenly science is recognized by such outstanding thinkers as Bacon, Kepler, Marsilio Fichino. It, and also elementary shame before foreigners ("sramota for foreigners") force the prominent diplomat and the publicist of the Moscow Russia Fyodor Karpov to support recognition of "external sciences" including astrology.14

From the middle of the 15th century the Moscow governors actively begin to invite to themselves to service of the European experts, first of all, architects and architects. However need of the Moscow yard and for others "skillful people" forces ruling circles of the Moscow Russia again and again to address the West. Well educated physician, the astrologer and the publicist Nikolay Bulev who "vrachevskyya for the sake of a hytrost" received great honor from the grand duke was distinguished from other foreign experts at court of Vasily III. At the Moscow yard allow to track some compositions made by Maximus the Greek the fate of the German astrologer. And though they are in many respects tendentious and prejudiced, after all contain recognitions of learning of the European. It, according to Maximus the Greek's statement, "a mnogouchitelny nemchin" along with "the first translated medical treatise" in Russia - "Herbalist", possesses the translation of the astrological composition "Almanac" (in reduction) entered later in the category of "otrechenny". "Almanac" along with knowledge of astronomy and medicine contained prediction of a new Flood in 1524, "as three planets will meet in the constellation of Fishes". Naturally, nobody a flood occurs that gives an additional argument in hands of opponents of astrology. It is known that Bulev corresponded with, already mentioned by me, Maximus the Greek. The German physician and the erudite monk got into a dispute over many questions more than once. One of such burning issues was also astrology. German "the prelestnik and zvezdochetets" was in close relationship and correspondence also with the most prominent figure of the ambassadorial order Ivan Karp. Proceeding from Maximus the Greek's words: "To the world ubo prestavleny predvozveshchat hurried es, about Nicholas, povinuvsya to stars a sudden razzoreniye of your zhiti predetermine not vzmogl es, it predjuve-is put below", - it is possible to assume that the fate of court "zvezdochetets" was tragic. He or underwent disgrace, or suddenly died.

From 50th years of the 16th century in the Moscow state there is a mass influx of the Western Europeans. British in Pomorze, in Vologda, Yaroslavl, Narva and Novgorod, on the ways to Central Asia and in Moscow; Dutches in the Murmansk harbors, on Northern Dvina and after British on all way from Holmogor to

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Moscow; "Germans" from Livonia are the polonyanik disseminated through all state, lived the whole communities with the pastors and houses of worship; "Germans" are the merchants from Germany and Livonia getting through Narva and other ways on the Russian markets open for them despite the Livonian war, - all this lyud was an extraordinary novelty for Moscow. It could not but just influence the Russian people and, first of all, on trade and court circles. Ivan the Terrible, with his sharp mind and nervous impressionability, fell under charm of vigorous foreigners. Skillfully using weaknesses of the terrible governor, visitors doctors and astrologers with ease got considerable influence at court of Ivan IV. Both the Russian, and foreign sources noted tendency and predisposition of the terrible governor to guessing on stars and heavenly signs, his special belief to prophets and "zvez-dochetets". Contemporaries explained not casually many acts and Ivan the Terrible's actions with "predictions of magicians". So was with a postavleniye on a grand-ducal throne of the sluzhily Tatar princeling Simeon Bekbulatovich: "And say netsy that for this purpose put (Simeon) that magicians told him that that year there will be a peremeneniye: to the Moscow tsar there will be death" 15. Such tsar received warnings from astrologers repeatedly.

His personal physician Eliseus Bomeley (on other sources - Bomely or Bomelius), the native of the Westphalian city of Vezel who got an education in Cambridge and, most likely, through England got to Moskovia was distinguished from the people influencing Ivan IV's policy. He acquainted the tsar with the adverse provision of stars and predicted to it various troubles, and then specified ways of rescue. "the fierce magician" Eliseus gets special influence on the tsar in the middle of oprichnik terror. On it J. Gorsey in detail specifies in the "Notes about Moskovia": "... he (Ivan the Terrible - a bus comment) lived more in Vologda both on coast of Dvina and in the Aleksandrovsky settlement; often talked to Eliseus Bomely, the doctor."! 6 Jerome Gorsey open before us and the content of conversations of the Moscow tsar with court "magiky": "Ivan. knew that each new day threatens more former day of its safety, and, without knowing as to it to avoid and leave from a trouble, conferred with Eliseus Bo-mely... cunning deceiver, English doctor famous for the mathematician, "magiky"; asked: how many years old to the queen Elizabeth and what success can be made if Bomely became before her the intermediary for it? - and further, - he deceived the tsar, assuring that the British Queen is young and it will be easy for it to marry her". Of course, there is a question: how this information is plausible, not seldom foreign authors, with the purpose to embellish the story, added false data. However we can meet similar news also in the Russian annalistic sources. So, the Pskov chronicle notes that after ruin by the Russian troops of Livonia, locals decided to struggle with the Russian tsar by means of sorcery and magic: "And to it (To Ivan IV - a bus comment) a prislasha of a nemchin of the fierce magician nari-tsayemy Eliseus, and byst to it we love in approach. Also put insurance on the tsar... and knechno was took away the tsar from belief: assign a svirepstvo to the Russian people, and on love apply to Germans. and most having brought

at last a hedgehog of a bezhata to the English earth and tamo, and the boyars ostavshy pobit" 17. Having compared above-mentioned sources, with confidence it is possible to tell that with the advent of Bomeley the tsar Ivan has a notion of compulsion to marry the unmarried English queen and to find a shelter in England in case of danger. The court astrologer managed to receive for the solution of these tasks "big riches and treasures" which he instead sent through England to himself home to Vezel. And still, kind of was not hityor and Bomeley, as a result is resourceful in court intrigues and he fell the victim of suspiciousness and fears of the terrible tyrant. Because of insufficiency of istochnikovy base it is impossible to tell with confidence today, the plot against the tsar for participation in whom the astrologer paid with own life was how real. We can only assume that the considerable role in Eliseus's elimination was played by the immediate environment of Grozny dissatisfied with huge influence on the Moscow governor of the foreigner adventurer. This assumption is confirmed also by J. Gorsey's words: "Many boyars were glad it (Eliseus Bomeley - a bus comment) to death because he knew about them much".

In the evening of life Ivan the Terrible fell into horror before a possibility of sudden death more and more, the tyrant was afraid to die without repentance and a participle. In the last years of life the Moscow governor pays huge attention to astrological predictions again, again at court the great influence is got by foreign physicians, astrologers, various sorcerers and sorcerers.

The end of board of Grozny is connected with a name of one more foreign doctor - Johann Eylof (in the Russian sources Ivan Ilf). The first documentary news of Eylof belong to 1581 when it was under B.Ya. Belsky knowing at that time not only political investigation, but also doctors and druggists. In archive of the Digit order the fragments of documents of the Pharmaceutical order relating to the end of the 16th century remained. Follows from them that on September 19, 23 and on December 2, 1581 under Belsky's observation "doctor Ivan prepared various drugs" 18 Besides the "vrachevsky" duties Eylof participated also in magic, astrological researches of Ivan the Terrible. So, the colourful description of J. Gorsey a campaign of the tsar with the son and the doctor in a hiding place where Grozny told of the magic force of stones remained and made guessing on spiders with use of "a unicorn horn". Eylof had a certain influence and at court because, trying to excite the tsar against the head of Catholic church - dad, spoiled a lot of blood to the papal legate Antonio Passevino who arrived to reconcile Ivan IV with the Polish king Stefan of Batoriyem19 the Court doctor caused a stir not only "doctoring", guessing and policy, but also succeeded in trade operations. In the royal diploma relating to July, 1582, it was noted to the Danish king Frederik II that the Danish pirates seized Eylof's ship going to Russia and his son and the son-in-law floating on it. "And his father, Ivan Ilf, - it was said in the diploma, - the dokhtor at dvorekh our tsarsky majesty is necessary before

our liyets; and the son his Domyan and the son-in-law went to us in

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our state". Mentions of a number of foreign sources of poisoning of Grozny are connected with a name of Eylof. In notes of the hetman of St. Zholkevsky wine for

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the death of the tsar is assigned to Boris Godunov: "He deprived of life and the tsar Ivan, having bribed the English doctor who treated Ivan..." 21 One more foreigner, the Dutch merchant of I. Mass living in Russia at the beginning of the 17th century directly enters the name of Johann A-lof as one of participants of poisoning of Grozny. Weight writes that Ivan IV "died earlier, than assumed: day by day becoming more and more weakly, he fell into a heavy disease though the danger was not noticeable yet; and, speak, Bogdan Belsky who was in him good graces gave him drink registered by doctor Johann Eylof, having thrown into it poison when brought to the tsar why he soon also died, - and immediately the Dutch makes a reservation, - whether so it was, it is known to one God, only the fact that the tsar soon died" 22 Information of this sort is right we can meet also at the French officer of Item Delavilya2! However the reliability of these sources raises doubts as they were made or in the circles directed against B. Godunov, or much later the described events and pass at the level of rumors.

As we see, the 16th century became time of blossoming of court doctors, astrologers, magicians, magicians. Their influence on policy of the Moscow governors was very big, they held a high position at the royal yard though it is frequent and became pawns in others game. And here it is impossible to write off everything for Ivan IV's identity. The 16th century became penetration time for Russia of new Western European trends. On Grozny force of new cultural trends in the Moscow life is also visible.

From the West to Russia not only people, but also those ideas on which the outlook of Renaissance grew got. At the end of XV - the beginning of the 16th century in the Moscow Russia growth of "heretical" currents and views is noted. So, "the movement "zhidovstvuyushchy", undoubtedly, comprised elements of the Western European rationalism".4th "Heresy of the Judaizers" widely captured circles of the Novgorod scribes and even got into the Moscow grand-ducal yard. Only having made special efforts, hierarches of church and temporal power managed to cope with "heresy", to achieve her condemnation. However grain of criticism and scepticism in relation to doctrines of orthodox church laid down on the fertile field. It was transferred to other circles, less radical, not going on open heresy and recreancy, but inclined to more trust human mind. In this regard it is obviously necessary to light existing of astrological knowledge in the system of the heretical ideas.

Heretics tried to find the proof of correctness, fidelity of the views in astrology. So, the astrological work "Shestokryl" attributed "zhidovstvuyushchy" (including also the table of definition of dates of eclipses) served for establishment of a concept "to eternity or an extremity of the world in the context of the orthodox doctrine" 25

Treats the Novgorod and Moscow heresy and "Secret secret" - the apocryphal treatise containing a peculiar technology of dominion. Found reflection in this composition the "political philosophy" of heretics approving a special image of the sovereign consulting on the confidants however is more relying on secret knowledge (astrology, physiognomics) in government.

Ivan Peresvetov famous for the petitions to Ivan IV and alien to official churchism, develops the point of view stated in "Secret secret", combining "learning of belief of wisdom philosophical" with astrology. "Filosof and dokhtura a latinskiya", guessing on star signs, act as one of authorities to whom Peresvetov21 willingly refers, addressing the orthodox tsar. The publicist focuses attention of the regal person and on the wise books "vidotseyakh" helping "philosophers and doctors" to predict future.

It should be noted also one more, special, a view of astrology which is very important for understanding of outlook of the orthodox Christian of the 16th century. The prince Andrey Kurbsky who in interpretation of many theological questions disperses from the point of view of Russian Orthodox Church became his spokesman. Being in exile on Volhynia and in Lithuania, the prince was engaged in educational activity, translating creations of fathers of church into Russian and at the same time commenting on them (these comments are called by narrations and glosses).

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In "The narration on John Chrysostom" the prince Andrey divides astrology into two parts: true and false. According to him, true astrology as science was God-given to the forefather Sif and is intended for the account of years, "possession of days and a burden poznavatsya". In addition serves for "cognition of rains and as bezdozhdy, winds and other those" - those. is meteorological and agricultural astrology (similar guessing of weather and a harvest was carried out on "perceptible days" and kolyadnik - coincidence of any given days of the week merry Christmas). Such relation to astrology was widespread in Russia in the 16th century. One of apocryphal works describes the history of emergence of astrology, being guided by Damaskin's compositions where the Lord, seeing sufferings of people from droughts and a crop failure, imparts astrological knowledge to Sif: "The first person Adam give birth to the son Sif, And god of the archangel Gabriel with a roll sent, a yak they pass God's command about the sun, both about the moon, and about protchy pyait fates and about dvunadesyat animal zodiya, a hedgehog great god these signs in knowledge gave us". In other apocryphal composition "The legend on the press of the tsar Solomon" God devotes in astrological knowledge of the legendary tsar Solomon: "And date to it (To Solomon - a bus comment). God of knowledge according to his application; and any books proshed and a zvezdochetiya to a navycha and heavenly planets, also run nebesnyya and Kako on poyasekh stars go, both the earth and the sea and for how many years, and that in those Leta will be created.".

Kurbsky carries to false astrology "the devil invention" of Zoroastr, Tain of the magician and the Persian wise men - guessing of individual destiny on horoscopes. For us also Kurbsky's certificate that false astrology "nowadays many from Christians to the bezuyena will be followed" is important.

And it is valid, by the beginning of the 16th century in Russia Hermes Trismegis-t's doctrine about the divine nature of calendar Julian day becomes widespread. Proceeding from this doctrine, year is divided into "dobras", "averages" and days "are evil", and day - at corresponding o'clock. What will be day, depended on three factors: its provisions in the solar zodiac, age of the Moon this day and day of the week. The obtained data zapisyva-

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foxes in tables. The collection of the 15th age of Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery contains such table ("About hours kind and angry").

In addition, one of books relating to Hermes Trismegist's doctrine got to Russia in the form of the occult collection under the name Rafli where astrology connected to conjectural magic. At arrangement on the sheet of paper of figures in the form of points and hyphens, each of which had the set geomanticheski-astrological value, it was possible to answer any question posed: Whether "The wife changes?", "What is the time it was necessary to live?", whether "I will gain a victory on a duel?", etc. 28 To the middle of the 16th century this knowledge becomes so widespread that the Stoglavy Cathedral considers them in a single question (Question 17th): "... and during that time the magicians and magicians from devilish naucheniye a grant create a kudesba both in Aristotelian a gate and in Rafli look and on stars and on fates glyadat and look days and hours and a darkness diyavolsky deystva seduce the world.".

Considering the relation to astrology in the Moscow Russia of the 16th century, it is impossible to pass by the important literary composition of that time - the Domestic tyranny which main parts developed at the end of the 15th century and were a peculiar ethical code of the orthodox person. Addition to the 8th head of the Domestic tyranny ("About volshba and about obavnitsekh") contains interpretation of the rules of the Sixth Ecumenical council mentioning the relation to astrology and other attempts to tell the fortunes: "The Izh will follow harmful charm and to the magician, or to an obavnik go, or to the house the of those call, hotyashche uvidet of a neka from them not uttered, taka zh... in charm on a zvezdosloviya, the Izh glago-lyut a cloud driving, - that creating led cathedral of 6 years prohibition of a dayata, yakozh yes stand up for 4 summers about dropping, the Druze 2 summers yes stand with true, and taka will be honored with Bozhestveny gifts" 29 Unlike the resolutions Hundred-head Domostroy takes away solutions of the problem of astrology under jurisdiction of church bodies and is inclined to apply the punishments relating to belief (excommunication from a participle, from church, etc.). Becomes obvious: to the middle of the 16th century the astrology gets such wide circulation that church hierarches are forced to resort to the help of throne in the fight against this phenomenon.

A specific place in the Russian culture is held by national astrology. M.A. Shangin who was already mentioned above considers astrology "a peculiar core of national science". And it is valid, astrological knowledge is applied also in traditional medicine, and in national meteorology, and in national agriculture. Astrological knowledge of the Russian people was imparted orally through giving, a belief, a sign. Will take over a lot of work on collecting national about stars carried out I. P.31 Sugars But still for the researcher is big work to determine time of emergence of any given knowledge. However the 16th century became time of raising of national interest in astrological knowledge and literature of this sort. Become widespread various Gromnika and Lunnika. Texts of these works quite often contained the auxiliary table for definition of position of the Moon in Zodiac signs, some kind of modern agricultural lunar calendar. Awareness of the simple people "in any

shelmovsky sciences" also the foreigners who were in Russia in the 16th century noted: "If someone from our vseuchenneyshy doctors gets to Moscow - it is necessary to study it anew!" 32 also the Moscow governors Liked to use services of national astrology. For example, Ivan IV resorted more than once to the help of sorcerers and sorcerers over whom Bogdan Belsky was made the head. Belonged to its duties "to learn and inform... fortunetelling or predictions" magicians about what the tsar wanted to know about. "witches notified him that the strongest constellations and powerful planets of heaven against the tsar, they predict his death in a certain day; but Belsky did not dare to tell the tsar all this; the tsar, having learned, fell into rage." 33 in the opinion of the sick tsar the concealment of prediction of national astrologers by B. Belsky was equivalent to treason.

In national consciousness the clear boundary between astrology and remnants of paganism, a volkhovaniye was not drawn. So, often astrologers as, however, and doctors, are called in the Russian sources of the 16th century as "magicians", "magicians" or "magicians". Thus, in national astrology the pagan guessing and Christian outlook connected to a support on studying real natural phenomena.

As we see, astrology in the 16th century took the important place in life of the Russian society. Despite the bans and persecutions from authorities and church, in the Moscow Russia 16th century astrological knowledge, to a degree, covers wide social circles. There was no monotony of views also. The examples reviewed in this work, show that in the Moscow Russia the 16th century various approaches, views of astrology took place. They developed both under the influence of local tradition, and under the influence of the Western European culture.

Astrology acts as an integral part of sociocultural development during any given period of history. The 16th century became time of blossoming of astrology and astrological literature. Similar interest in astrological knowledge within national history can be met in Nicholas II's government and during the collapse of the USSR and formation of new Russia. The given examples show that sharp splash in interest in astrology as,

Lena Berry
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