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Youth of Russia and Moldova in days of the Great Patriotic War



PETROV'S nina

YOUTH of RUSSIA AND MOLDOVA in days of the GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

After the collapse of the USSR a number of questions including participation of youth in the Great Patriotic War, long time remained out of the sphere of studying researchers of the CIS countries. Democratic transformations in the states b. Drew with the USSR attention to other subjects as it seemed to researchers, more demanded time. At the same time historians of Europe, the USA, Australia, coming to Russia from 90th years, laboriously and attentively study archival documents from which the signature stamp "confidentially" or "top secret" was removed.

The accepted truth that youth - the future of any country. K. Marx called youth a life source naroda1. And it is necessary to agree with it. The generation of the 30-40th years is the youth which entered labor life of the country in peace days of the 30th years, defended the Homeland and defended it independence in military days of the 40th years. This generation - heroic and self-sacrificing, together with all society experienced abrupt turns in the destiny. This generation which the work laid the foundation for safety of the USSR made an invaluable contribution to business of the Great Victory over fascism. And for many years we spoke about it and wrote with big pride.

Youth of Russia and Moldova, two former federal republics, and nowadays two CIS countries, such qualities as efficiency, independence of judgments, ability to work, the labor heroism which was bordering on a feat and became forever history of the first five-years periods were inherent. Let's not forget that the generation of youth of the 30-40th years is a generation of patriotic internationalists, sure that the world victory of socialism will be an ultimate goal. They lived for the sake of the future and created it.

The generation of the 30-40th years forever remembered Sunday June 22, 1941 when words about attack of Germany on the Soviet Union sounded. Having learned that war began, millions of volunteers of different nationalities came to military registration and enlistment offices, the party and Soviet organizations with a request immediately to send them to the front. Adults and absolutely boys, even pioneers came. All of them not

asked, and demanded to put them in a system of the armed defenders. The whole organizations, high school courses, staff of schools filed the same petitions. Only in Moscow for the first three military days 50 thousand applications from volunteers arrived. In total on all-civil mobilization 900 thousand members of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League joined armed forces at the beginning of war. On the front 80% of structure of the Komsomol organization of Moscow, 90% - Leningrad, 75% - Stalingrad left. From a large number of the statements which remained in archives of the Russian Federation we present to your attention some of them, keeping at the same time style and a punctuation of authors.

One - the secondary address printed on the machine.

Kaganovichsky regional Military commissariat of. Molotov From the employee Komsomol member of Separate Camp point of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs of the settlement Eranichi Rusinov Ilya Semyonovich

Statement

Again I send the statement for acceptance me to ranks of Workers' and Peasants' Army and to direct me to the front. As I wish to help the blood brothers and sisters battling against impudent German fascists.

I swear... that I will justify the confidence on the fighting front, and I will battle the front, against sworn German enemies, for the favourite homeland in the forefront...

28.VI.-41. signature Rusinov2.

The second statement - from the school student, the pupil of the 6th class, is written on the squared paper sheet from a notebook, with a touching addition:

In Berezovsky a district committee of Komsomol From the pupil of the 6th class "A" BSS Mezhevelov Gennady Vasilicha the Statement

I am 14 years old, but I very much ask you to send me to protection of our hometown of Stalina. And to enlist me in investigation. I undertake to hammer the enemy to the death.

16/X_-42 year Podpis3

Mother agrees.

Already on June 23, 1941 I.I. Pryadko asked. "to take into account... the statement of June 22" as, having heard the message about attack of Germany, and "I cannot bear. Therefore... I ask committee of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League of your petition before the Military registration and enlistment office that I was enlisted in ranks of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" 4. "I want to go to protect the homeland, - M.E. Starkov wrote in the statement of June 26, 1941. -

I am a Komsomol member to a nikhoch that the Hitlerite boot trampled down our earth. My year of birth of 1923 1 avgusta*. I ask not to refuse my prozba, but to satisfy. To this I podpisovatsya. M. Starkov" 5.

All during Patriotic war over 3.5 million komsomoltsev6 went to ranks of army and fleet.

In fund of defense of the country in 1941-1945 on construction of tank columns and aviation squadrons the youth collected 541,166,565 rubles. On the funds raised by workers and youth 150 fighting ships were constructed. On all-Union community work days it is earned and handed over in fund of defense of the country 190,647,634 rublya7. At Narkomat's enterprises of average mechanical engineering the youth aged up to 25 years made 55% of total number of workers. At Narkomat's enterprises of ammunition - 42%, the aviation industry - over 40%, etc. 75% of all new workers who came to production in days of war had no experience in the industry. For them it was labor front8.

War is 1418 days of fights, millions of the dead, wounded, missing. 1418 days and nights of hard work at the plants, in mines, on fields. Everyone did the part, all for the Victory, and nobody thought that he makes a feat.

So was in 1941-1945. So was in the country which was called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Now this country is absent. We live in the Russian Federation, the former federal republics became the independent states. The modern times, other people came. Those who were involved in fights and survived, every year less and less. Those who were born in a year of the beginning of war are generation of pensioners too, present 40 and 50-year-old those terrible years were not yet, but them today the majority. What is known by them about the past? What is known today by them and their children about the Great Patriotic War, they and those who are still absolutely young of what sources their knowledge as far as they are objective and reliable are formed?

There is a memory. Live memory - live history. And not to mourn not come back from war, remained forever young people, we disturb our memory. Those who laid down the life for that we lived are already mourned, and many - and them, perhaps, the majority

>- to mourn there is nobody.

But memory - it obliges. About what this capacious state inherent only in the person, Vladimir Dahl in "The explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language" gave in the 80th years of the 19th century. I will allow to remind partially that it included in this concept. "Memory - ability to remember,

* The spelling and the applicant's punctuation remains.

not to forget the past, property of soul to store, remember consciousness the past. Memory concerning the past the same that the conclusion, a guess and imagination concerning the future... Internal memory, reasonable understanding of scientific communication recognized, assimilation to forever the spiritual and moral truth."

We will think of read above and we will ask a question, first of all, to ourselves: whether always we remember the past whether we store it in the soul when at what moments we address it? Why recently we remember the Great Patriotic War occasionally, and, remembering it, many it is more and more often speak about miscalculations of military leaders, about our mistakes, exaggerate the war subject "preventivenesses", forgetting sometimes about a crucial role of the Soviet Union in defeat of fascism?

Why so sharply endure those who were scorched by war, disrespect for the military history Otechestva? I think, it is explained by their concern that grows in the country which won fascist invasion now (owing to costs of historical education) generation Ivanov, not remembering the relationship. In many textbooks on stories there is no description of mass heroism of soldiers and home front workers. There are even no figures to what number of soldiers the rank of Heroes of the Soviet Union is given. Our young people know heroes of Patriotic war of 1812 better, (what is known, it meets with approval), but do not know surnames of outstanding heroes of the Great Patriotic War, do not know the name of hero towns, the heroics of guerrilla and underground fight, and together with it and her leaders fell into oblivion.

From 90th years the statement still takes place that our "society, all system of spiritual life - both psychologically, and ideologically - the long time which was preparing for the forthcoming attack felt psychological shock, it was for a while paralyzed and it is not capable to due repulse" 9. It is difficult to agree with it. About what paralysis it is?! If to mean the Red Army, then all cash forces were used for attack reflection. From the very first day of invasion of Hitlerite troops the Soviet soldiers battled heroically, to the last boss. "Here, on border, already during the first hours fights that heroism which allowed the Red Army to bear hard blows and falsities of war was born and to finish the campaign in prostrate Berlin" 10, - such conclusion was drawn by professor of Harvard University A.M. Nekrich.

The amazing facts are forgotten. Let's remind some of them: immortal feat of defenders of the Brest fortress: almost whole month her defenders constrained the whole fascist division. Many do not know that during the first hours wars seven Russian pilots: L.G. Butelin,

S.M. Gudimov, D.V. Kokorev, A.S. Danilov, I.I. Ivanov, P.S. Ryabtsev, P. Ignatyev and Ukrainian A.I. Moklyak - made air rams. On June 22, 1941 in fight on southwest border the Russian pilot P.S. Chirkin directed the burning fighter to a tank column of the enemy. And on June 26 went to a fiery ram of N.F. Gastello. And all for years of their war there were over 600.

Even in Russia the youth does not know that for the Young Guard organization which worked in Donbass and united in the ranks Russians, Ukrainians, Moldavians, Jews, etc. and that almost all her members died.

The dedication of youth is during the war not thought up, it really took place and, contrary to "innovative researches" of vituperators of national history, is recognized as the whole world including our opponents. Hitlerite commanders F. Halder, E. Manstein, F. Paulyus in the memoirs highly appreciated moral and combat qualities of the Soviet soldiers.

To understand value of our Victory, it is necessary to remember what threatened the people of the USSR. And everything was threatened. Under temporary occupation of fascist Germany there were about 2 million sq.m of the Soviet territory in which, according to the State Planning Committee of the USSR, lived prior to war of 88 million people 11

The younger generation, maybe, does not know that according to the plan of Hitlerite colonization and germanization of "east space" the Slavic people, Jews and Roma were liable to destruction, first of all. In one of the points "Instructions of the German Soldier" it was written down: "You have no heart and nerves, in the war they are not necessary. Destroy in yourself pity and compassion, kill any Russian, do not stop if before you the old man or the woman, the girl or the boy. Kill, it you will save yourself from death, you will provide the future to the family and you will become famous forever" 12. In the taken order on the 13th Army case of November 28, 1941 there was a specification: "Destroy boys and girls from 12 to 16 years" 13. Also the order the general-feldmarshchala von Rejchenau to all German troops of October 10, 1941 named Hitler "excellent" who noted that "supply with food of locals and prisoners of war is unnecessary humanity" 14 worked. According to the Hitlerite plan of "Ost" in all republics of the USSR which underwent temporary occupation more than 7.4 million people of civilians were purposely exterminated, from them RSFSR lost 1 million 800 thousand inhabitants, including more than 15 thousand children. The Moldavian SSR lost 64,246 inhabitants, from them more than 3 thousand children. This number of losses does not include 240 thousand

Jews and 25 thousand Gipsies whom the Romanian fascists destroyed between Dniester and Bug with the assistance of Hitlerites and banderovtsev15.

For works to Germany from temporarily occupied territories of RSFSR were stolen 1,906,600 people, from Moldova - 47,242 persons. The general total about death of civilians makes more than a half of all human victims of the Soviet Union, namely 13.7 million people from 26.6 million people 16

Each nation suffered irreplaceable losses, at the same time 2/3 fallen there were Russians. On age the most young and capable people were the victims of war among fallen generally. They among 8.7 million dead who died of wounds and not come back from captivity of the military personnel were more than 6.4 million people. At the same time the youth of 20 years and up to 30 years more young made 4,984,300 people, or 57%. 17

"For glory of the dead is not present", - Anna Akhmatova wrote. It is necessary that knew and remembered that history of battle of Sevastopol was become by a name of the commander of a reconnaissance platoon of the 2nd Black Sea regiment of marines, native of Moldova M.I. Andriyenko and the nurse M. Lesova who near Sevastopol took out 21 wounded with weapon, received 8 fighting nagrad18.

Unfortunately, the youth of Russia does not remember brave soldiers from Moldova who in a uniform system smashed the enemy. It and Parfeny Balutsa, the mechanic from Tiraspol which freed Rzhev, Kalinin, Voronezh forced Dnieper in the forefront and finished the war in Berlin. Pyotr Tsaran who left to be at war on June 22 protected Leningrad, blew up blindages and earth-and-timber emplacements, destroyed over 200 fascists. In this list and the captain Vladimir Bochkovsky, the native of Tiraspol which underwent all war. Its tank battalion did not know defeats and reached Berlin. On four tanks there was an inscription: "From workers of the Soviet Moldova". And the captain left the inscription on the Reichstag. V. Bochkovsky is Hero of the Soviet Union, the gentleman of 13 government awards. This list ogromen19.

In days of anniversaries devoted to the Great Patriotic War words often sound: "Nobody is forgotten, nothing is forgotten". This phrase belonged to Olga Fiodorovna Berggolts, it is cut on a memorial of the Pis-karevsky cemetery in Leningrad. It is quite fair: in those families who was scorched by the Great Patriotic War nobody is forgotten. But here the second half of a phrase: "nothing (we emphasize nothing - N.P.) is forgotten" raises doubts. Very few people know that feats of the Russian soldiers of Alexander Pankratov, the sergeant Vyacheslav Vasilkovsky and the private Alexander Matrosov, some of the first enemy earth-and-timber emplacements which closed the bodies embrasures, fighters of other nationalities, in total over 470 soldiers, including the Moldavian repeated

I.I. Soltys. Friendship of the people of the federal republics and areas of RSFSR which are temporarily occupied by aggressors was an important basis of the guerrilla movement.

In April, 1970 in an interview for the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper the marshal K.G. Zhukov expressed opinion that "the youth made the main sacrifice in war. It is terrible minute - to rise in growth when killing metal penetrated air. And they rose. Many of them only just learned taste of life. We, people of the senior generation, will not forget it. It is important that also young people did not forget." But since the beginning of the 90th years of the XX century there were among "researchers" people who call everything into question: and whether there was a feat? There is "fuss" around such names as Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya, Alexander Matrosov, 28 Panfilov's men, etc. Among these "pravdoiskatel" there are a Doctor of Philology B. Sokolov who is actively studying history of Patriotic war, the doctor of jurisprudence Yu. Zhuk and others.

The interview of the correspondent of the called newspaper with yu was published on June 21, 2006 in the Moskovskij Komsomolets newspaper in the heading "One way ticket". N Yury Zhuk under the name "To the world - the myth". The scientist agrees that "there is an indisputable feat. And on the other hand - the myth acquiring lies as a snowball". Yu. Zhuk considers that at the description of feats in the years of war exaggerations for a raising of fighting spirit were allowed. "Political promotion - important weapon, I understand it and I accept, - Yu. Zhuk agrees. - In the war she is acquitted. But war ended long ago. It is time to write its story." The fact that it is time to write a story of heroism of those who protected all of us it is right. But it is necessary to be objective researchers at the same time. For this purpose laborious work in search and comparison of the received materials is required, it is impossible to duplicate the unchecked facts in mass media, calling into question historical reality in a pursuit of a sensation. Degeroization became one of the directions in studying history of the Great Patriotic War. And it is only possible to regret for it.

The prejudiced editorial office causes to the heroic chronicle of 1941-1945 damage not only science, but also destroys consciousness of society, deforms educational process. "Essence of spiritual life of the little citizen, - V.A. Sukhomlinsky wrote, - has to consist in amazement, admiration, a spiritualizing of beauty of the person and beauty of the idea and in aspiration, in thirst to become the real patriot, the real fighter. The one who lives in the world of moral values since small years feels like the son Otechestva".

Launching war against the USSR, Germany did not assume that it should fight not only against the Soviet Army, but also with soprotivle-

niy people. The reality demonstrates that in temporarily occupied territories in 1941-1944 the enemy encountered fierce resistance of representatives of all people and nationalities of our country, people of all age and professions, men and women. Total number of guerrillas together with their reserves totaled over 2.6 million people, 220 thousand worked in conditions podpolya20.

The truth about war if to take it not in truncated, and in an integral look, consists not only in the analysis of retreats, environments, defeats which took place, but also in heroism of our fighters and commanders, deep belief of the people including youth, in a victory. Known words: "Our right cause - a victory will be for us" - were not a formal slogan. Even having got to an environment, many connections and parts it is organized or small groups broke for the front line. The military personnel went underground, to guerrillas or, having appeared in captivity, continued fight.

Boris Glavan was one of them. He was born in 1920 in the village of Tsargrad of the Soroksky County (Moldova). The volunteer went to destructive battalion on fight against saboteurs, and in August, 1941 it is sent to field army. Was at war. Got in the summer of 1942 to an environment. Making the way on the occupied territory, came to Krasnodon where his mother moved (the brother went to army). There joined the Komsomol and youth underground organization, participated in its work. On January 5 it was arrested. Transferred tortures, it was executed, dumped in a hole together with the friends Anatoly Popov, I. Zemnukho-vy, V. Tretyakevich and others. Krasnodone21 is buried in.

After occupation of Moldova in August, 1941 the youth which remained in the homeland participated in fight against aggressors. Since fall of 1941 prior to the beginning of 1944 the main form of mass resistance were diversionary and advocacy work of the underground organizations. At the end of March, 1943 in the territory of Belarus and Ukraine the 1st and 2nd Moldavian guerrilla connections were created.

From the report of the Central Committee of LKSM of Moldova (August, 1941-1944) it is known that during fight the small guerrilla groups united in large connections. About 2 thousand representatives of youth participated in guerrilla groups. From them 700 Komsomol members. Not all of them lived up to liberation of Moldova. On August 22, 1944, when retaliatory expeditions against guerrillas began, covering withdrawal, the chief of staff of group of Frunze Komsomol member Fedorchuk died. The commander of this group Komsomol member Anisimov directed group of cover, provided withdrawal of companions to avoid capture, the last bullet zastrelilsya22. In memory of the fighting commonwealth the guerrilla Belorus -

these, Latvia, Moldova and RSFSR on border of three republics, near the village of Proshki, Kurgan of Friendship was filled.

Activity of the Soviet guerrillas and underground workers was not only a component of armed struggle of the Soviet people against fascist aggressors in temporarily occupied territory of the USSR and an important factor in achievement of a victory over fascist Germany and its allies, but also bright manifestation of patriotism, self-sacrifice and heroism. It was the real "second front", the war in the back of the enemy where there was not only an extermination of manpower, military equipment of the opponent, but also continuous derivation of forces from fighting fronts for protection of the back.

For years of war more than 18 million people, including hundreds of thousands of families frontovikov23 were evacuated from a front-line strip and areas to which occupation threatened.

Especially tensely evacuation took place from the western borders. Considerable weight of this business fell on youth. Evacuation works busy more than 32 thousand production youth groups, crews and otryadov24. They round the clock carried out dismantling, loading and sending the equipment. Echelons with cargoes and people went east. Within three months 1941 it was moved more than 1300 large, mainly, military predpri-yatiy25. About 300 thousand people were evacuated only from Moldova in depth of the country. Over 4 thousand cars with the industrial equipment, farm vehicles, grain, food, about 1800 thousand heads skota26 are sent. Also were not just evacuated, but also are equipped on the new place. Residents of Central and Lower Volga area, the Urals and Siberia shared with them not only disorder of life, but also belief in the Victory over the enemy. People of different nationalities in a hard time of military hard times were united by feeling of brotherhood and deep human desire to help the people who appeared far from the family, the made habitable places. It then, in half a century this spiritual impulse was tried to be put under doubts reasonings on the elder and younger brother.

The mass heroism of youth in days of the Great Patriotic War (at the front and in the back) was noted by the state awards. 3.5 million Komsomol members - soldiers of army and fleet, 50 thousand young guerrillas were awarded awards and the medals. 3 thousand Komsomol members (a part posthumously) became Heroes of the Soviet Union, 60 Komsomol members

>- twice Geroyami27.

It would be desirable to believe that grateful descendants will not forget their contribution to spiritual unity of Russians, all people of the USSR in days of Great

of Patriotic war, in unity which allowed them to stand and win a deadly fight with Hitlerite fascism.

Having taken the most valuable of our heroic and tragic experience, of century friendship of the people, we can bring up youth on the best traditions of national and world history. To it, this youth it is necessary to build the future, and it is impossible if she does not know the last people. In archives of the Russian Federation, soldier's letters and diaries, records are stored in shabby marching notebooks, the leaves written in the battlefield, in a trench, behind the hill pitted by shells, under a tree, split by mine splinters, under bullets. They did not lie. Under ruptures of shells did not think of what words and in what form to express the thoughts. In fluent records in the war the person opened most sokrovennoye28. Long before Patriotic war S.M. Kirov said: "Long ago, companions, by one king it was told that if each soldier understood for what he is at war, wars would not exist. Any of the governments, - he said, - could not push then the armies on a spill of the wide rivers of human blood" 29.

The problem of a ratio of the past and the present is and there is a problem of historical memory. Its presence at members of society, extent of its preservation is not only an integral part of political culture, but also manifestation of gratitude to those who lived to us, created and developed our country. In it education of society by history is also shown. Before historians of our days in the conditions of construction in Russia and Moldova of the new public relations there is a difficult task: using new layers of archival documents, to give a truthful picture of the past, special everything that is connected with the Great Patriotic War.

LITERATURE

1. K. Marx, Engels F. Soch. the 2nd prod., T. 5. Page 332.
2. Russian State archive of socio-political history (further: RGASPI). T. M-1. Op. 1. 2350. L. 1.
3. In the same place. 87. L. 1.
4. In the same place. 2353. L. 1.
5. In the same place. 2403. L. 1.
6. Work of the Komsomol organizations in the period of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Dock. and mat. in 2 TM, 1987. T. 1. Page 70.
7. RGASPI. T. M-1. Op. 1. 256. L. 84-92.
8. In the same place. Op. 32. 272. L. 2, 3.
9. ZubkovaE.Yu. Society and reforms. 1941-1964. M, 1993. Page 19.
10. A. Not Creech. June 1941, 22. the 2nd prod., dopoln. and reslave. M, 1995. Page 210.
11. Russia and the USSR in wars of the XX century. Losses of armed forces. Statistical research. M, 2001. Page 231.
12. RGASPI. T. M-7. Op. 1. 2580. L. 3.
13. In the same place. L. 6.
14. In the same place. L. 2.
15. Russia and the USSR in wars of the XX century. Page 231.
16. In the same place. Page 232.
17. In the same place. Page 236.
18. RGASPI. T. M-1. Op. 6. 278. L. 10.
19. In the same place. L. 3, 4.
20. Slava's wreath. M, 1983. T. 8. page 580.
21. RGASPI. T. M-1. Op. 6. 278. L. 14, 15. See Young Guard (Krasnodon) there is an artistic image and historical reality. Sb. dock. and a mat - century of M., 2003. Page 56, 70, etc.
22. In the same place. See L. 12, 13.
23. See: However, on April 1982, 15.
24. RGASPI. T. M-1. Op. 1. 255. L. 67.
25. N. Voznesensky. Military economy of the USSR in the period of Patriotic war. M, 1948. Page 41.
26. Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945. Encyclopedia. M, 1985. Page 456.
27. Work of the Komsomol organizations. Decree. soch. Page 72.
28. RGASPI. T. M-1. Op. 32. 341.
29. Kirov S.M. Articles and speeches. T. III. Page 176-177.
Martin Edward
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