The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History


psikhologichesky tests it is possible to find at F.L. Goodenough (1949), J. Peterson (1926). Questions of a general historical context of development of testing consider E.G. Boring (1950), G. Murphy and J.R. Kovach (1972), more modern statement of history of psychological testing is given to P.H. DuBois (1970) and P. McReynolds (1975, 1986).

In works of A. Anastazi devoted to testing problems it is possible to meet many examples from the history of formation and development of test methods in psychology, education, professional selection. So far three large works of A. Anastazi (one in collaboration with S. Urbina) are published in Russian to whom huge actual material about creation and application of tests abroad is presented [2, 3, 4].

Testologiya today is quite mature applied science which puts a wide range of theoretical problems before researchers, offers practicians the numerous approaches, models and methods which underwent experimental testing acquaints the public with results of large-scale introduction of testologichesky developments - nauchnometodologichesky, information and organizatsionnopraktichesky - in national programs of objective estimation in education. However the way to it took several decades and was followed by continuous polemic between supporters and opponents of pedagogical measurement by method of tests. Universalism of tests, width of their application, high degree of objectivity of the received results allow to speak about them as about a phenomenon of a human civilization [7]. And for comprehension of it, as well as anything of another, a phenomenon it is necessary to study its sources attentively.


1. Avanesovv. Page. "Tests in a social research", M., 1982.
2. A. Anastazi. Psychological testing. M, 1982.
3. A. Anastazi. Differential psychology. M, 1999.
4. A. Anastazi, S. Urbina. Psychological testing. 7 mezhdunar. prod. M, 2002.
5. V.I. Vasilyev, T.N. Tyagunova. Bases of culture of adaptive testing. - M.: Icarus, 2003. 584 pages
6. N.A. Dadykina. The organization of a test technique of control of skills of structural execution of offers in the V-VI classes of high school (on English material): Yew.... edging. ped. sciences. Voronezh, 1973, 189 of page
7. V.M. Kadnevsky. History of tests: Monograph. M.: National education, 2004, 464 pages
8. A.N. Mayorov. "The theory and practice of creation of tests for a system formations",

"National education", 2000, 352 pages

9. A.A.A. Romanov. P. Nechayev: at sources of experimental pedagogics. M, 1996.
10. I.A. Tsaturova. From the history of development of tests in the USSR and abroad. Taganrog, 1969, 51 of page
11. M.G. Yaroshevsky. Psychology history from antiquity to the middle of the XX century. M, 1997.

A.A. Volvenko


In 1800 the Scottish doctor E.D. Clark made a trip across Russia during which he visited the earth of the Don Cossacks. Clark was literally fascinated by Cossacks. So he described residents of the Cherkassk village: "With polite manners, with the developed mind, hospitable, generous, with disinterested heart,

human and gentle concerning the poor, kind husbands and kind fathers, gentle spouses and kind women, chaste daughters and respectful sons, are that inhabitants Cherkassk. In usual life the Cossack shows excellent character because he is educated, free from prejudices, is trustful, sincere and fair". And further Clark adds: "Put the Cossack near Russian. What contrast!... One is literally the pig on two legs having all bestiality of this dirty animal only with fraud additive; another (the Cossack - VA.) it is a reasonable member of society, as respectable as also estimable" 1. Such flatter characteristic for the Cossacks was probably not known by the army ataman A.K. Denisov when he wrote to the head of the 1820th own "Manuals to misters of army of Donskoy officers" from which follows that ".vsyaky reached to the officer's rank by all means it is necessary to know well to read and write. always and everywhere to be tidy in clothes that nothing from his dress and footwear was dirtied, torn apart, is not clasped; it is always decent to podrezyvat hair; to try to correct the look; to stand freely and directly, to go without bending knees and without shuffling the feet, to sit down directly, not on edge of a chair, not to put a .noga on a leg, especially highly as quite often I see that put one on another above a knee. hands on a table not to put, not to snuffle, not to sup strong that in a disgusting way happens another, not to belch that also very badly and disgustingly; it is possible to try to soil a cloth and napkins as less" 2.

The similar texts allowing readers to get an idea of a certain object, contradicting or obviously different from each other only about the Don Cossacks it is possible to give a set. Certainly, describing residents of the Cherkassk village, Clark first of all meant ordinary Cossacks who, in comparison with peasants, suppose, of the Central Russian strip, looked in his eyes more preferable (but here it is necessary to remember that Cherkassk is then still the capital of Earth of army of Donskoy, and in it, as well as in other villages, the Cossack officers and generals lived along with ordinary Cossacks). Denisov involuntarily shows the face of the Cossack officer who is obviously losing in manners to the Russian nobleman. Both Clark, and Denisov anyway draw such image of the Cossack which is initially subjective and individual, characteristic of different social layers and therefore it is multiple, and only degree of its prevalence and acceptance in society can create illusions of adequacy and generality / stereotype.

In the conditions of the Russian Empire the I floor. There were not so many mechanisms of broadcast of various images 19th century. Among known it is possible to allocate oral stories, fiction, various historical and publicistic compositions, periodicals. In this row the priority, undoubtedly, belongs to periodicals, owing to its bigger tirazhirovannost, relative availability and force of influence on public opinion.

The purpose of the present article consists in identification of the most typical images of the Don Cossacks met on pages of the Russian periodicals of the head of the 60th of the 19th century. From our point of view, during an abolition of serfdom the power needing support, public opinion and the printed word considered as important

1chuzhinets. The English kazakofilstvo at the end of XVIII and in the first half of the 19th century//the Free Cossacks, 1932. No. 108-109. Page 13.
2 The state archive of the Rostov region (further - GARO). F.55. Op.1. 191. L.1ob. - 2ob.

the instrument of justification of the legitimacy, providing to these institutes the known freedom in discussion of burning issues including Cossacks problems. This circumstance promoted folding of the basic concepts about the Cossacks, to formation of images of Cossacks (Don, in particular) which begin to go beyond narrow circles of soldiers, government officials and rare writers on the Cossack subjects, becoming property of the most part of society. Besides, the specified period in creation of a printing image of the Cossacks joins Cossacks, thereby, participating in designing of own identity. The value and consequences of this process, the attitude of the power towards him will also become a subject of our research.

Growth of interest of society in the Cossacks and taking of the strong place by the last in literature and periodicals of the middle - the II floor. Can be explained with the following factors 19th century.

Approximately since the beginning of the 30th years of the 19th century the Russian ethnography paying much attention to a nationality problem in the "nadezhdinsky" meaning of it slova3 gains development. A peculiar response to this process was the book by V.B. Bronevsky "History of the Don army" (1835)4 which according to contents though was not absolutely successful compilation of the materials collected by the famous Don historian V. D. of Sukhorukovym5, but nevertheless designated the main subjects of further researches on history of the Don Cossacks.

The Ukrainofilsky movement of the 40-50th years, thanks to activity of his such prominent representatives as T.G. Shevchenko, N.I. Kostomarov, P.A. Kulish, historically rehabilitates the Zaporizhia Cossacks, and with it and all Cossacks in general, allocating it political and nationalist smyslami6. Kostomarov and Kulish's printing discussions with "great Russian" historians and the Polish patriots about value of the Cossacks in the history of Ukraine and Russia become property wide publiki7.

It should be noted also attention of ideologists of radical currents of social thought of the 40-60th years to the social essence of the Cossacks impregnated, according to them, with the antistate, rebellious beginning. Yemelyan

3 N. Knight. Science, empire and nationality: ethnography in the Russian Geographical Society, 1845-1855//the Russian Empire in a foreign historiography. Works of the last years. M, 2005. Page 166-174.
4 V. Bronevsky. History of customs and customs of residents of Donskoy troops, description of the Don earth. SPb., 1834. H
5 The book by Bronevsky sparked sharp criticism from V.G. Belinsky (1835) and V.D. Sukhorukov (1867, the review was published after the death of the author). About a contribution

V. D. Sukhorukova in studying history of the Don Cossacks see: N. Korshikov, Queens V. Istorik Dona V.D. Sukhorukov and it "Historical description of the earth of Army of Donskoy//Don, 1988. No. 4.

6 A.I. Miller. The Ukrainian question in the policy of the authorities of the Russian Empire and in the Russian public opinion in the second half of the 1850th - the beginning of the 1880th years. SPb., 2000. Page 75-82.
7 A striking example is the known polemic of N.I. Kostomarov with S.M. Solovyov concerning article of the last "The Little Russian Cossacks to Bogdan Khmelnytsky" (The Russian messenger, 1859. No. 18). About essence of the objections Solovyova N.I. Kostomarov had to be explained also to Pole Tadeusz Padalitsy, subjected to their criticism in "the Vilensky messenger" (1860). See: N.I. Kostomarov. Cossacks. Historical monographs and researches. M.,1995. Page 25-45.

Pugachev and especially Stepan Razin become popular heroes in legal and underground oppositional literature8.

However, perhaps, as the main factor it is necessary to recognize activity of the Ministry of Defence on Cossack voysk9 on the eve of and in the period of an abolition of serfdom.

Release of peasants from serfdom in army territories raised for the Ministry of Defence a question of their further existence on the Cossack lands. The former serfs became owners of land with the right of its sale-purchase and also participation in activity of the local authorities created in the Empire and vessels. In this regard the Ministry of Defence should organize civil institutes in the Cossack troops and to consider conditions of representation of interests of the Cossack estate in new institutions. At the same time former owners of peasants Cossack noblemen owned the earth on urgent contracts because of the formal principle of inalienability of army land property. The basic decision on distribution of the right of purchase and sale for the lands belonging to the Cossack top made in the Defense Ministry had to lead to overcoming the known isolation of the Cossack areas due to inflow of nonresident buyers. Own spare capitals were practically not available for the Cossack population. The obligatory military service distracted the Cossack from maintaining profitable economy owing to what, as a rule, the Cossack lands rich with natural resources were used irrationally. At last, the Ministry of Defence, carrying out radical modernization of army in the conditions of budget deficit, planned to reduce the number of sluzhily Cossacks, and "to result the others in civic consciousness", having resolved free access and an exit from Cossack sosloviya10.

All above-mentioned plans and projects of the Ministry of Defence first of all concerned Earth of army of Donskoy (further - ZvD) and not only because the Don army, being the most numerous, was considered as the main thing in the Cossack hierarchy. With the end of the Caucasian war the territory of ZvD lost the

8 Cm of work of Chuzhints: Kazakofilstvo of "Bell" (Herzen, Ogarev and Bakunin)//Free Cossacks, 1933. No. 120, 121; The Cossacks in representation of the Russian historians and Russian radicals of the head of the 60th years//the Free Cossacks, 1933. No. 123. And also article of the modern historian S.M. Markedonov: The Cossacks in social and political searches of the Russian radical intelligentsia//the Humanitarian thought of the South of Russia in the 20th century. Krasnodar, 2000. Page 93-97.
9 In the middle of the 19th century. In the Russian Empire there were 12 Cossack troops: Don, Black Sea, Caucasian linear, Astrakhan, Azov, Amur (since 1858), Novorossiysk (Danube), Orenburg, Ural, Bashkiro-Meshcheryaksky, Siberian linear and Transbaikal. For 1857 in them there were about 2 million 750 thousand people, from this number up to 1 million it was the share of the Don army which was considered as the main thing. The Cossack troops had the considerable military and civil economy. Only the army capitals (budgets) which are formed only of local means and formally being the Cossack property for 1857 exceeded 12 million rubles.
10 In a conceptual look the necessary reforms in irregular (Cossack) troops were proved in D. Milyutin's report (department "Irregular troops") brought to Alexander II on January 15, 1862. Memoirs of the gen. - Feld. year of birth. D.A. Milyutina. 18601862. M.,1999. Page 262-263. Their more concrete schedule contained in "Reasons of the committee founded at Management of irregular troops about the new beginnings for the management by drawing up provisions of the Cossack troops". RGIA. F.932. Op.1. 113. L.7-8; Society learned about the planned reforms through article of. A Cossack captain "About transformations in the Cossack troops" in "The Russian messenger" (1862, No. 8).

the boundary status, turning into the internal province of the empire. Experience of war showed insufficient military efficiency of the Don Cossacks, at least on Kavkaze11. Thus, for the management of the Ministry of Defence acting through the minister D.A. Milyutin and the head of department of irregular troops N.I. Karlgof there is obvious an inexpediency of preservation of the Don Cossacks in former vide12.

Having started realization conceived through local committees on revision army polozheniy13, the Ministry of Defence soon met misunderstanding and even hostility from the Cossacks to the plans. To break current situation and also to convince public opinion of need and usefulness of transformations for the Cossack troops the periodicals were called.

"The Don Cossacks any more not those that were in remote times..."

These words issue the main thesis of article of. Universal, the Sovremennaya Letopis newspaper placed in the 28th number for 1862. Article sign not only the fact that its contents aroused indignation of the most part of the reading Don public and forced to take up the pen for the answer, but also extreme expression of a so-called "pro-government" view of the Don Cossacks.

".drugy business Black Sea or Lineysky; - continued, further, Povsemestny, - those, at least, living on border with the hostile people, carry out the appointment. And Donskoy? since 1812 they constantly began to lose the eagerness to fight. In 4 and 3 okrugakh14 which adjoin to the Tambov, Voronezh and Saratov provinces you will meet Cossacks in bast shoes, in a country caftan with all ways of the little man. And 2nd district... it is difficult to distinguish the Cossack from the peasant. send to the .neena the Cossack to service, he

will change in the little man without fail. The former bent to a nayezdnichestvo, to firing and in general to an udalstvo passed long ago. Now the rarity between Cossacks the good equestrian, and is even more rare than arrows because fathers do not see any more

11 Despite attempts of the chief of staff of army Donskoy to explain book by A.M. Dondukov-Korsakov that the inefficiency of the Don Cossacks in the Caucasus resulted from their misuse (RGIA. F.932. Op.1. 115), idea of the Don Cossacks as about not equaled hopes in the Caucasian war was widespread in society in the head of the 60th years. See, for example: Military collection, 1863. No. 2; Efforts of the modern historian A.V. Zakharevich to show that it not so, are noteworthy, but are crossed out by him the given fact about existence at mountaineers of an offensive nickname for donts - "cane" (i.e. it is possible to cut also easily and with impunity Cossacks as this plant). A.V. Zakharevich. Participation of the Don Cossacks in fights with mountaineers at the final stage of the Caucasian war (1860-1864)//the Cossack collection. Rostov N / D., 2000. Page 262.
12 In the "milyutinsky" Ministry of Defence watched closely the European military transformations and experience of the Austro-Hungarian empire on reorganization since 1851 of so-called "Military border" could not be unnoticed. For many military, and not only, the parallel between granichara and Cossacks, at that time, was recognized as more than obvious. See, for example: A note concerning article about the Cossacks//the Military collection, 1861. No. 2. Page 439.
13 At the initiative of the nakazny ataman of army Don M.G. Homutov in the 1859-1860th almost in all troops (except for Astrakhan, Bashkir, Azov and Novorossiysk) committees which initial task was codification of local army provisions were open. See: Century of the Ministry of Defence. 1802-1902. SPb., 1902. T. XI. Part 1.

S. 408-410.

14 Here the author means numbers of military districts (all - 4) without names into which ZvD was divided, in the civil relation the territory of the Don Cossacks was distributed on 7 districts.

to teach need the children. to riding, firing in a target and to different gymnastic exercises on horses. I know sluzhily Cossacks who are afraid to get onto a horse, and from a gun run as the coward woman. So, this decline of a hereditary udalstvo already in itself says that it is time to recognize Cossacks by the fact that they are, i.e. plowmen" 15.

Such in general negative image of the Don Cossack drawn. Universal, nevertheless, a certain group of the Don officers-land owners nicknamed "progressionists" accepts. The reasons of acceptance are in economic interest and also in desire of radical military reforms for the Cossacks. Fixing in public opinion of an image of the Cossack as ordinary peasant would promote distribution on the Cossack territories of the standard instructions for use of the earth in the Empire, to the statement of the property right of noblemen to the earth and would open the road for inflow of non-residents to Don (presence of the last would increase rent payments for the earth and its total cost). The image of the Cossack as not effective soldier would raise a question of position of the Cossack in the Russian army, of possible change of the status of the Cossack officer towards his equalization of rights with regular Russian officers what the Cossack generals tried to obtain long ago.

Representatives of the mentioned group supplement an image of. Universal, appealing to history. So, the Ust-Medveditsky nobleman in article about permission the non-resident to lodge in limits of army, placed in the local "Don army sheets" for 1862, provides the story Don the headquarters officer about its meetings with the commander of a dragoon regiment of times of the Russo-Turkish war 1828-

29 years. "At present front perfection of active armed forces, - the dragoon claimed, - Cossacks are recognized as superfluous in army therefore that is taken some your regiments here - actually on staff parcels and poslug. for all the time: there was a time and Cossacks were famous, with infantry went to fortresses, and now they already an anachronism in the Russian troops" 16.

The image of the Cossack as the representative of outdated estate in the most convex look was removed by the anonymous author of article "About the Cossacks as Military Force" in "The military collection" (1861). He directly writes: "the circumstance .esl which gave rise to the Cossacks were passed, the Cossacks have to fall. and what has to fall should not be supported by artificial means. The Don army is anomaly because it is located in the empire, it was born in need to preserve borders this." 17.

In general the subject of discrepancy of the Cossacks and its officers with modern war and regular army had quite steady tradition still since

15 of the Item. (Universal)//Modern chronicle, 1862. No. 28.
16 Ust-Medveditsky nobleman. Consideration of a question of assumption of non-residents in army Don//Don. troops. Veda., 1862. No. 30-32. Informal part. In the same article the author emphasizes "Russian, even mainly great Russian origin of the Don Cossacks", it is proved by "fidelity of the mother country acting through her autocrats".
17 Military collection, 1861. No. 1. A little earlier the famous researcher of the Russian community A. Gakstgauzen wrote about it: "They (Cossacks) have to serve the country as protection, but should not represent from themselves the wreck disturbing a plow, industry development, general welfare and, besides, the wreck able to become a brothel of robbers. Cossacks belong to borders, that is why so often move them masses, and so will be always". Tsit. on: Chuzhinets. The German kazakofilstvo at the end of XVIII and in the first half of the 19th century//the Free Cossacks, 1932. No. 110-111. Page 13.

Patriotic war of 1812 goda18. Best of all the note of the general M. Berdyaev (by the way, the grandfather of the famous Russian philosopher N.A. Berdyaev) who had an opportunity to watch Cossacks both from the outside, and from within, Donskoy's army which was long time the chief of staff can illustrate it. In the late thirties - the beginning of the 40th in "Remarks on noblemen and in general" M. Berdyaev writes troops about Cossacks of Donskoy: "Before my arrival to Don it happened to hear quite often about the Don Cossacks, the responses to one another antiput and their most part was not in favor of this tribe. The reproach was that it lost former aggressive spirit and willingly changed a sword of the ancestors for a feather, and courage and a nayezdnichestvo on pettifogging, - became absolutely incapable of military service and other". Berdyaev touched also on an issue of a ratio of the Cossack and regular officers: ". seeing itself balanced with the Russian officers, the Cossack nobility will not have the reason in a false manner to consider itself as nowadays, aloof from Russia: a circumstance very important in the political relation. In my opinion has to in all ways to destroy this concept which is universal here and which should be considered harmful" 19. M. Berdyaev's observations indirectly confirm records of the lieutenant general from the Don Cossacks I.I. Krasnov. Remembering in 1865 a situation of the beginning of the 19th century, he notices: ".v our armies not arrangement to Don the headquarters - and to subaltern officers reached what many approved, as if Dontsov it is not necessary to make in ranks above the village constable and Don to fill regiments with officers army. Besides, the officials living in villages could strike visitors of guests external not with presentability. To them himself had no time to acquire refined manners because all of them spent time in continuous works and cares on economy. From here a suntanned face, hardened hands, the angular address, the uniform badly sewed, quite often threadbare, ugly boots" 20.

The adverse effect of a traditional order of service of the Don Cossacks on family life and level of education became the subject of the description of the anonymous correspondent of the Russkoye Slovo magazine (1863): "Who was in our villages, that knows to what extent of floggings he is developed. In our courts, cases of murders of wives are continually made!. Discharge of a fruit, rape of the daughter-in-law, or even daughters, such things to which we got used, got used. I am convinced that many from our, so-called, aristocrats seriously think that the earth stands on three

whales" 21.

The image of the Cossack - the bone traditionalist, on the ignorance who is stupidly clinging to the become obsolete privileges which actually constrain free development of personality and property probably so extended

18 The special report of the cavalry general K.H. Benkendorf presented to the emperor Alexander I in 1816 was devoted to this question. At the end of the 1820th years it was published in the German military body "Library of the cavalryman" under the name "About Cossacks and Their Military Usefulness". About contents of the report see: Chuzhinets. The German kazakofilstvo at the end of XVIII and in the first half of the 19th century. Page 12-13. See also conclusions of the modern historian: V.M. Bezotosny. The Don generals and the ataman Platov in 1812. M, 1999. Page 27-28.
19 GARO. T. 55. Op. 1. 200. L. 1, 8.
20 Krasnov of I. Bespomestnye and small estate officials of army of Donskoy//Russian messenger, 1865. T. 58. No. 7. Page 336; It is possible to add the known phrase of Nicholas I thrown by him during survey in 1837 of the Don regiments in Novocherkassk To it: "I expected to see 22 regiments of Cossacks, and I see some men". V.V. Puzanov. History of the 5th Don Cossack Army ataman Vlasov of a regiment. Saratov, 1913. Page 35.
21 About the Cossacks//the Russian word, 1863. No. 1.

in the early sixties in periodicals and public opinion that allowed to be published in the government newspaper "Severnaya Pochta" (1862) of article with characteristic name "Whether the Truth that the Don Army Does Not Wish Literacy?" 22.

Along with above-mentioned "images", in periodicals the subject of "estrangement" of the Don Cossacks, its "otgorozhennost" from the Empire by "the Chinese wall" (terminology of that was in every possible way exaggerated

time) 23. Article "About Nationality in the Don Army" which authorship belongs to the general I.I. of Krasnovu24 who is already mentioned by us, as a matter of fact to the main ideologist propravitelstvenno of the Cossacks, adjusted and ready to radical reforms, was designed to destroy similar representations. Article was published in the Voyenny Sbornik magazine (1862)25, the edition controlled by the Ministry of Defence. It was not followed by the editorial introduction or a denial therefore it is possible to consider that the ideas stated in it quite were shared by this department.

Beginning article, Krasnov categorically claims: "After many disputes and contradictions in the Russian literature, it is recognized as undoubted that the army of the Don Cossacks except for the few Tatars and other foreigners was formed originally from the Russian natives". Then he spends many pages to prove a thought of the subsequent continuous inflow to ranks of donts of representatives from the different people and, especially Russian, about free access in ranks of the Cossacks. Krasnov also emphasizes desire of the authorities to see Cossacks as equals attached to all-imperial life, appealing to the highest opinion. Nicholas I, at visit in 1837 of the Novocherkassk gymnasium, told pupils: "You study, children, properly. I would like that, having been taught, many of you served to big ranks, and would be at me chiefs of headquarters, commanders-in-chief, senators, ministers". Krasnov does not agree with opinion that the Don Cossacks - "anachronism". But, "if for Russia, subsequently Cossacks, then what excellent nursery donets for drawing up a regular cavalry will be also are not necessary". Article comes to an end with pathos words: ". they (Cossacks - VA.) wish only one award - that the general mater ours, Russia, did not invent for them special nationality and accepted them as true children in native embraces".

The Krasnovsky image of the Don Cossack - the faithful Russian citizen ready to renounce everything that to it it is expensive for the sake of the Tsar and Russia, for a long time will be fixed in the Russian literature, having turned into a common stereotype.

"Our history, life of our ancestors, developed much it no that other estates in the Russian state have"

In the confidential letter of D.A. Milyutin to the army nakazny ataman P.H. Grabbe of February 23, 1863 the Minister of War with alarm reports:

22 Northern mail, 1862. No. 167. The departmental body of the MFA, is intended also for foreign readers. Publishing of the article can be interpreted as attempt to justify oneself before the educated West for destruction of traditional tenor of life of the Don army, most famous in Europe.
23 Modern chronicle, 1862. No. 41; Russian messenger, 1862. No. 8, etc. The selection of excerpts from articles on this and also other subjects connected with reforms in the Cossack troops contains in the special business collected in working hours of Committee on revision of the Cossack statutes that directly demonstrates attention of the Ministry of Defence to published in periodicals. RGVIA. T. 330. Op. 1. 111.
24 About Krasnov is more detailed, see: Dontsa the 19th century. Novocherkassk, 1907. Page 210-214.
25 Military collection, 1862. No. 4. Page 343-356.

"came to the notice of the Sovereign that on Dona the confidential hand-written newspaper "Budilnik" which at first had the direction satirical. is issued, and then became expression of opinion of the people dreaming of impossible restoration of the Don old times, rising against everyones, obviously, tending to the national benefit of innovations and inflating hatred to the Government and to everything Russkomu26. The same party of people made the body and the official Don newspaper, does not allow any opinions not suitable to an image of her thoughts in the press, caustically attacks all same articles about the Don army which are published in other periodicals, distorting sense in their most unfair way and in general aspires to that by means of the official newspaper to seize public opinion on Dona and to operate it on the arbitrariness and for the purposes" 27. Probably, article of the anonymous correspondent of the departmental newspaper "Russky Invalid" formed the basis for fears of the minister (1863. No. 4) "Letters with Dona". In her it was told about certain "guerrillas of isolation" who "flood local sheets with articles glorifying old regimes interfere with the room in the same newspaper of articles of other direction" 28. Edition of "Army sheets" immediately denied this information, indicating that it gives to all interested persons equal opportunities in the statement of the point of view. Really, our analysis of the local press for 1860-1863 shows existence of publications of different substantial orientation, but, perhaps, articles of those authors who care "for thoroughbredness of the Cossack race" 29, nevertheless prevail.

Article "The Cossack's Thoughts of the Cossacks, concerning Modern Rumours" X became a peculiar response to ministerial charge and reproaches of ideological opponents. I. Popova (in the future the eminent Don public figure, the local historian, the first director of Donskoy of the museum) 30, placed in No. 20 of "The Don army sheets" for 1863. The phrase from this article is taken out by us in a subtitle since its contents is a peculiar quintessence of a position of those whom in literature of that time it was accepted to call "kazakomanam". Article is submitted important also the fact that her author, does not go into details of disputes on land property, the rights of non-residents or problems of self-government (the central and local press were full notes in this respect), he shows the vision of history and lives of the Don Cossacks and wishes that the similar image developed also at the rest of society and, the main thing, was considered by the power when carrying out reforms on Dona.

"We do not reject that the Cossack tribe Russian, only with impurity of other elements; but it developed under other circumstances of the life which had the feature against life of the Russian peasants". So, H.I. Popov already at the beginning of article designates essentially important for him and his supporters a position concerning a question of "Russianness" of Cossacks, solving it is positive, but with underlining certain

26 Author of "Alarm clock" was the young official A.A. Karasyov, the "grandfather of the Don private press" who in the future became (it was involved in the edition and editing the private newspapers "Donskoy Vestnik", "Donskaya gazeta"), "the live chronicle of edge, its encyclopedia". Unfortunately, we did not manage to find any copy of this newspaper. Partially, an idea of the accusatory nature of this "edition" can be got on: Azov region, 1893. No. 291.
27 RGVIA. F.330. Op. 1. 109. L. 1-1ob.
28 Letters with Dona//the Russian disabled person, 1863. No. 4.
29 M. Krasnov. About land isolation for Dona//Don. troops. Veda., 1863. No. 13. Informal part.
30 About Popov is more detailed, see: Dontsa the 19th century. Novocherkassk, 1907. Page 396-402.

Cossack "peculiarity". Further, by means of opposition reception H.I. Popov reveals this feature. "Our villages far not that poor Russian settlements; neatness of clothes of ordinary Cossacks especially festive differ from clothes of male peasants markedly; the dialect of Cossacks differs from a dialect poselyan the neighboring provinces markedly; folk songs by Cossacks differ in the feature - in some military feats Dontsov become famous - in others our life; listen to any circle of free Cossacks, you will hear stories or from a fighting camp life, or stories from historical life of army".

In order that it is even more expressive and realistic to reflect specifics of the Cossack way H.I. Popov resorts to comparison, at the same time, using the verb "see". "Our Cossacks, at present long-term obligatory service life, really have no opportunity to be engaged freely, except agriculture and a household, in other crafts and trade, because we have no cities and there are no factories, from that that actually our edge is represented eyes of some desert and undeveloped. But in practice we find the edge not it at all: we around see at ourselves the general welfare of inhabitants, in a bigger or smaller measure, for all equal; if we are not too rich, then are not poor in comparison with the Russian poselyana;. To tempting words that it would be better if put from themselves the Cossack's rank, we do not trust. As in practice we see another; in the Russian provinces. there are rich provincial and a part the district cities, there are factories and the different plants, the industry and trade prospers, but prospers only in some exclusive points and the few lucky persons use rich gifts of abundance; and in what state there is a majority and especially general population of peasants?. .pocht each Cossack. saw with own eyes and knows that the little man so poorly lives in Russia that has no at itself not only a piece of white loaf, but also decent food, and to many little men to have to eat our "pie" only on Dona when they come here to earnings".

Finishes article X. I. Popov transfer of some wishes of Cossacks to the power (for example, increase in allocations for education, opening of the Don university and so forth) which have to be, according to him, are considered when carrying out transformations on Dona.

H.I. Popov's publication was actually the last in printing polemic of "progressionists" and "kazakoman". The problem of "harmful" influence of "Army sheets" soon became a subject of trial not only in the Ministry of Defence, but also MVD31. The local administration had to react to this circumstance with strengthening of responsibility of censors and personnel changes in newspaper editorial office. From the 28th number for 1863 notes about refusal to authors in the publication of their materials "for the reasons from edition independent" appear. Arrival to Don in August of the same year of the heir to the throne Nikolay Aleksandrovich - the ataman of all Cossack troops and also the royal diploma received in several weeks which confirmed the rights and the privileges of the Don Cossacks, temporarily calmed excited Don obshchestvo32. All these

31 RGVIA. T. 330. Op. 7. 109. L. 23, 27 about-28. At this time the so-called "acceptable question" was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and in its subsoil the new "provisional rules" about the press issued in 1865 were prepared.
32 About a difficult social and political situation on Dona in the head of the 1860th who is behind printing discussions, the opinion was made accompanying on a trip of the heir to the throne I.K. Babst and K.P. Pobedonostsev. "The Don Cossacks undoubtedly have the nice history and the historical features of life which to deny or to force

events took place against the background of the Polish revolt of 1862-1863 which, as we know, pushed the power to reconsider the excessively liberal course towards its toughening, including, and in the relation pressy33. Revival of heated debates in the press about a role of the Cossacks in the history and the present, its future, undoubtedly, influenced formation of an image of the Cossacks, will happen only at the end of XIX - the head of the 20th centuries

Easily for?

Charles Peter
Other scientific works: