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& #34; National socialist national благотворительность": national socialism in operation?

 © 2004 E.A. Palamarchuk


Activity in the third Reich of charity organizations among which "National socialist national charity" (NSF) held a specific place is still among the subjects which did not receive due lighting in domestic science [1]. Meanwhile it was the most important instrument of social policy of the Nazi regime which allowed it to convince at a certain stage of existence a considerable part of the German population of the truly national character and by that to move apart borders of the social base.

The author of the published article addressed this problem [2] twice. The present publication represents the next attempt to expand our ideas of the socio-political programs offered Germans in "Fuhrer state", the purposes and degree of efficiency of their realization.

Except for the Force through Joy organization (KdF) which was division of the German labor front (DAF), the greatest scope in Germany in 1933 - 1945 acquired shares NSF and "The winter help of the German people the" (VHV) which are closely interconnected among themselves and headed by Erich Hilgenfeldt (in January, 1934 he became the chief of the Head charitable department in the system of the imperial management of the National socialist German Labour Party - NSDAP [3, page 694], and since February, 1936 responsibility for all charitable events held by any of the affiliated party organizations [4] was conferred on it. Paragraph third of the Instruction about carrying out "The law on ensuring unity of party and the state" of March 29, 1933 defined NSF as the union which adjoined NSDAP (per se, it gave support first of all, to party members and their families [5, page 245]).

It was specified in the Charter of NSF adopted on August 14, 1933 that, according to Hitler's order of May 3, 1933, it "is competent head department of NSDAP on all issues of charity and care"... performs management of imperial community of the free charitable help to which belong "the central committee of an internal mission, the union Karitas and the German Red Cross". She undertakes guardianship over health of the German population, seeing the prime duty in development and assistance to "live, healthy forces of the German people" (§ 2). Any German citizen who reached 21-year age and differing in purity of "Aryan" origin could become the member of NSF. Entered it the member card, and after incident of two years, in the presence of the petition, - the member book was handed. The persons who were not observing or counteracting the principles of national socialism were excluded from ranks of the organization "(§ 3). Bodies of the union, according to the Charter, were the board, council, meeting of members "(§ 7). It was especially noted that

the chairman of the board called "reykhsvalter" (§ 10), appointed by the imperial party management individually makes decisions, and board members possess only an advisory vote. The board was approved by the Reich Minister of internal affairs, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs could recall any his member and cancel or delay execution of the decision of the chairman of the board (§ 8). The structure of the council possessing in board and in a meeting of members an advisory vote was completed with the imperial management of NSDAP (§ 9). Resolutions of a meeting of members also had to be approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs which consent was obligatory and for entering into the charter of changes [6, dock. No. 19, page 201-203].

The structure of imperial management of NSF included a number of services. Organizational was engaged in statistical processing of results of activity of NSF and VHV, registration of exhibitions and development of long-term plans. The service of financial management besides the solution of the direct tasks following from its name knew accounting of members of NSF and audit of the available office places of both organizations. On service of care of the benefit and the help to youth lay the organization of rest of children, youth, veterans of the Nazi movement - so-called "old fighters", care over blind, hard of hearing and lost hearing, appeared without work owing to dismissal, tourists, clinics for alcoholics, stations and also implementation of support of the Mother and Child organization responsible for assistance to the needing families, including care

about babies, small children, rest of mothers, creation of the children's places and temporary kindergartens organized in rural areas for harvesting. The service of national health in the political relation submitted to the main service of national health care of NSDAP, in "close cooperation with welfare services and public authorities of health care" was engaged in the solution of the questions of health care which were not within the competence of other departments, sending for treatment of patients partaygenossen and folksgenossen, carrying out improving measures in areas in distress, implementation of measures of support of suffering from tuberculosis and those groups of the population which did not receive it in the area of a social security system and the German labor front. The service of recruitment and training carried out advocacy work on publicizing of activity of the organization in the press, was responsible for issue of own periodicals and professionalnopolitichesky personnel training of NSF - heads and support personnel - in the spirit of national socialist outlook [6, dock. No. 128, page 321-324].

On July 25, 1933 in "Fuhrer" the order of the imperial party management about creation of branches of the organization in a gaa was published. All party members received the order to enter NSF. Then it gau-rukovo-

a ditel in Baden Fritz Argus placed article in which defined tasks of the organization in "Fuhrer": assistance rasovo to the healthy Germans experiencing temporary economic difficulties; providing charitable support to mothers as they "guarantee the future of the people"; the organization of implementation of the program of the winter help for "the German economic simplification". Sore and helpless faces, according to Argus, have to be helped by religious and state charity organizations [7, page 366-367].

At the level to a ga five departments corresponding to services in its imperial management were engaged in the solution of the tasks set for the organization. Here the following power vertical was built: the district head of NSF - heads of local groups. Further there were chiefs of cells (everyone consisted of 4 - 8 blocks) and the blocks (which were switching on 40 - 60 households). The first were responsible for all complex of NSF of questions connected with activity within the competence, including among other things drawing up reports to the chief of local group about results of collecting and assignment of contributions, carrying out vocational education of the chiefs of blocks subordinated to them and rendering assistance to local authorized VHV in collecting "the winter help". At the same time heads of all listed links professionally submitted to the higher management of NSF, in disciplinary - to the corresponding party head. Specially made a reservation that at the head of cells and blocks there could be women [5, page 324-326].

In the letter of the imperial and Prussian Minister of Labour to the headquarters of NSF of April 28, 1935 it was said that "the general problem of all main associations of the free charitable help of a Reich" is elimination of need, support of "healthy forces of the people" and contribution to internal strengthening of "a new Reich". According to this document, from budgetary funds of 1934 (without expenses on resort treatment) to them it was told: in NSF fund - 637 thousand, on activity of the German Red Cross - 84 thousand and for needs of the Internal mission - 280 thousand a reykhsmarok [6, dock. No. 39, page 218-219]. However the "tribute" raised from each member of Community of the People in the form of compulsory deductions from the salary and a salary and funds of "the winter help" were the main sources of the means arriving into accounts of NSF.

Besides professional, special attention was paid by the management of the organization to world outlook training of her members. The relevant order given by Hilgenfeldt on January 21, 1935 ordered to appoint without fail in everyone a gaa of the representative for training of NSF which was necessary to work in continuous contact with district service of training of NSDAP. "Only through a prism of clear understanding of the principles of national socialist outlook", - it was said in the order, the staff of the organization can competently carry out the functions [6, dock. No. 184, page 386387].

As one of the most important problems of NSF was in promoting preservation and ukreple-

a niya of the German people, rasovogigiyenichesky and hereditary and biological criteria were the basis for its activity. NSF refused care vitally weak, defective folksgenossen as according to official national socialist installations only faultless compatriots in the physical and intellectual relation which should transfer in the genetic way these qualities to the posterity and by that to promote "strengthening of force of the people" deserved such support [8]. In the book by G. Alt-hausa "The national and hereditary biological charitable help" (1936) it was said: it is about the benefit of all people, but not a certain individual who has to sacrifice the personal interests public, "not the national economy, but national biology is the index for the national charitable help.... The hereditary predisposition predetermines non-equivalence of people for general welfare" therefore "defective" the charitable help should not appear, in view of its "hopelessness" and unjustified "squandering of national property", related to her. "Only at basic refusal of unpromising care about impractical", - the author emphasized, - the objective of charitable assistance which is in developing the available high hereditary qualities, namely to save them from weakness can be achieved, taking intensive care of healthy, proceeding from their hereditary and biological orientation and racial hygiene" [7, dock. No. 180, page 382-383].

As the racial ideas penetrated all directions of social policy in the third Reich, in the sphere of rendering charitable support the purposeful discrimination against "non Aryans" was also shown. "Rasovo to alien elements" in that or refused, or all expenses, related to her, were shifted to shoulders of their tribespeople. In the document dated on November 22, 1937 and entitled "Measures for providing the Jewish old men needing the help" it was said: "For the economic reasons the vast majority of the Jews needing the help at the age of over 65 years cannot be placed in houses of an old age. It partially would lead to unjustified unloading of families in which elderly people receive the livelihood". It was noted that, despite creation of 904 new places in nursing homes to support them only at the expense of funds of charity organization it was not represented possible in this connection in each case "it is necessary to demand that either the native community, or relatives" defrayed a part of expenses. In particular, from them it was required to make monthly a contribution at a rate of not less than 20 reykhsmarok. The corresponding requisitions were raised also from emigrants. Recently, - it was said further, - on our initiative the Jewish charity organizations repeatedly held negotiations with immigrants" concerning introduction by them "the proportional sum for providing the remaining relatives. The memorandum which has to draw attention of the Jewish public to this problem is prepared by the central charitable office and

to specify all opportunities of the decision taken into account" [9, by page 279a, l. 2-4].

In a conversation between the representative of head department of NSF partaygenossen Kordty and obersharfyurery CC Trentsy, taken place on December 9, 1938 (soon after notorious all-German Jewish disorder - "crystal night"), the first said that NSF is interested in transfer in it of the Jewish orphanages which are available in a Reich which after the action are empty, and noted that the part of such houses is already confiscated by the authorities to a ga. At the initiative of Kordt the agreement that petitions on the specified questions have to be sent to the Reich Minister of internal affairs [9, 637, l was reached.

1 a]. Within the same policy the regular decrease, and then and total rejection of charitable expenses on Roma was carried out (were not paid to them also a dole). It was in many respects reached due to violent placement them in special "Gipsy" camps [10].

Later, in 1940, the law about alien to community" which had to come into force in 1945 was drafted "

According to its first paragraph, the person is recognized as alien to community if it proved the acts and especially "as extraordinary degree of a lack of mental capacities or character" the inability "to meet the minimum requirements of Community of the People". In official explanation of the purposes of the law it was said: "The national socialist point of view on charity is that it can be provided to companions on the nations which both need it, and deserve it. In case of alien to community which only burden Community of the People charity is not necessary, and rather police coercion is required or again to turn them into useful associates, or to get rid of this burden. It was highlighted that in all specified cases a main goal was protection of community [11]. The party sought to turn NSF into mass organization. Recruitment campaigns in NSF of new members were periodically conducted. Divisions CC had to take the most active part in them. "According to the indication of the management to a ga Berlin, - it was noted in the directive directed on April 27

1938 Fuhrer of the Seventh cavalry standard of CC

to command of the first and second cavalry SS storms, - in Sunday

On May 15, 1938 the recruiting action will take place. members for NSF. All divisions of the movement participate in this recruiting action. Fuhrers of divisions have to take care of that all men of CC were placed at service of an action of recruitment" [12, l. 77].

In the appeal of the Supreme department of Ost of March 29, 1939 concerning large-scale action of this sort it was said: "NSF to a ga Berlin during the period from April 3 to April 15

1939 carries out an action of great recruitment of members, that is these weeks all partaygenossen and belonging to divisions is hired among the acquaintances and relatives of members for NSF. Promotion for it began on Monday 27.3.39 and will last till Saturday 08.4.39. Direct an action of recruitment corresponding the subsection -

niya. In each recruiting form the name of the division and a name hiring to a partaygenossa or a folksgenossa are specified. Divisions enter a competition among themselves". In this regard the attention to a duty everyone hiring "was paid to specify the exact belonging to division., for example, the obershar-Fuhrer CC Shill, CC - storm 3/75 - a standard" and the following instructions were given: "All entering have to be undertaken by an indelible pencil or ink. Amendments are not resolved". It was reported that for winners of a competition who will be defined by the special commission consisting of representatives of all divisions 15 prizes with a total cost of 25,500 a reykhsmarok are prepared. Here it was explained that "each spotless German of a Reich of Aryan origin can be accepted" and it was specified that if the recruiting contribution was any and optional, then the minimum membership fee made for a partaygenossa 0.5 reykhsmarka, for other folksgenossen and members of the adjoined unions - 1 reykhsmarka, and an entrance fee for one and all - 0.5 reykhsmarka [12, l. 61]. Of course not everyone entered NSF for ideological reasons. So, the former members of the Marxist organizations seeking to hold posts of blokval-ter of NSF, using the situation, to conduct blasting antistate work appeared in one of messages of Gestapo of Karlsruhe. In other case it was reported about the certain official who was married to the Jew and for this reason sent in June, 1937 to pension which tried to return in a similar way "to a system" [7, page 372]. In addition it is not necessary to dismiss also a factor of the competition developed between various a gaa for involvement in NSF as it is possible bigger number of new members that gave to gauleiters and gauamtsvalter an opportunity once again to report to the higher management on the successful activity. For this purpose local heads quite often resorted to direct dictatorship, using rigid party discipline. By way of illustration to told we will give the following characteristic example: in July, 1934 the Baden NSF on number of the members took the 26th place in a Reich. To improve situation, her chief gave the order to all regional heads by September 30 of the same year to achieve record in ranks of the organization of 4% of the population, and further to bring these indicators to 10% [7, page 370].

The management of NSF paid to interaction with other organizations much attention, agreeing with them about separation of powers in the sphere of charity. According to him, such coordination of efforts had to become one of the most effective arguments in favor of creation in the Nazi state of Community of the People.

On February 6, 1935 Hilgenfeldt signed the circular about "Cooperation with women's service of the German labor front" which had to be carried out within auxiliary institution "Mother and Child". In it it was noted that the specified service directs to the enterprises staffed mainly with women, social production workers, and

on factories and the plants with mainly men's collective - production national teachers from whom (besides performance of "labor pedagogical and production and political tasks") it was required to know about financial position and psychological climate in families of employees of the enterprise and to report to "the competent local organizations of service of national charity" about the families needing the special additional help from the Mother and Child organization. Having emphasized that in this case NSF "undertakes necessary service of the needing families, namely the working women", Hil-genfeldt reported that it, according to the arrangement with women's service DAF, NSF will cooperate with the above-stated representatives of the last at the enterprises for all questions connected with assistance to the women occupied on production, first of all to future mothers, especially when "any given woman for the reasons connected with state of her health is forced to replace the place of work or in general to refuse it". If she is not able to make it for the economic reasons, the service of national charity will provide her the additional help, for example, in the form of subsidies for food.

the Circular came to an end with the recommendation "to include social production workers, namely production national teachers as representatives of women's service G of the ermansky labor front in local labor committees of auxiliary institution "Mother and Child" [6, dock. No. 132, page 331-332].

2 July, 1936 the same agreement was concluded between the management of NSF and the National socialist women's organization ("NS-Frauyenshaft"). In it was defined that for construction and the maintenance of holiday houses (except for the NS-Frauyenshaft boarding houses intended for her members) and kindergartens (excepting created and financed by imperial parent service within the schools intended for training of mothers) the responsibility was taken by NSF. Besides, "NS-Frauyenshaft" had to transfer the special day children's rooms which were at its disposal to the jurisdiction of NSF and could provide lists of suitable assistants for them which were allowed to pay monthly to fifteen a reykhsmarok on pocket expenses if they "were at the disposal of kindergarten as constant auxiliary force" [6, dock. No. 79, page 270-271]. And, at last, under the terms of the contract of the March 21, 1939 ratified the conductress of imperial women of G. Sholtts-Klink and Hilgenfeldt, girls of auxiliary women's service could be involved by NSF for two-year term as communal sisters, workers of children's day places (including the kindergartens organized for the periods of harvesting), holiday houses for mothers and for youth. At the same time, they should not have been involved in infectious hospital offices in connection with danger of infection. In almshouses and neurologic medical institutions only those from them who was 28 years old could be allowed.

In return the department of auxiliary service "NS-Frauyenshaft" undertook to provide for the specified work only physically and spiritually healthy girls in this connection they needed to undergo obligatory medical examination. NSF undertook the obligation to provide the girls cooperating with it with housing and food, or the corresponding sum of money, proceeding from the following standards: daily - 1.5 reykhsmarka on food, 0.5 reykhsmarka for payment for the apartment if the girl lived with parents, or the sum sufficient for renting of the simple furnished room. In case of emergence at NSF of problems with accommodation of girls "NS-Frauyenshaft" provided them a shelter for half-brands in day. If such housing was far from the place of their work, it paid travel by the tram, the bus, railway transport, or in the absence of those the bicycle was provided. Besides, to them it was daily paid on operating costs 20 reykhsmarok during the first half of the year and 30 reykhsmarok - during the subsequent period. The agreement it was provided also by it the holiday (making 15 working days in the first and 18 - in the second year) during which 1.5 reykhsmarka a day on acquisition of food [6, dock were paid to them. No. 87, page 278-280].

During war this practice gained further development. On July 19, 1941 the reykhslyayter Borman published the order about differentiation of competences between NSF and public service of national health care concerning "the preventive family help, especially service of pregnant women, women in labor, newborns and small children", belonging to the most important tasks of national care. In particular, it was specified in it that in connection with the shortage of personnel caused by difficulties of wartime it is required "to use available experts with the greatest possible efficiency". NSF was recommended to create points of the help and consultations of the Mother and Child organization for pregnant women, women in labor and newborns generally where no those are had by service of national health care. To employees of such points it was imputed a duty information on sponsored by them to provide in managements of health care for drawing up card files on hereditary health [6, dock. No. 261, page 464-465]. On October 15, 1941 this document was supplemented with the joint instruction of the Reich Minister of internal affairs and the chief of party office about cooperation between health service and the Mother and Child organization in care of newborns and small children specifying that, according to § 3, Paragraph 1 of the Law on unification of health care of July 3, 1937, bodies of the ministry of national health care are still responsible for realization of the general medical tasks. Responsibility was conferred on NSF to provide in their order additional experts and support personnel - in areas with satisfactory medical care of newborns and to create necessary consulting institutions where no they are had by public health department, incurring all expenses connected with it [6, dock. No.

262, page 466-468]. The message about one more agreement - between NSF and DAF - concerning ensuring care by the person in need on production, signed by Borman was printed in release of an official leaf of the imperial management of NSDAP of April 17, 1942. It was specified in the text of the contract that the field of activity of the German labor front to which "trudovospitatelny and production and political tasks" are assigned includes service of civilian members of the enterprise. In turn, NSF and its institutions carry out care of the German family out of the enterprise which is understood as "all measures undertaken by party for contribution and maintenance of health of the German family in the educational, medical and economic relation., first of all care of future mothers, babies and small children, the help in a household, economic support" (attracts attention that the educational objects are set on the first place). Wishes of the Fuhrer of the enterprise for an occasion of additional charitable family support of any given employee of the enterprise and also information on the unhealthy atmosphere in the educational relation which developed in specific family had to go to local office of NSF, in particular, in a health center of "mother and the child". In return, NSF could address the management of the enterprise with recommendations about an occasion of implementation of various socio-political measures. The contract also provided that in addition to the measures for the organization of rest undertaken by DAF for working folksgenossen, NSF in the presence of the recommendation of the doctor directs mothers, children and young people (14 - 18-year-old young men and girls aged from 14 till 21 year) from families of civilian workers in the improving institutions which are at its disposal [6, dock. No. 207, page 407-409].

Already during the pre-war period the charitable collecting reached the impressive sizes. So, in 1936 when the second 4-year plan which accelerated preparation of Germany for war, according to official statistics was adopted, their total amount was 351,127,000 reykhsmarok. Them them fell to the share of management of charity 3,609,000 reykhsmarok [13]. It must be kept in mind, however, that behind these impressive figures there is a compulsory nature of contributions which each German had to do without fail in funds of various Nazi organizations including charitable, under the threat of severe sanctions.

In the years of war the following tasks were assigned to NSF, besides above-stated: support to bastard children of the died military personnel; evacuation of a part of the population from the areas which were exposed to bombings of allied aircraft and guardianship of evacuated; participation in measures of air defense (the princess Vasilchikova living at that time in Germany wrote down in the diary on July 28, 1943: "NSF, apparently, takes a situation in hand, but difficulties are huge [14, page 82]); the organization of sending parcels by the population to relatives on the front; germanization of Alsace [15; 7, page 367].

In the first military years when the mode, substantially, managed to achieve unity of the nation, denezh-

ny receipts from the population in favor of NSF increased. Such conclusion can be drawn, in particular, from the transcript of the planning meeting held by Goebbels in a reykhsministerstvo of national education and promotion on September 11

1940 : "On concerts according to applications of army, - it is said in it, - the minister agrees to acceptance in NSF of additional number of the arriving monetary donations serving for processing as the sum in 120000 brands (probably, collected at that time. - E.P.) makes only a part of the expected receipts" [16, 12, l. 23]. Imperial and authorities of the capital kept holding charitable actions under constant control, seeking not to allow decrease in results of collecting. Along with other departments, and it is possible, and more, exactly the ministry of of the ebbels who was at the same time the gauleiter of Berlin paid it special attention. On August 14, 1940 L. Gutterer (at that time managing affairs of the ministry [3, page 259]) reported that if according to the forecasts made at the beginning of the campaign of collecting in favor of the German Red Cross it was possible to expect result in 60 million a reykhsmarok, then now this figure, he perhaps, will increase up to 208 - 210 million marks [16, 11, l. 20]. When less than in a year, May 19, 1941, at the meeting which was taking place under the chairmanship of the minister, one of his employees - Brekov - reported that the collecting which took place the day before in Berlin in favor of the Red Cross "made 2.1 million marks against 2.5 million marks last year", Goebbels immediately charged to Gutterer to find out the reasons of such decrease, and the participant of the meeting Martin suggested that as earlier in some cases people became the victims "double collecting - at home and on the duty station", it embittered some of them [16, 20, l. 40-41].

Goebbels repeatedly emphasized need when holding charity events to avoid any actions which could cause irritation of the population. Addressing executives of the ministry on July 31, 1940, he, having referred to the reports of security service (SD) demonstrating that "actions. NSF in the areas occupied by us (the scale and value of that, pursuing purely propaganda aims, were small. - E.P.) in Germany do not find understanding anywhere", imposed the ban on the publication in periodicals of messages about rendering any help to "the defeated opponent" [16, 10, l. 43]. Meanwhile the goods collected or acquired by NSF by no means were not always used for the direct designated purpose. On May 21, 1941 at the regular ministerial meeting among others the question of a solution of the problem of supply of the population with tobacco was heard. Having learned that 140 million pieces of the cigarettes at the time prepared by this organization for the gift distributions dated for a birthday of the Fuhrer are stored in warehouses NSF (the action did not take place in connection with Hitler's wishes), Goebbels ordered that these cigarettes were immediately put on free sale in Berlin [163,

12, l. 47].

Each stock NSF was widely advertized by means of promotion. Were for this purpose used even tser-

kovny holidays. And, according to a director's plan of Goebbels, the church in these cases had to pale into insignificance. So, on December 15, 1942 it instructed heads of the press, radio, cinema on how they should have covered Christmas celebrations. In particular, a newsreel it was imputed a duty first of all to show shots festive "the actions organized by "National socialist national charity" and also children's holidays, holidays in infirmaries, children's chants, etc. and only in the second - Christian symbols (churches, collecting, etc.) [16, to 37, 166].

Also exceptional cases of corruption among officials of NSF using the funds raised by NSF and VHV for personal enrichment were a fly in the ointment of victorious reports not so. This problem became a trial subject at a meeting in a reykhsministerstvo of national education and promotion on August 29, 1942. "The secretary of state informs, - it appears in the transcript, - that yesterday sentences to a large number of amtsvalter of NSF of the Area of Schleswig-Holstein, which were published. appropriated different things from NSF stocks during heavy raids on the city of Lubeck. The minister some time ago brought together gauleiters of NSF in Berlin and explained to them that similar crimes conceal in themselves big danger; when the public learns about them in the form undermining belief in cleanliness of NSF and the winter help the number of donations immediately falls. In the Area of Schleswig-Holstein of donation actually quickly decreased by 50% and more". In the specified cases besides three death sentences pronounced to the gauleiter, a gaukhauptshtel-lenlyayter and a kreysamtslyayter of NSF, several people were condemned on a hard labor and imprisonment [16, 33, l. 219-219ob.].

In spite of the fact that among the population of Germany there was a lot of dissatisfied with requisitions in NSF fund, its activity was positively perceived by most of Germans, many of which with enthusiasm participated in it as volunteer assistants. "Government charitable policy, - remembered Frau Hus-si Holbaum, - was exemplary. I worked for "National socialist national charity" on a voluntary basis. We helped everyone, feeling original need, even to families of the communists who were in pre-trial detention (according to the official report of the Düsseldorf Gestapo dated 1937, to such families through "The red help" (division of KPG) from Holland the Communist Party parcels with groceries went, however recipients quite often, "voluntarily", handed over them to Gestapo and NSF [17]). And for Christmas we prepared thousands of parcels for soldiers, in each of which there were a quarter of pound of gingerbread nuts, couple of apples, cookies and a chocolate bar. We also managed to accept soldiers (holiday-makers. - E.P.) which had no families to go home. My family took one for two weeks for Christmas and again for Easter in 1940" [18].

In general it is necessary to recognize that in the area of NSF of a part of the German population there was also a real help.

Again we will address the certificate of Vasilchikova who noted in the diary that on November 28, 1943 she "got stuck" at the railway station Cottbus. Members of Hitler Youth led her to the room of expectation intended for the victims of bombings where she also spent several hours remaining before arrival of the train to Leipzig. There, she writes, free of charge offered her "amazing sandwiches with a large amount of oil and sausage and a little dense soup. It is work of NSF which showed the greatest efficiency in force majeure. In Berlin the same NSF in the very first day of air raids organized on each destroyed street field kitchens where all passersby could receive at any time very tasty soup, the real strong coffee and cigarettes - everything that could not be found in shops" [14, page 123].

However the scale of this help in itself, and, above all, the state costs of its planning, was not so big as the psychological effect rendered by it. "Each social order, - W. Raich emphasized in the become classical work, - creates psychological structure which is necessary for it for achievement of the main objectives" [19] in the mass of the members. Among the numerous factors providing psychological mobilization of Germans on support of the mode, activity of charity organizations played not the last role. And if, having removed excessively categorical "only", it is necessary to agree with Grill's opinion that in practice the German socialism NSF. was only the program of racial education and the instrument of political socialization" [7, page 364], then it should be noted that this tool was rather effective: most of those who, in any given situation, became object of care of NSF, as a rule, felt gratitude, without thinking of the propaganda background of its actions and own dependent participation in their financing.

Literature and comments

1. Short characteristic of the Force through Joy organization see: A.A. Galkin. "German fascism". M, 1989. Page 211212; A.A. Anikeev, Kolga G.I., N.E. Pukhovskaya. "NSDAP: ideology, structure and functions". Stavropol, 2001. Page 174-176.
2. E. Palamarchuk. And "Force through joy": charity and policy//Scientific and educational capacity of higher education institutions as resource of development of the region: Sb. nauch. tr. (on materials interhigher education institution. nauch. - prakt. konf.,
1998). Rostov N / D, 1999. Page 111-112; It. Organization of "Winter help of the German people": propaganda and social and economic aspects of activity (1933 - 1945)//Current problems of general history: Interhigher education institution. sb. Issue 1. Rostov N / D, 2002. Page 176-195.

3. Zalessky KA. Who was who in the third

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