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The crushed Science: archeologists Podesenya and political repressions


UDC 001 (47X09)


A.A. Chubur

a global mask - Boris Sergeyevich Zhukov (1892-1933) exploring in 1926-1927 the Suponevsky parking opened by Deyev near Bryansk. He, in number of more than 150 prominent historians, archeologists, philologists and art critics, was arrested on the "Academic case" of a plot of scientists inspired on the instructions of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) for the purpose of Stalin's overthrow and his environment by the mythical "National union of fight for revival of free Russia". By the time of when it arose in the depths of OGPU, process of nationalization and ideologization of science reached peak. "The academic business" was intended to break counteraction of the scientific intellectuals to totalitarian repartition of Academy and to open the road to it of party bureaucracy [3]. Zhukov was declared the member of the Moscow center of a mythical underground. Judicial proceedings were not. Zhukov died in a concentration camp in Altai and is rehabilitated posthumously only 04.04.1959. A number of its works remained is not published, a typographical set of the first volume of works of its expedition was scattered. Among Zhukov's pupils there are such outstanding researchers as O.N. Bader, G.F. Debets, M.V. Voyevodsky, A.E. Alikhova and others. They continued its business, but teachers could not replace with themselves - any talent is unique in principle [4].

Year of the 1930th was difficult and for professor Vasily Alekseyevich Gorodtso-va who conducted excavation of the Timonovsky parking on the outskirts of Bryansk. A number of persons involved in "The academic business" showed that "the former military" "was offended on service", and around "a lot of youth is grouped". But professor was not arrested exactly thanks to youth with which was engaged in archeology. Many of "Gorodtsov's circle" were included also into Society of historians Marxists which chairman was M.E. Pokrovsky supervising "business" [5]. As a result of Gorodtsok "only" lost service in the Historical museum, in MSU, in the Russian association of institutes of social sciences as "White Guard" and "the bourgeois scientist". But in a situation when the camp could wait for it, he selflessly said 20.08.1930 that he is going to continue work in Timonovka, and submitted the estimate on excavation [6]. In a year the power "forgave" the old man, having permitted to return to work. In 1938 to avoid new persecutions, Gorodtsov at the age of 77 years was forced to join the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), but his relation to the dictatorship which crushed millions of destinies was eloquently shown by such fact: in 1944 with assistance of Gorodtsov the archeologists K.E. Grinevich and A.S. Bashkirev who came back from camps defended dissertations. After this act, the worthy Russian officer, the scientist finally left MSU.

In 1933 with group коллег& the participant of an expedition of Gorodtsov - the graduate of MSU, the geologist of Mosgeolupravleniye Boris Mitrofanovich Danyshsh was arrested (1891-1941). He refused flatly to sign the fabricated indictment in GPU and there was unprecedented: Danynin was released from custody. However endured affected its destiny: it left a torture chamber with sore heart. After protection of the master's thesis (1938), works in higher education institutions of Moscow and in the commissions on a construction of Moscow Metro and the canal Moscow-Volga he suddenly died from a heart attack on construction of defensive works in June, 1941 [7]

The graduate of the Petrograd university Boris Aleksandrovich Lagyiin (1899 — 1967) the specialist in genesis and chronology of cultures of the Neolithic bronze, carried out in 1928-1929 together with Tatyana Sergeyevna Passek the first professional investigation of monuments of a bronze age on the Bryansk earth (vicinity of Bryansk, Navli, the Elbow). Working in GAIMK and State. The Hermitage, it explored also Transcaucasia, the Volga region, Central Asia, Ukraine, wrote the thesis devoted to a new view on chronology and typology of antiquities of an era of bronze. This work seriously would advance domestic archeology of early metal, but in 1935 Latynin was sent to Kuibyshev as hereditary nobleman, one it already - crime against the power. It was the second arrest, the first happened in 1924. And in the 1937th it was arrested for the third time and sent for 9 years to Kolyma. Barbarians from People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs destroyed the thesis. Since 1946 it deprived of health, but not broken by spirit returned to work - at first in Syzran

(1948), and in 1953


The scientist is posthumously rehabilitated by prosecutor's office of Kiev only 22.07.1989 [10]. Pyotr Ivanovich Smolichev was one more Ukrainian researcher of Desninsky antiquities who underwent repressions (1891-1944 - date of death is specified by the archeologist's son). The priest's son, he graduated from the Chernihiv theological seminary, the St. Petersburg spiritual academy and the St. Petersburg archaeological institute. To Chernihiv returned after the revolution to teach in Teacher's college. Since 1923 began to work in the Chernihiv museum. Podesenya collected materials on history and archeology, participated in excavation of Spassky Cathedral in Chernihiv, investigated barrows in Shestovitsa on Desna and cultural monuments of "fields of burials" near Cherkas. Since 1927 conducted researches in a zone of construction Dneproges. In 1933 as the unreliable son of the priest and "the Ukrainian nationalist" (standard charge in the territory of the Ukrainian SSR) was banished with family in Dushanbe where worked at Institute of history, archeology and ethnography of Tajikistan

Sometimes direct or indirect denunciations of colleagues formed the basis for repressions concerning scientists. In the conditions of those years even the scientific review containing charges of "derogation from Marxist methodology" could become an arrest occasion. From this party the graduate of the Smolensk office of the Moscow archaeological institute (1922), the candidate of historical sciences Alexander Nikolaevich Lyavdansky (1893-1937), strangely enough, took part in defeat of national Belarusian science, it is a lot of years conducting researches on the Belarusian, Bryansk and Smolensk earth. His odious performances accused colleagues of collecting of a tserkovshchina, of attempts of creation of the Belarusian autocephalous church, of fight against dictatorship of the proletariat. At all persecution of the Belarusian science does not match the image of Lyavdansky kept by contemporaries: "The scientist-enthusiast, the cheerful and charming person, he was able to rally around himself around himself both youth, and people of the senior generation and to infect all of them with the love for native history" [12]. Perhaps, Alexander Nikolaevich sincerely trusted in ideals of modern times? He became the associate professor of the Belarusian university, the scientific secretary of Institute of History AN BSSR, the manager of archeology section, entered into Communist Party committee of institute. However terror overtook also it, and with it and several talented colleagues. Lyavdansky was arrested 19.05.1937 and under the resolution of "three" of 25.08.1937 according to Article 63-1 "high treason", Article 70 "commission of acts of terrorism" and Article 76 "organizational anti-Soviet activity or participation in the anti-Soviet organization" UK BSSR is sentenced to an exceptional measure of punishment as the Polish spy. Posthumously rehabilitated on May 7, 1958. Military court of the Belarusian military district [9].

We will return to "The academic business". From it case No. 111212 "Local historians" which led to arrest and the subsequent repressions in 1931 according to Article 58-10.11 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation RSFSR of local historians of Black Earth [13]. Bryansk this bowl by a lucky chance during the investigation gemmated passed. Local historians were accused of "monarchic conspiracy" - a widespread, classical sentence for people with the bright pre-revolutionary past. Among other incriminated to local historians promotion of the monarchic ideas among the population, creation of counterrevolutionary groups, use of scientific institutions for group of counterrevolutionary elements, counterrevolutionary work among teachers and the studying youth of HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS and high schools, capture in the counterrevolutionary purposes of the leading posts in scientific organizations, the museums [14]. In 1933 many local history societies were closed. Miracle the survived and developing association of local historians from Bezhitsa (Ordzhonikidzegrad) looks on this background.

Ignatiy Evstafyevich Blagodatsky (1883-1938) graduated from theological seminary. Till 1913 worked in Tsaritsyno in city schools and gymnasiums, then moved to Bezhitsa the elementary school teacher of the opened men's gymnasium. Till 1924 combined teaching with posts in the gubotdel of national education, since 1930 began to teach at Bezhitsky institute of transport mechanical engineering, Komvuz and Wednesdays -

it to school No. 12. Nikolay Iosifovich Lelyanov (1893-1938) in 1914 arrived on a physical mat of the Moscow university, but did not manage to complete education, carried away by romanticism of revolution. Was at war in parts of the Red Army on fronts years of Civil war, and then for stay in party of Social Revolutionaries it was banished by "grateful" Bolsheviks to the remote place. Long he worked as the teacher in Rognedino and Dubrovka and was fond of archeology. Participated in excavation under the leadership of B.S. Zhukov where got acquainted with Blagodat-sky and Deyev. In 1927 moved to Bezhitsa, having become the teacher of factory seven-year No. 1 and medical assistant's school. In 1928 he professionally carried out archaeological investigation [15]. Since 1934 Lelyanov is a manager. a local history office and the secretary of a local history circle in the House of art education of children in Bezhitsa. He was very educated: recited "Illiad", had huge library, knew several languages, knew history, geology, botany, external graduated from the Smolensk teacher's college in 1936. By this time it considered over 700 archeological sites Podesenya, having become the best expert on archeology of the northeast of the modern Bryansk region. His ideas differed in originality and novelty. So, he assumed that Sudost and Desna in the ancient time were two sleeves of one river. Only in the 1960th Gorecki confirmed this hypothesis. In geology also the Benefit Danish proved, having opened Seshchinsky glyatsiodislokation. In 1935 under the direction of It is fertile about go and Le-lyanov by Society rio to studying the Western Region was carried out 32 geological and a backpacking. Among participants there was a school student Zhenya Schmidt - nowadays professor of the Smolensk university, the most prominent archeologist [16]. Then there came the tragic outcome. On June 10, 1937 there was a resolution SNK RSFSR forbidding further existence central and local bureaus of study of local lore. Their activity was recognized as inexpedient. Soon tragically also the fate of local historians - N.I. Lelyanov came to the end and And, E.B in aro l to date a cue according to notorious "Stalin lists" were arrested by the Oryol OGT1U and shot 12.09.1938 without court as "enemies of the people" [17].

Gave the generalizing assessment to tragic events, telling about the trip to the USSR in 1936 the Finnish archeologist - the baron A.M. Talgren (then became the person of bottoms of grate in the USSR). "I visited institutions in which to me any employee who would work there in 1928 did not meet. I can mention several archeologists who were detached: G. Borovka, I. Fabritius, M. Gryazno in, Yavoretsky, V. Kozlovskaya, M. Makarenko, A. Miller (died), M. Rudinsky, S. Teploukhov (died), A. Zakharov, B. Zhukov (died). Among them there are brilliant scientists and the most worthy people, devoted and strong citizens of the country. As the mankind if it can do without such interesting people has to be rich. But whether the world can whether can dare to interrupt Councils creative activity of the people possessing interest, enthusiasm, knowledge and abilities" [18].

Machine of repression could not idle. From the Moscow galaxy which fate was crossed in Suponevo near Bryansk in the 1920th the last Georgy Fedorovich Mirchink (1889-1942) - the graduate of MSU (1912), the doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, professor (1918), the academician of AN of BSSR suffered. He made the first-ever course of lectures on quarternary geology, developed a complex of methods of studying geology of the Quaternary Period, on its account many opening and achievements. Among them - studying geology of the Desninsky basin and Paleolithic parking of Suponevo and Timonovk, the first in the Briansk region (where it worked with Deyev, Zhukov, Lelyanov, the Benefit Danish). The destiny was kind to the geologist. As chief consultant for geology of the canal Moscow-Volga, awarded the order to him the Labour Red Banner, he made reports on the international symposiums, taught in MSU, Megeve institute, the Moscow prospecting institute of Ordzhonikidze, Mountain Academy. Since 1941 Mirchink is the president of the Soviet section of Association on studying the Quaternary Period. But 23.06.1941 the scientist was arrested on charge "in participation in the anti-Soviet monarchic organization": in the apartment during the search found gold

a coin of royal stamping, a note oner "Life for the tsar", the Stolitsa I Usadba magazine with the image of royal family and a counter in honor of the 300 anniversary of House of Romanovs. The investigation dragged on. In February, 1942 the disgraced academician was transferred to the Saratov prison where he died without having lived up to court. In 1946 published the obituary, issued posthumously article, the Museum of Physical geography of MSU established a bust, but only in 1990, having departed from legal casuistry, Mirchink was posthumously rehabilitated [19].

One more victim of an arbitrariness which name is connected with archeology of Desna - already mentioned Elizabeth Arsenyevna Kalitina (1894-1956), the archeologist from Smolensk. Under the leadership of Lyavdansky she participated in excavation of Gnezdovsky barrows, with the Poly-karpovichem investigated a paleolith in Eliseevichakh, looked for the Stone Age near Dyatkovo. In 1936 she carried out investigations according to Pavle, having applied on the archaeological hag of the region of 14 monuments, in 1937 in Bezhitsa explored the ancient settlement of yukhnovsky culture of the early Iron Age Torfel preventing expansion of the fasonoliteyny plant Red Profinter. From the beginning of war in Smolensk, as well as in many other cities, did not attach to funds of the museums due significance. For the Soviet officials it was more important to save partarkhiva. On the night of 9.07.1941 the car with exhibits nevertheless went to the back, but 9 expositions and the main part of funds were thrown. With them under occupation there was also many staff of the museum, including the deputy director on science E.A. Kalitina. Invaders ordered to art dealers to return to obligations for systematization of funds and library. To their order 26 exhibits withdrew Poe-ochya in an officer meeting, the municipal government, in Assumption Cathedral. Kalitina demanded the receipt to keep data on the new residence of things. These receipts data on her name the German officers played a fatal role: 25.01.1949 the employee of the Smolensk museum Kalitina was arrested by Management of MTB across the Smolensk region. The investigation was fast, court wrong: 31.03.1949 she was sentenced by a Military court of troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs according to Article 58-1 to 25 years of camps. Stages, humiliation, slave labor. A military court of the Moscow Military District definition No. 1768 of 27.12.1954 cancelled a sentence, and production dismissed the case in absence of proof of charge. Only in two months. 21.02.1955 Kalitina was released and returned to Smolensk, but not to the museum: up to the end she kept offense for unfairly the broken life [20]. The taking-out part of funds in evacuation received deserved monasteries. It, risking life, tried to preserve the collections left to the mercy of fate, and in an award received the camp and hopeless existence with a brand of "the enemy of the people".

Vsevolod Protasyevich Levenok who repeated her destiny participated in Kalitina's expeditions in many respects (1906-1985). Having graduated from picturesque faculty of Art technical school in Voronezh, he worked as the art teacher and the artist of the Voronezh museum of local lore where was fond of archeology. In 1934 returned to native Trubchevsk and one year headed Trubchevsky museum of local lore later. Communicating with the teacher and the friend K.M. Polikarpovichsm, Levenok recovered the museum, having anew created an exposition, conducted active archaeological researches, entered the Leningrad institute of culture of Krupskaya, began work on the thesis. But war began. The City Council refused evacuation of the museum. Levenok who is not called in RKKA on disability remained in Trubchevsk where Nazis entered on October 9, 1941. The burgomaster issued the decree: the employee to remain everything on places, for evasion from work - execution. Levenok, being the manager. the museum, tried to keep collections, but the Germans in September, 1943 receding made what the Soviet power could not - took out exhibits. The resisting Levenok pleased with family under a convoy. The wife and the son died in Zlynka from a bombing raid of the Soviet aircraft, and it got an ostarbeiter to the German landowner, there passed the concentration camp, ran through the front line and was involved in fighting of the Soviet army [21]. After war K.M. Polikarpovich took it in Institute of History BSSR. By 1949 Vsevolod moved to Leningrad, having become the laboratory assistant of Institute of History of Material culture of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. But in January, 1951 he was arrested by MGB and osuzh-

den the Voronezh military court according to Article 58-1 (anti-Soviet propaganda and promotion) and Article 57-3 (high treason) of UK RSFSR. Incriminated him that the museum in Trub-chevske was not evacuated, worked during occupation, and it is taken out by fascists at retreat. Behind arrest - a denunciation of the colleague from the museum angry with rise of the fellow countryman on "capital heights". Painfully familiar, typical situation. "People for science went on a fire, and to sit several years in an imprisonment nevertheless not so terribly. It is a pity only that for this time I will be prevented from scientific working", - Levenok wrote [22]. In October, 1955 Vsevolod Protasyevich was released and returned to favourite business, having become the employee of the Leningrad office of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1956-57 it continued researches in native Podesenye, and then on the Top Don, having opened bend monuments. Protection of the master's thesis at Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR [23] became a result. Levenok is not lonely in the tragedy. The similar fate befell many art dealers of the country continuing to store history during occupation. Their work in occupation...... it is mad dedication. But even in 1992 P. Levenok is posthumously rehabilitated by the State Office of Public Prosecutor of the Russian Federation only on 1 point of charges. Heroes continue to consider those who destroyed funds of the museums at withdrawal of the Red Army, the same who kept collections, as before carry to "enemies of the people".

A look in the totalitarian past and the analysis of a condition of modern Russian society make think also on the near future. (Monetization of social benefits) the parliament "in a uniform rush" removed notorious law No. 122-FZ from a preamble of the law "About Recovery of Victims of Political Repressions" of a word adopted earlier that this the state did to people moral harm. In 2008 the tyrant Stalin ranked third in the interactive project of RTR TV channel "Face of Russia". Already recommendations to school teachers sound to show political repressions as an effective solution of problems of the state, and Stalin as "the successful manager" [24]. They are the sign phenomena, attempts of rehabilitation of a totalitarian system. Not smaller rates, than at the time of "The academic business" the bureaucratization of the country and science gains strength, under pressure of bureaucracy structures of science and education fall, there are return symptoms to agreement of opinion. For this reason we are obliged to remember and analyze the terrible past. It will help to develop immunity and not to allow to cast the people into the new abyss of lawlessness and an arbitrariness.

Irreparable damage was inflicted on a result in USSR political repression 1920-1950-h motherland science. Particularly damaged to figures of humanitarian direction: as Academy of science, so and local lore regional scientists. In article is briefly considered of archeologists scientific contribution and fate subjected to repression, whose exploratory activity was connected with of the basin Desna-river. Amongst them - B.S. Zhukov, M.Y. Rudynskiy, B.A. Latynin, V.P. Levenok, E.A. Kalitina, G.I. Goreckiy and many others. Importance of the studies of the crimes of the totalitarian state is emphasized for modern stage of the Russian history. The key words: archeology, geology, Desna, Bryansk, Chernigov, political repressions, totalitarizm

The list of the used literature

1. Messages of the State academy of history of material culture. L., 1931-№3.
2. G.P. Arkheologiya's Poles in the Trubchevsky museum of the Briansk region in 20 of the 20th century//Kursk and residents of Kursk eyes of scientists. Kursk notebooks. Notebook 5, Vyya.2. Kursk. 2004. Page 28-33.
3. F.F. peppercorns. "Matter of Academy of Sciences" and "great change" in the Soviet science//Tragic destinies: repressed scientists of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. M.: "Science", 1995, page 201-235.
4. Chubur A.A. Mikhail Vatslavovich Voyevodsky: pages of the biography. To the 100 anniversary since birth (Essays of history of the Bryansk archeology, the issue 1). Bryansk: RG&SU, 2003.
5. A.A. Formozov. The Russian archeologists in the period of totalitarianism. Historiographic essays. M.: "Sign", 2006.
6. Archive of Institute of history of material culture of RAS, f.2, op.1, 1930, 166

I. Repressed geologists (chapter of an edition V.P. Orlov). The m is SPb., the 1999, 3 prod., iyepr. and additional, 452 pages (MPR Russian Federation, VSEGEI, RosGeo).

8. N.G. Gorbunova, N.K. Kachalova. Boris Aleksandrovich Latynin's memories (to the 90 anniversary since birth).//Soviet archeology, 1990. No. 4. Page 253-258.
9. Tokarev H B. The returned names: employees of AN of Belarus who were injured during Stalin repressions. Minsk, Navuka i tekhshka, 1992.
10. V.I. hornbeam, Suprunenko of O.B. Dol Mikhayla Rudinskogo//Archeology No. 4, 1992, S. 91-100.

II V.G. Mudritska, Chernenko of O.S. Petro 1vanovich Smol1chev. Chershpv, 2006.

12. Alexander Nikolaevich Lyavdansky's memories//Soviet archeology, 1964. No. 1, page 120-125.
13. A.Yu. saran. Oryol aspect of "business of local historians"//Requiem. The book of memory of the victims of political repressions on Orlovschina. T.4. - Oryol, 1998. Page 335-345; Sobolev B.C. Academy of Sciences and local history movement//Messenger RAS. 2000. T.70. No. 6. Page 535-541.
14. Voronezh CDNI, f.9353, it. 2, 169676. T.8, L.84.
15. Archive of Institute of history of material culture of RAS, f.2. op.1, 1928, 200
16. F.M. Zavernyaev. Heat of soul, depth of knowledge//"The Bryansk worker" of 21.08.1985, Page 4; Chubur A.A. Nikolay Lelyanov - "the last from Mohicans" pre-war local history archeology//Questions of archeology, history and the Top Poe-ochya culture. Mageraila XI nauch. konf. Kaluga, 2005. Page 58-61.
17. Archive of the Russian President, f.Z, op.24, 409-419.
18. Talgren M. Archaeological studies in Soviet Russia//NESA, 1936, X. p. 149.
19. Fedorov H. The power judged differently 11 "the Dmitrovsky bulletin" No. 134 of 30.10.2001.
20. UFSB archive of the Russian Federation on the Smolensk Region, archival criminal case No. 143313th; Chubu-ra.A. Elizabeth Arsenyevna Kalitina//Russian archeology, 2006. No. 2 of Page 157-161.
21. Yudinovsky museum of local lore, Scientific archive, f1, 45, l.11-12.
22. Yudinovsky museum of local lore, Scientific archive, f1, 45, l. 17
23. Chubur A.A., G.P. Polyakov. Naumova. Trubchevsky nugget. To the 100 anniversary since the birth of V.P. Levenk (Essays of history of the Bryansk archeology, the issue H). Bryansk, 2006.
24. Filippov A.B. The contemporary history of Russia of 1945-2006. The book for the teacher. M.: Education, 2007.

About the author

A.A. Chubur - an edging. and crop, sciences, dots., Bryansk state university of the academician I.G. Petrovsky,

UDC 940 & #43; 949.72 & #43; 947


E.A. Shinakov

Typological research of forms of the European polities (level & #34; варварской" statehood, "difficult vozhdestvo", and it is rare - & #34; early государств" - in terminology of political anthropology), and ways of their emergence it is not finished yet. They can be added with the 1st Bulgarian kingdom before reforms of Omurtaga and Krum (the end of VII - the beginning of the IX century) and sinkhrostadialny to it a slozhnosostavny polity Russia (the name - in Konstantin Bagryanorodny's terminology) the end of IX - the middle of the X century. Typologically they are brought together by military and contractual mechanisms of a gosudarstvogenez (in & #34; Росии" they are complemented with foreign trade, i.e. "plutocratic" mechanisms) and also itself as a form & #34; варварской" (pre-Christian) statehood. It has "multilevel" - & #34; федеральный" character. At the head (at the so-called "top" level of the power) are the Turkoman - Bulgarians and & #34; росы" (& #34; русы" Russia), area

James Walton
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