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To a question of creation of public organizations in the Penza province at the end the XIX beginning of the 20th century.

o. V. Dobrova


Work is presented by department of national history of the Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky. The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor V.A. Vlasov

In article organizational and political and legal prerequisites of creation of a system of public organizations in the Penza province at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century are considered. Features of this process, the basic principles of work of associations in Russia and public organizations in the territory of the Penza province and also their contribution to development of various spheres of life of the Russian society are noted.

This article covers political and legal preconditions for creating the system of social organizations in Penza province at the end of the XIX - beginning of the XX centuries. It also describes the main principles of the work of such organizations in Russia and their contribution to the development of different spheres of life of Russian society.

In unity of inheritance and use of the historical values which are saved up by last generations the essence of continuity, one of the most important general regularities of development of history is expressed. In this regard studying activity of the public organizations (societies) is very relevant. Studying history of public organizations even at the regional level has the scientific and public importance as judgment of extensive experience of citizens' initiative with vozmozh-

a nost of its use in modern conditions. As all spheres of life of pre-revolutionary Russia (science, education, art, health care, charity, etc.) were covered by activity of legal societies, we can speak not only about theoretical interest in this subject, but also the real practical importance.

The liberal reforms of the 60-70th of the 19th century promoting activization of a public initiative gave an impetus

for further development of public undertakings, caused emergence of understanding of value of citizens' initiative in an overall picture of the country. As a result of Alexander II's reforms and the subsequent on - boards of domestic policy the power began to belong more tolerantly to obshchestven - ache activity. In the second half of the 19th century in the cities of Russia there are various cultural and educational societies uniting wide groups of citizens. Only in 1898, according to the Ministry of national education, 193 societies, the majority of which was made by societies after assistance to pupils and also teacher's rooms obshchestva1, worked. Around these societies, employees of state institutions and private firms, officials of the lowest ranks, dealers from petty bourgeoises and a part of merchants - the center of citizens were grouped.

If opening of society at the beginning of the 19th century required the adoption of its charter personally the emperor, then from the middle of the century (after reforms of the 1860th) - the corresponding minister: internal affairs, national education, the state imushchestvo and so forth (except the societies asking special privileges and privileges). Most societies was under authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. But at the level of the ministries it was hard to achieve opening of the new organization, and the charters submitted for approval could be exposed to numerous changes.

With 90-hkh development of so-called approximate and normal charters for certain types of societies became widespread (for example, consumer, charitable, etc.). It only created visibility of simple process of an adoption of charters. The pre-revolutionary researcher N.P. Anufriyev wrote: "... It is not necessary to think that with the publication of normal charters the Russian people acquired the right for an adoption of the charters provided by them, even at their identity with the normal charter. Normal charters need to be understood as set

rules and conditions at which observance the administration can, but it is not obliged, to solve education and action of any private society." 2.

On the one hand, in 1896 in view of numerous requests for opening of the societies coming to the ministries, the order of permission of opening even more became simpler: the local administration (governors, city's mayors) gave permission to opening of the public organizations adopting the normal or approximate charters issued for them. And with another - it put them into complete dependence on administration.

The legal framework for creation and activity of public organizations in 1906-1917 were published on March 4, 1906. "Provisional rules about societies and unions". Till this time among numerous Russian statutes there was no general law on public organizations.

"Provisional rules about societies and the unions" entered simpler scheme of establishment of public organizations. They were registered at specially created presence, provincial on public affairs, - the collegial bodies identical on the structure and a lump - petention to the presence which are already existing at that time on city and territorial affairs which part representatives of the highest official provincial device, judicial authorities, the highest officials of public and class self-government were.

Facilitating the procedure of control of actions of societies, rules regulated literally everything. In the charter the purposes of the organization, ways of achievement of this purpose on what means it will exist where there will be a board (council, committee), its duties, the amount of membership fees, quantitative and social composition of members, measures to strengthening of means, conditions of reception and an exit, duties of a general meeting have to be by all means specified. Presented on


a statement charters were considered very attentively, and at the slightest discrepancy with rules were sent back for revision. At the end of the 19th century the paragraph which indicates the right of the governor to close societies in case of detection in their activity something opposite to the state order, public safety and morality is published in charters of public organizations. "Irrespective of it the governor can always close society when recognizes it necessary on the data on disorders and violation of the charter which reached it, as informs the Minister of Internal Affairs" 3.

"Eventually the contents of the royal legislation on public organizations came down to establishment of a circle of the public authorities which had the right to allow opening of any given organizations and to approve their charters, - A.D. Stepansky emphasizes. - At the same time the law did not contain any precepts of law by which both the organizations, and bodies knowing them had to be guided. Establishment of these norms belonged only to the sphere of an administrative discretion, function, the structure, structure, the rights and obligations of public organizations were defined, first of all, by their charters" 4.

The general order of creation and work of the organization (society) defined the charter in which the association purposes, its structure, means of society, governing bodies of its affairs, an order of the termination of activity of society were provided. Any society could consist of unlimited number of the members paying membership fees and undertaking to assist society a personal labor in achievement of its purposes. Members depending on participation in affairs of society were divided into honourable, valid and sorevnovatel (employees). According to the decision of a general meeting the "persons who rendered considerable service to society" or granted the large sum of donations were recognized as honorary members.

The persons participating in activity of society monetary membership fees were considered as full members is not lower than the sum determined by a general meeting which was paid at a time or annually (the amount of membership fees could change). Sorevnovatelyami is the persons making an annual contribution in the minimum size or "promoting full members performed by them the obligations for society". And both sorevnovatel, and full members could be exempted from a monetary contribution in case of providing free services or gratuitous participation in activity of society by them.

All full members formed the General meeting of society which was its supreme body. The general meeting for direct business management elected board of society (committee, council) and audit commission. Quite often for the next supervision of certain institutions of society popech - whether those these institutions were chosen.

Means of societies developed of contributions and donations, receipts for loans, percentage papers, from carrying out amusements, markets and lotteries, revenues from the real estate, income from institutions of society and also different collecting and other receipts.

Funds of society were subdivided into parts or into "capitals". The Zapasny capital consisted generally of membership fees and special donations. Funds of this capital could be spent only under the special resolution of a general meeting. Working capital developed of the sums deducted at the discretion of a general meeting and was spent for the current affairs and the purposes designated in the charter. A part of means of society addressed in the state or guaranteed by the government percentage papers.

"Society of hunters of rysisty run" (on January 27, 1848) arose one of the first in Penza. Tasks of society included assistance to cultivation improved

breeds of trotters, promotion of equestrian sport. At meetings of society programs of seasons, the sums of prizes to winners of competitions and so forth were approved. In World War I the society participated in training of trotters for needs armii5.

It should be noted that often emergence of any given society was caused by presence of the leader, the person of the highly educated, conducting purposeful activities for creation society.

I.I. Sprygin, the botanist, the Dr.Sci.Biol., professor was such leader. Thanking its efforts in 1905 it was issued and there began the existence the Penza Society of Fans of Natural Sciences (PSFNS). Society set as the purpose: a) a research in the natural-historical relation of Russia and mainly Penza province; b) rapprochement between the persons who are interested in studying the nature; c) distribution of natural-historical knowledge.

The FIELD quickly grew and developed the activity. Tours in the neighborhood of Penza were conducted. Attraction to the activity of pupils of average educational institutions was characteristic feature of work of society. They worked in a vivarium, helped with drawing up collections: pasted a herbarium, filled scarecrows, produced manuals, etc.

Gradually collections of future natural-historical museum were formed. The basis them was formed by the objects offered members of society. Assembled collections the museum was helped by provincial statistical committee, the Penza provincial archival commission, individuals, the St. Petersburg botanical garden, etc. Only for the first year of its existence 105 objects which were distributed thus came to fund of the museum: 90 - on zoology, 13 - on geology and paleontology and 2 - on botany. In addition there was a collection of soils of the Penza province and other remains of the Stone Age from okrest - nosty Penzy6. The museum was open for mass visits in 1911 when collections of local fauna, flo-were exposed

ry, soils and rocks. Members of society in the museum worked on a voluntary basis.

the FIELD began with

C of 1913 the publishing and began to release "Works of society of fans of natural sciences". Till 1917 four releases were published. In Truds results of scientific activity of members the FIELD were placed. Society exchanged the editions with other scientific organizations. Quickly its library grew. In 1915 in it was 181 copies of books. Also the number of visits of the museum increased: in 1911-1912 he was visited by 1928 people, and in 1913-1914 - 2185 chelovek7.

Thus, creation of public organizations was caused by desire of citizens to participate directly in the solution of educational and cultural questions in society, search of a public alternative. Reducing control of activity of public associations, the state at the same time continued to be wary of similar manifestations of public activity of masses, not unreasonably being afraid that they will become a formation source in the society of oppositional moods. Tracing a way from establishment of public organizations before their closing and analyzing all parties and the directions of the difficult scheme of their relations with the power, we can conclude that lack of the accurate and defining legal framework for activity of associations and also those almost not limited powers which allocated the governor gave the last great opportunities for manifestation of a personal arbitrariness. And still, despite the available restrictions, the institute of public organizations which showed surprising ability to promote development of many spheres of life during the pre-revolutionary period left a noticeable mark in the history of Russia and the Penza region. Therefore use of pre-revolutionary experience of citizens' initiative gives the chance to render assistance in development of modern society.


1 V.A. Vlasov. School and society. Penza, 1998. Page 14.
2 N.P. Anufriyev. A government regulation of formation of private societies in Russia//Questions of administrative law. Prince 1 / Under the editorship of the prof. A.I. Elistratov. M, 1916. Page 28.
3 Charter of the Saransk society of consumers. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 6860. L. 121.
4 A.D. Stepansky. Autocracy and public organizations of Russia at a boundary of X1X-XX of centuries of M., 1980. Page 9.
5 Penza encyclopedia. M.: BRE, 2001. Page 405.
6 The report of Penza Society of Fans of Natural Sciences for the first year. GAPO. T. 5. Op. 1. 7726. L. 332.
7 Anniversary collection: To the 50 anniversary of the Penza regional museum of local lore. Penza, 1958. Page 7.
Francisco Henderson
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