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Psychologists in days of the Great Patriotic War: feat for ages



lt separate us from that historical moment when ceased

volleys of the Second world

wars, the most cruel and bloody of all wars ever endured by mankind. War was check of forces and capacity of all people which are involved in this fight, severe test for each participant of those tragic events. Fight against the enemy demanded limit mobilization of all material resources of the warring states, their spiritual and intellectual potential.

The big role in defeat of the enemy was played by the science which was an important factor of reflection of aggression, increase in fighting capacity and providing a high morale of society. And today in a year of the Saint for each person of our country of day — anniversary of the Great victory — we pay a tribute to the memory of our colleagues, psychologists who in difficult conditions of wartime with honor fulfilled the civic and human duty, not only kept, but also increased potentials of psychological science, opened its huge a cart -

mozhnost both in scientific knowledge of mentality, and in the sphere psychological

practicians.

The appeal to this period in development of domestic psychology has not only historical interest, but also it is represented relevant for modern psychological science, allowing to reveal features and mechanisms of functioning of science in extreme conditions. It shows, how applied and fundamental scientific developments when they are directed to the solution of socially significant tasks can be effective and productive, are in due time demanded and socially supported. It serves as a convincing denial of nigilistic views of science and its opportunities in development of society, characteristic of certain modern political figures.

During the research we tried to recreate documentary history of psychology of military years, using for this purpose broad set of sources: state normative documents, scientific

V.A. Koltsova Yu.I. Oleynik

Psychologists in the years of war: feat for ages

works and practical developments, uchebnometodichesky literature on psychology. Along with published, also little-known archival documents, first of all the materials of personal funds of psychologists including them scientific and practical developments, memoirs, epistolary heritage were used.

War radically transformed all spheres of activity of society. "All forces of the people — on defeat of the enemy". Such is there was a purpose formulated on June 3

1941 in a speech of the Chairman of the State Committee of Defense I.V. Stalin and united all people in fight for protection of the Fatherland.

The scientific intellectuals actively joined in public fight against an aggressor. Already on June 28, 1941 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR appealed to scientists to direct all forces for protection of human culture against "Fascism". In an appeal it was said: "In this hour of a decisive battle the Soviet scientists go with the people, directing all efforts to fight against fascist warmongers — for protection of the Homeland and in a name are sewn up world science and rescue of culture serving to all mankind". The decisions of sessions of Academy of Sciences underlining that practical service of needs of the front is a main objective of activity of scientists became the answer to this appeal.

Remembering the first days of war, A.R. Lu-riya wrote: "The feeling of shared responsibility and a common goal covered the whole country. Each of us knew that we are obliged to unite with our compatriots to resist to danger of death. Each of us had to find the place in this fight — or directly protecting the country, or working in defense industry which was evacuated to the remote regions of the country, or restoring health and working ability of wounded" 1.

Changes affected all aspects of existence and functioning of science: organizational structure, areas of work and scope of researches, forms of practical activities, preparation of scientific shots.

What meant transfer of psychology to "military rails"?

Turning in the first year of war of activity of a number of scientific centers, their evacuation far inland, reduction of number of the psychologists occupied with directly nauchnoissledovatelsky activity put before need of concentration of efforts of scientific community on the solution of problems of wartime that, in turn, demanded strengthening of applied orientation of psychological developments. It was connected also with the fact that the base of scientific research moved from walls of institutes and laboratories to practical institutions — in hospitals and clinics, in real labor and educational collectives. According to leading its applied importance and practical efficiency become criterion for evaluation of results and the main reference point when planning research work.

Terms of scientific developments were significantly reduced. As the prose writer V. Chal-mayev wrote, "years were squeezed in months, weeks are pressed in hours" 2. It was caused by the fact that results of researches with impatience were expected by practical workers; life of specific people depended on their efficiency.

In military conditions the requirement of the maximum openness and availability of results of researches to a wide range of erudite and practical workers was updated. The words of the People's commissar of health care of Georgia S.N. Ma-chavariani at a meeting of health workers of evakogospitaly Georgia are in this regard characteristic in the summer

1942 : "Someone from our scientific rabotni-
1 A.R. Luriya. Stages of the passable way. Scientific biography. M, 1982. Page 129.
2 Chalmayev V. Malyshev//glory Wreath. M.: Contemporary, 1987. T. 9. Page 303.

k — he noted — yet does not find it necessary to share immediately with the public all received... in the course of work as the positive facts of any given innovation, use of any given medicine. To similar "secrets" there should not be a place now" 1.

Strengthening of interaction of scientific different areas of knowledge for increase in efficiency of the general practical tasks solved by them becomes urgent need. In psychology it was especially distinctly shown in the development of problems of restoration of mental functions at cherepnomozgovy wounds which is carried out in close contact with clinical disciplines that provided complex studying these questions.

Also the fact that a considerable part of the researches conducted in the years of war had to include a full, complete cycle of development is characteristic: from theoretical justification through experimental check and before practical introduction.

Activity of the Soviet psychologists in days of the Great Patriotic War was many-sided and multidimensional, including carrying out scientific research on defensive subject; work in evakogospitalyakh on health recovery of wounded fighters; psychological training for the back and army; organization of sanitarnogigiyenichesky and scheduled maintenance.

Many psychologists directly up in arms on fronts of war defended independence of our Homeland. Among them there were such famous scientists as G.M. Andreyeva, V.V. Bogoslovsky, A.V. Vedenov, A.I. Galaktionov, M.V. Gamezo, A.D. Glo-tochkin, P.I. Zinchenko, V.I. Kauffman, A.G. Kovalyov, V.N. Kolbanovsky, E.S. Kuzmin, G.D. Lukov, N.S. Mansurov, M.F. Morozov, M.M. Nudelman, A.V. Petrovsky,

K.K. Platonov, Ya.A. Ponomarev, P.A. Pro-setsky, M.S. Rogovin, Yu.A. Samarin, E.N. Sokolov, B.I. Hotin, F.N. Shemyakin, D.B. Elkonin and many others.

The invaluable certificate of life of scientists and their feat of arms are letters from the front. So, P.I. Zinchenko in May, 1942 to A.N. Leontyev wrote in the letter: "Already 7 months as I came off... from a former circle of people, dear to me. Only one time about psychologists... reminded me the message in the press of S.L. Rubenstein's rewarding with the Stalin award... Now I in field army, the deputy commander of a field company. I am engaged in fortification and I am surprised itself that so far and this business turns out at me not bad" 2.

About difficulties of front life also G.D. Lukov's letter, subsequently one of leading experts in the field of military psychology testifies: "I am at war... from the first half of July, 1941. During this time I had to visit various fronts and to be a part of various connections... During the war I slept only one night in underwear and on the bed covered with a sheet. I is desperate in the advanced part. During this time I had to move actively (on foot up to 80 kilometers a day) and to be not less actively in a motionless state (till several hours). I endured retreat and approach. Under big bombing from air was several times, under shelling many times, and under gun and machine-gun fire even more. Three air bombs... became torn about me in 18-15 meters, at the same distance 30 artillery shells exploded pieces and hundreds of bullets slightly did not touch me (only one sniper released in me 17 bullets and, after all, I deceived him). It happened so that I long did not eat, did not sleep and was on cold, in dirt,

1 S.N. Machavariani became wet under
. Better and quicker to treat wounded defenders of the fatherland//for the aid to medics of evakogospitaly. Tbilisi, 1942. No. 6-7. Page 7.

2 Letters of psychologists of the Kharkiv group to A.N. Leontyev in the years of war//the Psychological magazine. 1995. T. 16. No. 5.

a rain also basked in the sun and in dust. I had and to go to the attack, and under firing of the opponent to give lectures and reports. But I am still alive... We have not enough such "old men" and we well know each other" 1.

Military memoirs and front experiences forever were stamped on the memory of veterans. So, F.N. Shemyakin who was at war since October, 1941 as a part of the 60th rifle division created on the basis of a division of the National Militia of Moscow, beginning essays memoirs about the activity in front investigation, specifies: "I write these "Essays" as hypnotized. I do not like to remember war and long ago did not address memories of what I did in those days. When I began to write these "essays", memoirs rose before me as a wall... as the wood of which I cannot get out... Now I in such state that put aside the work on the book

about thinking. Of anything the friend, except these "essays", I cannot think. Pictures rise

before eyes as if I endure them

2

now..." 2.

Psychologists were engaged in construction of protective constructions; worked in the back at a factory, in agriculture, in the field of practical health care, making the heroic work an important contribution to a victory over an aggressor.

A form of practical participation of psychologists in protection of the Fatherland was consulting work and conducting military and psychological examination. So, A.L. Shnir-man since 1941 was a consultant of the People's commissar of health care of RSFSR; K.K. Platonov headed the Military-medical commission 16 Air armies which was carrying out examination of fighting capacity of the pilots who were wounded; A.Ts. Puni was the chief of an office of medical physical education of maxillofacial hospital and the consultant of Sanitary Management of Lenfront.

Huge work was carried out by psychologists in evakogospitalyakh on recovery of fighting capacity and working ability of wounded. B.G. Ananyev worked in the years of war in the neurologic center created on the basis of hospital in Tbilisi and which united a number of the research offices of Academy of Sciences of Georgia headed by the famous Georgian psychologists and D.N. Uznadze's physiologists, I. Beritashvili and others.

The rear recovery hospital of a neurosurgical profile in the first months of war was organized by A.R. Luriya in the village Kisegach near Chelyabinsk. Vpo-sledstviye he remembered: "... The hospital was modestly equipped with neurophysiological devices, the neurosurgical equipment and the equipment of histologic laboratory. In such conditions we had to make diagnoses and to treat the most various violations of mental functions, since defects of feelings, perception and the movement before violations of intellectual processes. Our dedication" 3 helped out. Together with A.R. Luriya in hospital B.V. Zeygarnik, S.Ya. Rubenstein, E.S. Beyn, S.G. Gellerstein, V.M. Kogan and others worked. In 1943 the hospital was transferred to Moscow where scientists continued work on recovery of fighting capacity and working ability of wounded.

A.N. Leontyev was the organizer and the research supervisor evakogospitalya in the settlement of Kaurovka near Sverdlovsk. Together with the colleagues — P.Ya. Galperin, A.V. Zaporozhets, V.S. Merlin, A.G. Comm, T.O. Ginevskoy he was engaged in restoration of movements at wounded.

The famous psychologist A.V. Yarmolenko, being the associate director by a scientific part of institute of hearing and the speech and having ended courses of nurses, on unlucky blockade days worked in the evakogospital of Leningrad. In its archive the extract from the magazine remained

1 In the same place.
2 "I do not like to remember war..."//Psychological magazine. 1995. T. 16, No. 6.
3 A.R. Luriya. Stages of the passable way. Scientific biography. M, 1982. Page 130.

collectings and encouragement from which follows that it was twice encouraged with command. Work with wounded did not leave time for scientific activity and only at the end of war it manages to return to classes science. In October, 1943 she writes the girlfriend Kanicheva to Samarkand: "Yesterday I gave the report on slukhoreflektorny defeats. After 2 years 4 months of a break returned to scientific subject. Passed well. Ask to repeat" 1.

Work of psychologists and in educational institutions was continued. G.L. Sobolev, author of work

about activity of the Leningrad scientists in the years of war, describing events of the first blockade winter of 1941/42, emphasized that "employees of Pedagogical Institute of Herzen among whom it is necessary to call first of all professors] V.N. Vernadsky, S.L. Rubenstein and others, did everything possible that life at institute did not fade" 2. And life proceeded: in 1942/

1943 at institute studied 287 students and 26 graduate students; in 1943/44 — 811 students and 32 graduate students, including graduated from institute in 1943 — 79 students and 5 graduate students, in 1944 — 120 students and 6 aspiran-tov3. As A.V. Brushlinsky emphasizes, "Rubenstein voluntarily remained to organize in the besieged Leningrad because considered the civic duty as the vice rector (in the absence of the rector) work of Teacher's college of A.I. Herzen in severe conditions of enemy blockade" 4.

In the years of war the Soviet psychology suffered heavy losses. A.P. Boltunov, I.I. Volkov, N.K. Gusev, A.A. Dernova-Yarmolenko, G. Losev died or died in the back,

P.S. Lyubimov, F.I. Muzylev, L.I. Schwartz, S.N. Shpilreyn, O. Efrussi.

Imperishable memory to the scientists who gave the life in fight against the enemy.

Despite extremely difficult conditions, psychologists showed the highest efficiency of scientific activity. It was promoted a support on the rich historical experience accumulated domestic psikhologiyey5 and use of results of pre-war practices; the highest devotion and dedication of scientists; reduction of ideological pressure upon science.

Certainly, the most indicative and characterizing development of the Soviet psychology in the years of war the subject and results of research and scientific and practical work act. The main attention was naturally paid to defensive subject. Participation of psychologists in health recovery and psychological rehabilitation of the fighters who were wounded becomes one of the most important directions of scientific and practical work.

So, in plans of research of Management evakogospitaly the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions for 1942 the main direction was treatment of military and traumatic damages. From 136 scientific subjects 36 it was devoted to treatment of gunshot wounds of a skull, brain and peripheral nervous system that assumed development of problems of deepening and specification of diagnosis of injuries of skull and brain; detection of indications to surgery at damage of peripheral nervous system; definition of ways of prevention and treatment of wound complications, including is-

1 A.V. Yarmolenko's letter to R.A. Kanicheva of October 25, 1943//Archive YIP RAHN, A.V. Yarmolenko's fund.
2 G.L. Sobolev. Scientists of Leningrad in days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 of M.-L., 1966.
3 The XXX years of Pedagogical Institute of Herzen: (Sb. devoted to the 30 anniversary of institute. 1918-1948). L., 1948.
4 A.V. Brushlinsky. The first psychological laboratory in the system of Academy of Sciences of the USSR//the Psychological magazine. M, 1995. T. 16. No. 3. Page 54.
5 At the same time the works on psychological aspects of fighting activity performed by the Russian psychologists on materials Russian-Japanese (1905-1907) and World War I had the special importance.

use of methods of physiotherapy exercises, recovery gymnastics and fizio-terapii1. It is natural that in the solution of these tasks the important role belonged to psychologists. Such subjects as development of methods of examination of damages of the central nervous system and their treatment and also a research of the contusions remote influences on the mental sphere of patients and fight with nimi2 were directly addressed to psychologists.

And the circle of the problems developed in the field during war extended and concretized. At the same time increase of a psychologo - psychiatric, psychoneurological and patopsikhologichesky tematiki3 was observed. So, the number of problems of research work in the field of health care for 1944 joins such subjects as the psychoneurological principles of labor training and employment of neurodisabled people, post-traumatic mental changes and working ability of patients and a row drugikh4.

One more direction of practical work of the Soviet psychologists in the years of war, especially at its first stages, was development of recommendations about psychological bases of a tsvetomaskirovka.

In this regard activity of the group of employees of department of psychology of Le directed by B. Ananyev - is of special interest

ningradsky Institute of a brain (A.I. Zotov, Z.M. Berkenblit, R.A. Kanicheva, etc.) for which the task of preparation of recommendations about a tsvetomaskirovka of a number of buildings of Leningrad for the purpose of their preservation at massirovny shellings of the city was set. Scientists developed the program of a pilot study which was begun in August, 1941. Despite labor input and complexity of an experiment, large volume of the obtained empirical data, a research it was complete as soon as possible, and in the winter of 1942 its results were used in practice of masking of high-rise structures of the city — St. Isaac's Cathedral, Admiralty and other architectural masterpieces.

Performance of work in so short time was provided, first, with actually round-the-clock carrying out experiments, secondly, creative reconsideration and use of pre-war developments in the field of color perception. Memoirs of direct participants of a research Kanicheva and Yarmolenko allow to realize its scale and the importance: thanks to dedication of scientists invaluable monuments to ours kultury5 were kept.

The problem of a research and formation of personal qualities of fighters and commanders that

was one of priority in psychological subject of wartime
1 Chronicle//Hospital business. M, 1943. No. 2-3. Page 60.
2 About expansion of research in evakogospitalyakh//Hospital business. M, 1942. No. 3-4. Page 53.
3 At the beginning of December, 1943 at a meeting of Presidium of the Academic Council Narkomzdrava the USSR together with Board of All-Union society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists defined long-term plans of work. It is remarkable that an overwhelming part of planned assumed participation of psychologists in them. These are injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system (syndromes of the upset consciousness at kommotion and contusions, local and all-brain symptoms in clinic of traumatic psychoses and their loudspeaker); infectious and toxic diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system (clinic of post-operational psychoses, endogenous psychoses); psychogeniuses of wartime (clinic, pathogenesis and classification psychogenius, clinic, pathogenesis and treatment of reactive states, loudspeaker of various forms of psikhopatiya); examination of nervous and sincere diseases (otgranicheny schizophrenia from reactive states, diagnostics and examination of epilepsies); therapy of mental diseases, medical help to disabled people of Patriotic war (methods of recovery therapy, disability prevention, examination of working capacity).
4 The main problems of research in the field of health care recommended by academic Medical Council of NKZ USSR for 1944//Hospital business. M, 1944. No. 1-2. Page 64-66.
5 R.A. Kanicheva, A.V. Yarmolenko. The Leningrad psychologists in the years of war//the Psychological magazine. 1985. No. 6. Page 3-7.

was explained by a paramount role of a human factor in ensuring efficiency of military activity. It should be noted that along with scientists the big contribution to the solution of this task was made by the military experts who presented syntheses of the personal manifestations and characteristics of fighters which are directly observed by them in a military situation.

Among works of this direction the cycle of researches of B.M. Teplov devoted to the personality voyenachalnika1 is of special interest. Carrying out a research was dictated by the social order, was carried out by the author in hard conditions of evacuation. At the same time this, apparently, especially practical task gets deeply fundamental sounding in its works. Teplov characterized the work as attempt of "a research in the field of a problem of abilities", studying the general mental capacities, qualities of mind, "demanded by a certain type of practical activities" 2. The mind of the commander is considered by it as a typical example of "practical mind". Therefore studying mental work of the commander, according to him, has not only practical, but also scientific interest, is one of the bases of development of psychology of thinking.

Subject of the psychological analysis were not only military leaders, commanders, but also commanders of all ranks and levels. So, T.G. Egorov studied personal characteristics of commanders of an average link, N. Salma - is new — commanders of divisions, A. Skachkov — staff officers.

In works of erudite and military experts the generalized psychological portrait of the fighter including such personal properties as feelings of honor was actually created

3

and it dostoinstva3, patriotism and fidelity

45 dolgu4, courage, courage and geroizm5, activity, initiative and independence in acceptance of crucial decisions (Fer-ster N.P., A.A. Chernikov, N. Salmanov), discipline and vynoslivost6.

In this context the deep development by N.D. Levitov of a problem of the will determined by it as the core of the personality, the integrated psychological education concentrating in itself a complex of all "power" personal properties and causing features of their development and manifestation is of interest. Levits marks out the following characteristics of the strong-willed person: 1) "clarity of the purpose" and focus of actions and acts (on the basis of awareness of correctness of the business, greatness of tasks, a military duty); 2) "activity of will", proyavlya-

1 The first publications of the author come to this subject in the years of war (Teplov B.M. Um and will of the serviceman//the Military thought. 1943. No. 12; B.M. Teplov. To a question of practical thinking//Scientific notes of MSU, 1945. No. 90). During the post-war period the modifed option of the specified work enters as the section under the name "Mind of the Commander" fundamental work of the scientist of "A problem of individual distinctions" (1961).
2 B.M. Teplov. Mind of the commander//Elite works: In 2 volumes. M, 1985. T. 1. Page 223-305.
3 I. Ponomarev. Honor of the officer//Military messenger. 1944. No. 3-4. Page 40-43.
4 K.N. Kornilov. Education of moral qualities//Red star. April 1941, 2, 5.
5 I.A. Kairov. Courage and its education today//Soviet pedagogics. 1942. No. 8-9. Page 615; Quack doctors N.A. Rol of emotions in fighting, military valor//the Soviet pedagogics. 1943. No. 7. Page 5-40; L.N. Mosiava. Firmness of the fighter and psychological bases of her education//Psychology. Tbilisi, 1943. T. 2; A.K. Perov. Psychology of courage and fear in connection with a character problem: Master's thesis. M, 1945; D.I. Ramishvili. Psychological essence of a heroic act and typology of heroes//Psychology. Tbilisi, 1943. T. 2; M.M. Rubenstein. Hero's birth (psychological essay)//Soviet pedagogics. 1943. No. 10. Page 43-48; M.P. Feofanov. Education of courage and courage//Soviet pedagogics. 1941. No. 10. Page 60-65; G.A. Fortunatov. Fear and its overcoming: Master's thesis. M, 1942.
6 L.N. Mosiava. Psychology of discipline of the fighter. Tbilisi, 1941; S. Sarychev, F. Spiridonova. To a question of education of fighting endurance//Military the messenger. 1944. No. 9-10; V.A. Khrustalyova. What to read about education of conscious discipline//the Soviet pedagogics. 1942. No. 5-6. Page 76-85.

yushchayasya in determination, courage, initiative at decision-making and implementation of actions; 3) "firmness of will", or ability to make long efforts on overcoming obstacles in a way to achievement of the goal; persistence, persistence, endurance; 4) "organization of will" which is expressed in such psychological characteristics as discipline, endurance, self-checking, self-confidence and in the dele1.

The original theoretical model of consideration of personal characteristics in the context of their emotional manifestations is presented also in M.P. Feofanov's works. So, courage is defined by it as "one of emotional traits of character of the person" which is shown in such acts as heroism, courage, samootverzhennost2. The main emphasis at disclosure of this quality is placed on studying content of the sensual experiences accompanying acts of the person. At the same time it is allocated the main groups of the feelings stimulating courageous and resolute actions: "pleasant experience... risk or passion for danger", "feeling of fight" as manifestations of the forces, abilities, "joy of success of fight" and achievement of a goal (in the same place). The author gives reviews of fighters that during fight covers them "joyful heat" of fight, "fight of a victory" (in the same place) which is so big that sometimes smoothes sharpness of pain from wounds, forces the person to forget about personal danger, about threat of death. The exciting and stimulating impact on the person, also the examples of heroism leading to emergence of the whole scale of feelings render: admiration of a self-sacrificing act, aspiration to imitate the hero, activization on this basis of self-esteem, anger "as emotions of fight", desires to revenge for the died companion.

Feofanov's thought Is of interest

about the fact that connection of courage with other personal qualities leads to formation of new properties. In this context are opposed by the author the "mad courage" which is not considering the extent of real danger and feature of a situation, and the courage performing in unity with self-control, care, exact calculation. In the second case the courage gains new quality, becomes courage. And the content of emotional experiences acts as backbone quality of this personal phenomenon, according to the author. The courage is estimated as a specific mental state at which mental activity proceeds in the conditions of self-control, leveling of asthenic emotions. As confirmation he refers to empirically established facts according to which in the conditions of danger the thought especially intensively functions at courageous people.

In works of scientists the socio-historical conditionality of character, its communication with outlook, dependence on education and relevant conditions of activity is emphasized. From here a conclusion about a possibility of purposeful formation of the identity of the person followed, the attention on "responsibility che-was focused

3

a loveka" for the harakter3.

And though in similar approach underestimation of individual and psychological prerequisites of formation of character of the person was shown that led to a certain schematization and simplification in understanding of the nature of this difficult psychological phenomenon, justification of activity approach in studying the personality was of undoubted scientific interest.

As S.L. Rubenstein, "wrote in concrete activity, in work in 1945,

1 N.D. Levitov. Will and character of the fighter//Military messenger. 1944. No. 1. Page 40-48.
2 M.P. Feofanov. Education of courage and courage//Soviet pedagogics. 1941. No. 10. Page 60.
3 B.M. Teplov. Psychological characteristic of the personality//Soviet pedagogics. 1945. No. 1-2. Page 50.

in the course of public practice... mental properties of people not only are shown, but also formed" 1. In the recognition of an opo-sredovannost of development of characterologic properties and abilities of the person by his own social activity, social being denying, in fact, division of people into the "lowest" and "highest" races on the basis of biological characteristics, Rubenstein sees true humanism of the Soviet psychological science.

The specified approach was realized also in relation to the sphere of military activity. So, T.G. Egorov emphasizes that process of "working off" of character has to happen in direct activity of people, "to be shaped in fight against difficulties, in the conditions which are brought closer to special activity" 2. Military activity, imposing specific requirements to the person, respectively forms a certain set of personal qualities of the soldier. "Great Patriotic War — S.L. Rubenstein wrote — opened sources of unprecedented courage and unprecedented heroism in the hearts of the Soviet people. These qualities were created, revealed, cultivated in the course of the Great Patriotic War under the influence of the great purposes of this war and the need realized by the Soviet people to fight for their implementation" 3. M.P. Feofanov also pointed to it, noting that a fighting situation — the field for manifestation of different types of heroism, hrabrosti4. N.D. Levitov emphasized importance of accounting of those qualities of the fighter, "which are required from it in a military situation" 5.

Special attention was paid on motivational aspects of activity of fighters from which, first of all, moral motives, socially significant in character, components, according to S.L. Rubenstein, "the most human in the person" 6 were distinguished. And not opposition personal and public meant, and their organic unity which is shown in what socially significant actually becomes personal and significant, generating in the person "real, imperious forces, more powerful, than any personal inclinations...". In this regard the problem of motives of human behavior is estimated by Rubenstein "as one of the most important problems of the Soviet psychology" 7.

Investigating any given psychological characteristics of the person, authors were not limited to the description of their contents and forms of manifestation, paying a close attention also to consideration of ways and methods of their formation.

Also the going deep attention to national military traditions of the people was explained by aspiration as much as possible to make active a moral and psychological factor in fight against the enemy. In the editorial of the Sovetskaya Pedagogika magazine in the first year of war it was noted that the feeling of the Soviet patriotism deeply disappears the roots that it was formed in fight against the numerous aggressors encroaching on the country in the past. The love for the country and contempt for enslavers are estimated as the properties traditionally inherent in the Russian people. In this regard represent in-

1 S.L. Rubenstein. The Soviet psychology in the conditions of the Great Patriotic War//S.L. Rubenstein. Essays. Memoirs. Materials. M, 1989. Page 377.
2 T.G. Egorov. Psychology. M, 1952.
3 S.L. Rubenstein. The Soviet psychology in the conditions of the Great Patriotic War//S.L. Rubenstein. Essays. Memoirs. Materials. M, 1989. Page 390.
4 M.P. Feofanov. Education of courage and courage//Soviet pedagogics. 1941. No. 10. Page 60-65.
5 N.D. Levitov. Will and character of the fighter//Military messenger. 1944. No. 1. Page 40.
6 S.L. Rubenstein. The Soviet psychology in the conditions of the Great Patriotic War//S.L. Rubenstein. Essays. Memoirs. Materials. M, 1989. Page 394.
7 S.L. Rubenstein. The Soviet psychology in the conditions of the Great Patriotic War. Page 392.

teres the works covering military traditions of Russian naroda1. In 1945 there is a book by A. Krivitsky of "Tradition of the Russian officers".

Thus, appealing to historical experience, the psychology solved a problem of formation of a moral standard of behavior of the person in the conditions of fighting activity.

It should be noted that the experience accumulated in this area by the Soviet scientists extremely we mean and it is relevant and today when formation of high moral and spiritual motives of behavior and civil and patriotic installations of the personality becomes an important factor of consolidation of the Russian society, maintaining its integrity and unity.

In spite of the fact that in the years of war the priority place in structure of scientific activity was taken by directly military developments, researches which are carried out for the benefit of the front, considerable attention was paid also to so-called "peace" subject. The last was presented first of all by all-psychological and psychology and pedagogical works. The fact of the address of scientists in the years of war to an all-psychological and psychology and pedagogical perspective is symptomatic, demonstrates perspective orientation of scientific developments of military years, is an indicator that even in military conditions there was no stop in development of a research, theoretical thought. All range of the mental phenomena acted as a subject of study actually.

Among the most significant achievements of a theoretical thought of military years it is possible to call development of problems of development psychogenesis by B.G. Ananyev oshchushcheniy2, about -

a dolzheniye A.N. Leontyev of the researches of emergence of sensitivity begun in pre-war years as abilities elementary oshchushcheniya3 and development of problems of structure of activity by it; scientific justification with a support on the materials of variability and an uprazhnyaemost of sensitivity of sense organs received in the years of war, their professional differentiation and specialization (A.V. Yarmolenko; R. Kanicheva; S.V. Kravkov; S.G. Efarov, etc.); fundamental works of S.V. Kravkov "Eye and its work" (1945) and "Interaction of sense organs" (1948); Luriya, Ananyev, Obodan, Anokhin's researches in the field of neuropsychophysiology; studying problems of involuntary storing in P.I. Zinchenko's works; development of a problem of psychology of the relations by V.N. Myasishchev as prerequisite of personal development it is normal also of pathology; preparation by S.L. Rubenstein during the war the second edition of "Fundamentals of psychology" awarded the highest State award — the Stalin award; researches of problems of history of psychology in B.G. Ananyev, G.S. Kostiuk, N.A. Rybnikov, A.A. Smirnov, B.N. Teplov's works and many other developments of domestic scientists.

Unfortunately, there is no opportunity to stop in more detail on illumination of different activities of the Soviet psychologists in the years of war. But already above noted demonstrates a variety of the directions of research activity, its practical orientation and at the same time high theoretical level.

A development indicator during the military period of a theoretical thought was the preparation which is also amplifying from year to year psikholo-

1 N. Korobkov. National lines of the Russian military art//Under a Marxism banner. M, 1943. No. 7-8. Page 27-40; K. Pigarev is a soldier — the commander: Essays about Suvorov. M, 1943.
2 B.G. Ananyev. To the psychological theory of feelings.//Scientific conference of psychological office of philosophical faculty. I LIE. L., 1945. Page 5-8.
3 A.N. Leontyev. To a question of genesis of sensitivity//the Collection devoted to the 35 anniversary of scientific activity of D.N. Uznadze. Tbilisi, 1944.

g of the top skills — candidates and doctors of science. In?

Billy Peters
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