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Category: History

Symbolics of military regalia of the Moscow tsars

evgeny PChELOV


History of the state regalia of Russia - one of actively developed subjects in modern historical science. It is especially relevant in the context of history of the state symbolics and forms of representation of the power. Regalia not only bore on themselves images of the state symbols, but also performed the major symbolical function, being the visible embodiment of supreme authority of Russia, reflected the history of the country, its spiritual traditions and culture in the concentrated look.

In recent years there were several scientific publications of the museum objects and special researches devoted both to all complex state regaliy1 and to separate things. In a number of works coronation regalia, including royal wreaths, scepters, powers, since the well-known cap of Monomakha are analyzed. History of regalia in the 17th century is fruitfully studied

However besides widely known objects participating in crownings and other official ceremonies and performing functions of the civil presentation of the governor - crowns (wreaths), scepters, powers, staffs, barm, etc. rightfully it is necessary to carry to the Russian regalia also some objects of ceremonial arms representing the Russian sovereigns in military quality and used in ceremonies of military character. For the first time question of existence special military re-

1 A.L. Horoshkevich. Coat of arms//Coat of arms and flag of Russia. X-XTTT of centuries - M., 1997; I.A. Bobrovnitskaya. Regalia of the Russian sovereigns. - M, 2004.

Zilina N.V. Shapka Monomakha: historical and cultural and technological research. - M, 2001; Bobrovnitsky I.A. Shapka Monomakha: To a problem of origin of a form//Filimonovsky readings, the issue 1. - M, 2004.

3 M.V. Martynov. Royal wreaths of the first Romanov//Art of Medieval Russia. GIKMZ "Moscow Kremlin": materials and researches. - M, 1999; It. Regalia of the tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich. - M, 2003; I.A. Bobrovnitskaya. Regalia of the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich. - M, 2004.

gallium in Russia in the latest historiography was put by A.K. Levykin who considered military ceremonies of pre-Pertine Russia and characterized a circle of objects of arms, the important military insigniy1.

The symbolics of military regalia still remains a little investigated. Meanwhile on many military regalia there were interesting emblems, various symbolical images which circle was not limited to the Russian State Emblem at all. At the same time military regalia could become the state symbols and even to enter the state heraldry of Russia.

Various objects of arms, first of all, it - saadak, the representing onions with arrows, naluch and a quiver can be carried to number of military regalia of the Russian tsars; helmet and saber. Besides, the thrust weapon, for example, of a spear also is mentioned in descriptions of marching royal treasury, and some remained things from Armory owing to the uniqueness could also have the status of military regalia. During a military campaign the military regalia were born before the tsar by special court attendants. These objects kind of symbolized the Russian sovereign as the warrior, showed his participation in military life of the country and emphasized its high purpose.

All there were three sets of military regalia. The number of sets (or "dresses") things makes think of its symbolical value. Under A.K. Levykin's assumption, this number could correspond to number of the kingdoms which were under a scepter of the Russian sovereign (Russian, Kazan and Astrakhan or, later, Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian). However in set of three saadak the traditional ternary structure characteristic of the Russian culture of that time is traced. Number "three" steadily was associated with the Holy Trinity, and on -

1 A.K. Levykin. Military ceremonies and regalia of the Russian tsars. - M, 1997.

A.K. Levykin. Decree.soch., p. 62.

to it it was so widespread in various phenomena and objects of culture, including and court.

Differed with Saadaki on decorative registration. If main ("big") saadak it was decorated with gold, enamel and gemstones, then second ("another") had only a gold frame, and the third - in general was embroidered. In the same way also arrows differed. For a big and second saadak about 30 arrows, and intended for the third - only 25, and arrows of a big saadak were made of a cypress, the second - of an apple-tree, and arrows of the third are called "trostyany". Therefore, and material "embodiment" of ceremonial weapon differed depending on its status.

The earliest saadak "A big dress", remained till our time, was created by group of foreign masters for the tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich in 1627-1628. It probably treats the whole series of the objects made for the tsar these years due to the need to make new "set" of regalia. Decorative registration of a saadak is extremely interesting. It is decorated with numerous gemstones, but the main thing, has several emblematic images executed in the equipment of enamel.

On a nalucha of a saadak in the center the image of a two-headed eagle around which four medallions with four animals is placed. This is a single-headed eagle, white with gold, who holds a royal wreath in a paw; the brown griffin holding the power in a paw; the white unicorn holding a scepter and, at last, the golden lion holding a sword. Below this composition the image of the rider spearing a dragon is located.

On a quiver there is also an image of a two-headed eagle similar to the image on a nalucha, but the smaller size. And below, under an eagle, the white unicorn with Golden Horn turned to the right from an eagle is placed in a medallion. From all three state emblems the image of a unicorn still

also it is repeated around a two-headed eagle what forces to dwell upon his symbolics.

In the Russian emblematika the unicorn is known since the end of the 15th century, but only at Ivan the Terrible his image appeared on State Seals and remained on them up to the middle of the 17th century. He became very popular symbol, including the military, and in some plots and emblems was represented in fight against a lion.

A unicorn - the mythical animal known since the ancient cultures of the East. Possibly, through east influence this image became known in antiquity - the Greek and Roman authors wrote about a unicorn, connecting places of its dwelling with India or Africa. In medieval Christian culture the symbol of a unicorn was multiple-valued. First of all, it was considered allocated with unusual force. The power and invincibility of a unicorn made it a widespread military symbol that is visible also in case of the Russian military banners. Strength of a unicorn consisted in his horn. Was considered that if to lower such horn, for example, in the poisoned drink, it will lose the killing qualities. At the same time attributed to a unicorn also ability samoobnovlyatsya: from dumped by the dying animal of an old horn the new unicorn could arise. The unicorn was invincible, but only the virgin could tame him therefore the unicorn was perceived by a symbol of purity and innocence.

In Christian tradition attached it particular importance. The maiden symbolized the Mother of God, and a unicorn - Christ. So, in the Gospel of Luke the christophany metaphorically is called as "erection of a horn of our rescue", and in Psalters "rise" of a horn of a unicorn serves as a familiarizing metaphor by an ospoda and victories over enemies. Respectively in Russia the horn of "inrog" could symbolize "the eminence of the Christian kingdom" and

even the most "great sovereign", and according to Jacques Marzheret, the staff of Russians tsarey1 was even made of a unicorn horn.

From two other emblems of a saadak of Mikhail Fyodorovich at objects of arms there is an image of a griffin. There is a hypothesis that the griffin in the 17th century could be a patrimonial emblem of Romanov (as the official Raman coat of arms it is known only from the middle of the 19th century). But, anyway, all four animals of a saadak should be considered as a uniform symbolical system. On the one hand, it were symbols of throne (state eagle, the rider, regalia), with another - symbols of spiritual character (analogy to symbols of evangelists). The same fact that these emblems were located on objects of ceremonial arms, military regalia, meant that the tsar in military quality was not only the defender of the country, the power, but also Christian belief, the leader of orthodox troops.

If sabers of "A big dress" (behind the only exception) do not bear on themselves any essential emblems, then the main royal helmet is in this regard more indicative. It is about a magnificent cap-erikhonke of the tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich - an outstanding masterpiece from a meeting of Armory. The name "erikhonsky cap" comes, apparently, from the verb "erikhonitsya", i.e. "to flaunt". In a basis - it is east helmet, but it was issued by the outstanding master Nikita Davydov (who worked in Armory several decades) in 1621. A helmet is decorated with the gold notch making a whimsical and thinnest pattern of a vegetable ornament, enamel, pearls and gemstones. On an alluvial arrow of a helmet the archangel Mikhail - the leader of heavenly troops and the military patron of the Russian tsars is represented. He holds in the right hand an eight-pointed cross, and in left - a scepter. Are -

1 Yuzefovich L.A. Put of the ambassador. Russian ambassadorial custom, use, etiquette, ceremonial. - SPb., 2007, building 168.

Mikhail clearly hanget pointed to an image of the tsar-soldier as he corresponded to princely, and then throne (Cathedral of the Archangel Michael (Archangel's Cathedral) was a necropolis of the Russian princes and tsars).

The great decorative registration of a helmet bearing a certain symbolical sense, and its function as a part of "The big squad" of marching treasury of the tsar allow to consider it "a fighting wreath" of the Russian tsars. This perception of a cap erikhonsky remained and further, but its real story was rethought. In the 19th century Mikhail Fyodorovich's helmet was considered Alexander Nevsky's helmet, so, the most ancient princely helmet of Russia. In this quality the image of a helmet was a part of the State Emblem of the Russian Empire created by the baron B.V. Kyone in 1856-1857. In structure of the coat of arms a helmet took very important place - it topped the central board with the image of the most two-headed eagle. Thus, the military component of the Russian state ideology found the embodiment at the highest symbolical level.

Evgeny Vladimirovich PCHELOV - to. and. N, associate professor; associate professor of a source study and auxiliary historical disciplines of Istorikoarkhivny institute of RGGU

Helen Roberts
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