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Illumination of a question of a cooperation role in social and economic development of society in literature of the first decades of the XX century


N.I. Burnasheva


Article is devoted to a question of lighting in historical literature of problems of cooperation and cooperative movement. The author considered works of researchers of the first decades of the XX century in which the cooperation role in social and economic development of society is lit. The analysis of works of the Russian pre-revolutionary theorists and practitioners of cooperation and also the Soviet researchers of the 1920-1930th is presented in article

N. Burnasheva


The article is devoted to the issue of research publications concerning cooperation and cooperative movement. The publications of the first decades of XX th century describing the role of cooperation in social and economic development of the society are reviewed and analyzed, authors of the publications being Russian pre-revolutionary theorists, cooperation experts and the Soviet scientists of1920-1930 s.

The ideas of the first theorists of the cooperative movement (R. Owen, Che. Fourier) were dictated by huge desire to update the world and to reach general equality and justice by creation of communities of cooperative type. With development of capitalism and the amplifying its pressure upon public life the theories considering cooperation as began to be formed

means of transformation of capitalism to socialism, releases of work from the capital (U. King). At the same time also the theories seeing a problem of cooperation not in fight against the capital in general, and only against pressure of the large capital became widespread (G. Schultz-Delich, F. Rayfayzen). In a basis of this fight the ideas of creation of the economic self-help by were put

associations in production associations and providing the social world within capitalist society.

The exercises created in Russia about cooperation closely adjoined to the theory of communal (country) socialism, narodnichesky "collective" ideology. A.I. Herzen, N.G. Chernyshevsky considered communities as a basis of socialism to which they found it possible to pass, passing capitalism. The early scientific research of problems of cooperation in Russia was carried out at the beginning of the 20th century by the Russian scientists and figures of cooperation M.I. Tugan-Baranovskim, V.F. Totomian-ts, S.N. Prokopovich, A.V. Merkulov, M.L. Heysin and others [7]. In the works the theorists of cooperation tried to comprehend the way which is taken place cooperation, stated judgments of the prospects of its further development. There was an intensive search of the place of cooperation in various economic systems, its values under capitalism and socialism.

The important place in development of theoretical questions was allocated for definition of a role of cooperation in economy and to its social and economic essence, search of the answer to questions of appointment and the purpose of cooperative activity. Estimates had character of the comprehensive theoretical investigations connecting the cooperative ideas with socialist theories, thoughts of freedom and equality between people. Cooperation role questions in development of economic life of pre-revolutionary Russia received a detailed research in works of the Russian economists A.I. Chuprov, I.I. Ivanyukov, N.A. Kablukov, I.H. Ozerov and many others. The huge value of cooperation in the course of transformations in economy was noted in the works by professor of the Moscow university N.A. Kablukov. He considered that to the place of spontaneous process in development of the economic relations the cooperative organizations put forward "the systematic organization without which a little correct statement of any economy is inconceivable". This way, according to him, the cooperative organizations lead by peaceful means to transformation

the existing system [2, page 65]. N.A. Kablukov considered salutary impact of cooperation on development of economy on the example of the analysis of results of activity of main types of cooperation. In work "The cooperative organizations" it showed value of purchasing and marketing cooperation for handicraftsmen and peasants to whom cooperation gives the chance to reserve the funds (to 40-60%), to be exempted from excessive intermediaries, to preserve time spent for acquisition of raw materials and product sales to get rid of the power of buyers. Considerable saving of expenses was promoted also by activity of credit associations which, except the direct tasks, undertook also intermediary operations. In development of country farms associations of rural owners were of great importance for joint acquisition of farm vehicles. N.A. Kablukov gave special value to activity of potrebitelny societies, having seen germs of transformation of all economic system in the increasing need of accounting of requirements of consumers.

Theorists of cooperation of the pre-revolutionary period paid much attention to studying a role of cooperation in social development. According to the economist-agrarian, professor N.P. Makarov, cooperation promotes change of position of the personality in production, can ":. .podnyat the managing person and to reduce the capital from position of the lord of the human relations on position of the technical tool of economic life to position of the dominating personality" [2, page 651]. The famous economist, professor of the Moscow university I.H. Ozerov wrote about potrebitelny societies: ".stol the phenomenon simple and simple in appearance involves good social consequences very much!" Main of them he considered to bring ability of cooperatives to society of feeling of freedom and justice. "The social value of that democratic spirit which gets into these societies is high" — he noted. In the works I.H. Ozerov allocated a huge role of cooperation in instilling in people of qualities of the owner

productions, in moral and cultural education of the person. In cooperation he saw "the known school of the public disciplining the population...". "Potrebitelny societies — he emphasized — develop spirit of solidarity in the members, ability to process common cause, they are kind of the school cultivating spirit of self-government." [9, page 7].

Works of the Russian scientist-economist M.I. Tugan-Baranovskogo were devoted to theoretical justification of a social role of cooperation. In work "Social bases of cooperation" (1916) it opened the mechanism of cooperative activity, value of its economic and social parties in development of society. According to him, the essence of a social mission of cooperation proceeds from an originality of its social and economic nature differing from the capitalist enterprises radically. The cooperation which is thought up and created by people, being result of influence of a socialist ideal on capitalist society, cooperation has other contents in comparison with the capitalist enterprises is perfect. "If the body of cooperative is created by capitalism, then soul of cooperative is inhaled by a socialist ideal" [15, page 71] — M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky considered. Therefore an ultimate goal of cooperative activity is the satisfaction of needs of members of cooperative, service to their interests and combination of efforts for opposition to the capital. If the meaning of the capitalist enterprise consists in aspiration to "the greatest profit", the leader "to unlimited expansion of turnover of the enterprise because thirst of a profit never reaches saturation", then the purpose of cooperatives, according to M.I. Tugan-Baranovskogo, is not the greatest profit, and "the greatest degree of welfare of members of cooperative" and also "increase, thanks to the general maintaining economy, the labor income of the members or reduction of their expenses on potrebitelny needs" [15, page 104]. Contrary to the destructive force of labor union and political party of workers "the cooperative is creative, creative force" [15, page 105] and acts

as the important democratic movement which, along with trade-union, contributes to the development of consciousness, culture, organization of the general population [14, page 108-109].

Along with justification of a role of cooperation in public life, researchers of cooperation were concerned also by the mechanism of introduction of cooperation in social and economic life of the country. In A. Zarudny's article "Kulturnoprosvetitelnaya activity of cooperatives and a question of nationality", published in the Vestnik Kooperatsii magazine in September, 1916, sounded a thought of value and a role of cultural and educational activity of cooperation in the conditions of ethnic variety of the Russian Empire. Considering the experience accumulated by cooperation it is possible to claim, it was told in article that cooperative activity should not be limited to "narrow limits of rise in economic welfare" of the members and "exclusively economic undertakings", and is obliged to expand the contents with cooperative promotion and work "on development and dissemination of culture and level of culture in depths of the working people"

[1, page 46].

In days of revolutionary shocks researchers of problems of cooperation and cooperative movement should mentioned cooperation relation questions to policy and participation of cooperators in political events of those years. A.V. Merkulov, S.N. Prokopovich, S.L. Maslov, N.N. Sokolov's works and others were devoted to problems of cooperation in the new historical conditions connected with change of the political power and adoption of the cooperative law [5]. First of all, in them an assessment of a position of cooperators during the revolutionary period of history was generalized and given. The famous cooperative figure, the economist A.V. Merkulov in work "Questions of the cooperative movement in Russia" published in 1918 as follows characterized a cooperation role in revolutionary days: ". Observing strict neutrality in the party relation, not interfering with race for power, cooperation always expressed with all force organized

cooperative opinion for the satisfaction of all-democratic requirements for transformation of a social, economic and political system" [6, page 224].

The political figure, the first rector of the Moscow cooperative institute, the doctor of philosophy S.N. Prokopovich in work "The cooperative movement in Russia" published in the same 1918 approached this question more widely and more particularly: defined the relation to the cooperative law of 1917 and to a socio-political role of cooperation in the conditions of revolution. Cooperatives as he considered, it not only the trade and business enterprises pursuing exclusively commercial purposes, and at the same time and the public organizations pursuing "the ideal aims of public construction, intellectual development, general increase in material and spiritual culture, reform of a social system of society". Therefore they cannot stand away from those political events which take place in the country. "Cooperative association — S.N. Prokopovich wrote — without pursuing sharply expressed fighting aims, at aggravation of class contradictions cannot but occupy the position corresponding to a social status of the members in class fight. Life involves cooperatives in fight with which all modern social order is imbued.". In this regard«... about any political abstention or neutrality of cooperatives in social and political struggle out of the question. A cooperative way — not the deaf footpath which is taking away us aside from the wide road of social movement and fight, and one of tracks of this road — the truth, not such deep, as the political track but going near it and the leader towards the same ultimate goal" [10, page 378].

The views of a cooperation role in life of society stated by V.I. Lenin for several last decades cause hot discussions among researchers. The point of view of V.I. Lenin on cooperation relied on K. Marx and F. Engels's ideas by which it was for the first time proved

a cooperation role in a transition period from capitalism to communism. According to their representations, on condition of transition of the power to hands of working class and destruction of capitalist property, cooperation can become one of assignment forms the associated working class of means of production [4, page 70]. Only having turned all lands into the public property processed on the cooperative beginnings, rural workers will be able to get rid of the terrifying poverty into which cast their capitalist society [4, page 58]. Agriculture at socialism, K. Marx and F. Engels assumed, will exist in the form of the big agrarian cooperative enterprises using all advantages of large production, farm vehicles and achievements of science and technology [4, page 68].

Having been the basis for the thoughts of cooperation of the idea of Marxism, V.I. Lenin in the works written till 1917 put cooperation in one row with public organizations. In society he drew a close attention in connection with criticism of the ideas of cooperative reformists who considered cooperation "socialism piece" in the depths of capitalism when even its simple growth tozhdestven to growth of socialism to a cooperation role. V.I. Lenin insisted on what similar statements the liberal populists sow among workers of illusion, slowing down development of revolutionary fight. According to him, cooperatives, as well as any other working societies, have to serve as "center" of social democratic promotion, propaganda, the organization, to actively involve cooperatives in joint actions with party and labor unions. On the Copenhagen congress II of International (1910) V.I. Lenin resolutely opposed illusions that cooperatives in the conditions of capitalism "are a cure of a social problem" and expressed the need of use of cooperation as the tool developing revolutionary fighting capacity of the proletariat in class fight [4, page 100].

With arrival of Bolsheviks to the power in the country in V.I. Lenin's works it began to be formed

the idea of coverage cooperatives of all population of the country for "the correct account and distribution both food, and other necessary products" at implicit submission of cooperatives to the public and municipal authorities. Change of views of V.I. Lenin is traced in the works devoted to questions of the new economic policy. Then the thought of advantage and usefulness of cooperation sounded. "Cooperation as a form of trade is more favorable and more useful, than private trade. It facilitates association, the organization of millions of population, then all population is universal, and this circumstance, in turn, is huge plus in terms of further transition from the state capitalism by socialism. The cooperative policy, in case of success, will give us growth of small-scale enterprise and simplification of its transition, in uncertain time, to large production on the basis of voluntary association" [4, page 117] — he wrote. In work "About cooperation" (1923) V.I. Lenin once again emphasized that transition "to new orders" has to be carried out by means of cooperation "in the way perhaps simpler, easy and available to the peasant" [4, page 261]. Transition to new orders, according to him, meant creation of a system of "civilized cooperators" which "at public property on means of production, at a class victory of the proletariat over the bourgeoisie" [4, page 264] and is socialism. In general modern researchers characterize Lenin's heritage on the issue of cooperation as "inconsistency, discrepancy and fragmentation" [13, page 68] which allowed political leaders of the country to change cooperation for collectivization subsequently.

V.I. Lenin's ideas about the principles of the new economic policy had a huge impact on formation of views of scientists-economists of the 1920th A.V. Chayanov, A.N. Chelintsev, N.P. Makarov, N.D. Kondratyev, S.L. Maslov and others. They made the significant contribution to development of the theory of the organization of country economy, the concept relying on the idea of survival is formulated

and stability of country economy. Works of one of the chief representatives of the organizational and production direction of the Russian agricultural economic thought of A.V. Chayanov were devoted to justification of a role of cooperation in development of agriculture during socialist construction. He considered country cooperation as "very perfect organizational option of country economy allowing a small producer without destroying the identity, to allocate those its elements in which large mode of production has undoubted advantages over small from the organizational plan". A.V. Chayanov considered that "the cooperative road is the only and really correct road for our peasantry.", the country masses sprayed earlier, to connect them directly to the centers of economic and cultural life of the Soviet state and to give them the chance to use all advantages of large-scale enterprise and the improved equipment allowing "to organize". "At the same time — he wrote, that circumstance that these large and organizational and perfect enterprises are under construction in forms of public economy is especially important, i.e. and from the social party are the highest form of the organization" [16, page 8; page 11].


Since the end of the 1920th works of new generation of the authors pursuing the aim of judgment of history of cooperation in terms of the Marxist-Leninist doctrine began to be created. One of supporters and propagandists of a Lenin view of cooperation was N.L. Meshcheryakov — the former board member of Centrosoyuz, the member of Presidium of cooperative section of Komintern participating in preparation of theses about cooperation to the IX congress (1920). In the work he noted that a problem of cooperation is "protection of their members from operation of the capital — trade, loan and partly productive". Because the worker is not an independent producer of goods, it does not need protection of cooperatives, N.L. Meshcheryakov claimed. Therefore

cooperatives are necessary, generally only for small producers — the peasantry, handicraftsmen, handicraftsmen, i.e. petty bourgeoisie. Proceeding from it, he draws a conclusion that cooperation will exist only until there is a petty bourgeoisie. Subsequently such point of view according to which cooperatives — the phenomenon necessary, but temporary, in practice it was used at elimination of separate types of cooperation. In the conditions of a transition period, according to N.L. Meshcheryakov, cooperation has to act as the assistant or "tool" of the Soviet power in construction of socialism [8, page 211].

In the 1920th the formation of the relation to cooperation as to temporary, tactical means began. Functions of cooperation began to be limited to the level of the serving, subsidiary element which need to seize for the solution of more important strategic national objectives. In the late twenties, in connection with development of practical problems of implementation of a course on agriculture collectivization, appeared the works considering cooperation as a translation tool of "melkosobstvennichesky country economy" on socialist rails. Calls of the fastest nationalization of small-scale country enterprise were more often made. "Never and anywhere cooperation played such enormous value in construction of socialism, as after the victory of the proletariat over the class enemy, and in particular in such country as ours, with huge small-scale country enterprise which in any other ways you will not bring to socialism as soon as through collective forms of the organization, i.e. consumer and productive cooperation" — P. Sevruk in work "Cooperation and construction of socialism" wrote (1927). And further: "The cooperated country economy will be inevitable to lose the individual character, turning into collective farm" [12, page 22]. In 1930 other author, N.I. Kozyakov, in work "Cooperation" (1930) even more concretized a task: "Socialist construction cannot

to be reconciled the small-scale commodity enterprise existed further in the present look. It is not compatible to socialism. Socialist construction assumes replacement of small-scale commodity production by the large-scale socialized enterprise" [3, page 6].

Considering cooperation only as the tactical tool in fight against capitalism, researchers of cooperation of the end of the 1920th did not set the task of disclosure of the mechanism of inclusion of cooperation in process of construction of socialism, did not consider the problem of development of the cooperation in the conditions of socialism. Remained not mentioned such important questions as the attitude towards democratic principles of cooperative construction, the relation to cooperative property and to issues of self-government. Negligence to cooperation was more and more shown in works of those years. It began to be considered only as "tool" or "lever" by means of which the purposes, great on scales, and tasks can be solved. And, from these works feelings, moods and expectations of the people who are carrying out these grandiose tasks disappear. Assessments of the situation accepted more and more rectilinear and schematical character which does not have any theoretical reasons. Already openly began to write that by cooperation "we resolve a task of retraction of small-scale commodity enterprise in socialist construction, a problem of its alteration and nationalization". There are even ideas of manipulation of the people. So, the economist, professor V.N. Sarabyanov "Cooperation" (1928) wrote in work: "Cooperation in the USSR is that form of managing which transfers the private owner to the course of socialism, at least he even did not suspect about it". "It is necessary to take the power, it is necessary to seize command heights, and then the cooperation supported by the proletarian power and relying on socialist large-scale industry, will begin to do socialist serious work" [11, page 3].

The review of the literature of the pre-revolutionary and Soviet periods devoted to theoretical problems of cooperation and a role

cooperations in social and economic development of society, allows to draw a conclusion that pre-revolutionary Russian scientists and practice of the cooperative movement M.I. Tugan-Baranovsky, V.F. To-tomiants, S.N. Prokopovich, A.V. Merkulov, I.H. Ozerov, N.A. Kablukov and others covered the main aspects of activity of cooperation, having laid the theoretical foundation of the cooperative movement. Their works represent important methodological, source study and historiographic value today. The first theorists of the cooperative movement for the first time revealed features of development of cooperation in Russia and the main directions of its further development are defined. Much attention at the same time was paid to a research of a role and the place of cooperation in social and economic development of Russia. For the 1920th the literature exit peak according to the theory and practice of the cooperative movement thanks to which Russia became the center of world cooperative science is necessary. Works of theorists and practitioners of the cooperative movement of the first years of the Soviet power of A.V. Chayanov, A.N. Chelin-tsev, N.P. Makarov, N.D. Kondratyev,

S. L. Maslova and others laid the foundation of researches on cooperation problems in

new political and economic conditions. In their works the value and a role of cooperation in economy and social life are investigated, the theories directed to improvement of economic and organizational activity of cooperatives are developed.

Since the end of the 1920th works of new generation of the authors seeking to comprehend the history of cooperation in terms of the Marxist-Leninist concept of development of society began to be created. Huge influence on a research of cooperation of this period was played by V.I. Lenin's works. The main purpose of cooperation seemed them that it has to become the tool of formation of a new system, means of transformation of small-scale country economy to the large socialist socialized production. From now on also gradual decrease in research activity of scientists in the field of studying problems of cooperation began. The political and economic situation in the country already allowed Bolsheviks to draw the line without deep theoretical justifications and explanations. For several decades in historical literature attention was almost not paid to questions of the theory of cooperation, definition of the place and a role of cooperation in economic and public life.


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Rehabilitation of the repressed people of Dagestan in the 1957-1960th

dop. / Otv. red. I. N. Buzdalov. Mn. M.: "Armita-Marketing, Menedzhment", 1998.

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D.Sh. Ramazanova


The essence of the policy pursued by the central and republican authorities in Dag is investigated. SSR in the 1957-1960th regarding rehabilitation of the population repressed in 1944. On the basis of archive materials the scale of the events held those years in the republic which, despite their successful realization, unfortunately, did not lead to a cardinal solution as the repressed population was not rehabilitated territorially reveals. In this regard in Dagestan since 1991 are adopted and the programs connected with territorial rehabilitation of the people — the victims of repressions are implemented.

D. Ramazanova


The article work deals with the main points of the policy pursued by the central and republican powers in the DASSR in 1957-1960 for rehabilitation of the repressed population in 1944. According to archival materials, importance of measures taken in that period was great, but in spite of their successful realization, they did not lead to a cardinal solution of the problem, as the repressed population was not rehabilitated in the territorial rights. In this connection, programs bound up with the rehabilitation of the repressed population in its territorial rights have been adopted and realized in Daghestan since 1991.

For decades in Northern Dagestan the center of international tension because of not resolved still up to the end, despite the measures undertaken by the authorities, problems of territorial rehabilitation of the repressed population remains.

A starting point of a problem is the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of March 7, 1944 "About elimination by ChechenoIngushska ASSR and about administrative

the device of its territory" in pursuance of which all Chechens and Ingushs living in ChIASSR and in the Areas of Dag adjoining to it were moved to other regions of the USSR. SSR: Aukhovsky, Hasavjyurtovsky, Kazbekovsky, Babayurtovsky and Khasavyurt. In total 37 thousand Chechens-akkintsev were sent from Dagestan. Chechen-Ingush ASSR was liquidated. As a part of Stavropol Krai of RSFSR the Grozny district with the center in Grozny where was formed

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