The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

Activities of a voyennoy of a dministration for management of the Russian Turkestan



ivan VOLKOV

ACTIVITIES of MILITARY AUTHORITIES FOR MANAGEMENT of the RUSSIAN TURKESTAN

In article it is analyzed rop military authorities of the Russian Turkestan in development of industrial production in Central Asia.

The present article is focused on analyzing the role of the military administration of Russian Turkestan within the historical context of the industrial development of Central Asia.

grenazhny stations, nursery of mulberry trees, kokonosushipny industry, shepkotkachestvo; silkworm egg production stations, mulberries plantation, cocoon drying facilities, silk weaving.

From the moment of education in 1865. The Turkestan region and the subsequent its transformation (1867) to the Turkestan Governorate-General the military authorities of edge attached great value to development of shelkovodchesky economy and the corresponding industry.

In the second half of the 19th century in the countries supplying grenu1 to the world market (Italy, France, Turkey and Transcaucasia) it was infected pebrinoy2. Thereof Turkestan as a source of receiving a sound grena began to play an important role for all shelkovodchesky countries.

The Moscow committee of silkworm breeding in connection with the situation which developed in the region noted that the issue of development of the Turkestan silkworm breeding is a question of the state importance and that for successful permission it measures have to be urgently taken both from the government, and with assistance of a private initiative for protection of quality of a product. On February 28, 1871 the Turkestan governor general submitted the official report addressed to the Minister of War with the list of the measures aimed at the silkworm breeding development where entered:

— creation of exemplary "school of production silkworm breeding";

— the device at school of warehouses of shelkomotalny cars and nursery of shelkovichny trees;

— establishment of an annual exhibition of silk and cocoons (with purpose of "considerable awards" for the best samples);

— attraction to this business of the St. Petersburg and Moscow merchants, granting to them privileges and advantages (release for 10 years from payment of taxes and gildeysky duties, free withdrawal of the state earth under the structure of factories, plantations, etc.) 3.

On April 13, 1871 in the Cabinet the Charter of the Moscow and Tashkent association for assistance of the Russian shelkovodchesky industry was submitted for the approval. And on May 12, 1871 the decree of the ruling Senate legalized the ban on export of a grena out of borders of the Turkestan region. On September 6, 1871 the decree was issued

1 Green (from fr. graine, literally — a seed, grain) — eggs of a butterfly of a silkworm out of which silkworm breeders bring the caterpillars giving silk cocoons after an okuklivaniye.
2 Pebrina (Provence. pebrio, lat. piper is pepper) — an invasive disease (nosematosis) of a silkworm.
3 RGVIA, t. 400, op. 1, 240, l. 19 (about), 28 (about).

WOLVES

Vasilyevich is a candidate of political sciences of ivolga54@gmail.com

about creation of school which had to "go at the head of local silkworm breeding and raise in the region the level of this industry" 1.

Opening of "an educational shelkovodna and the skilled laboratory which is in connection with it for production of scientific researches" took place in 1873 2 the fact that pupils had to be divided into the constant structure which is on the full state contents and into "coming" Is of interest. In the first group consisting of twenty people boys were accepted 18 years from indigenous people are not more senior. In group "coming", also free of charge, teenagers and people of advanced age of any nationality without restriction could study. To the persons who graduated school the special certificates granting the right of a message independent work had to be granted. Despite favorable conditions, number of pupils was insignificant. Here affected both the novelty put, and desire of the population at once to have good money. Set of pupils remained a problem for school during the whole time of its existence.

Despite difficulties, the school operated on an extent of 10 years, and activity had it positive results. It not only trained master shelkoraz-motchikov and silkworm breeders, but also was engaged in preparation of the grena insured from a pebrina with use of microscopic laboratory researches.

For fight against the pebrina epidemic which extended after 1974 the Turkestan military authorities opened the grenazhny stations designed to supply silkworm breeders painless (tsellyulyarny) greny. In the Turkestan region the first government grenazhny station was open in Tashkent in 1885. In the next years, three more were open: in Fergana, Samarkand, Petro-Aleksandrovsk. The grenazhny stations created in Turkestan laid the foundation for emergence of grenazhny production as new industry.

Along with production of a tsellyulyarny grena, employees of the stations had to be engaged in removal of new breeds mulberry

1 TSGARUZ, t. I-19, op. 1, 98, l. 28.
2 RGVIA, t. 400, op. 1, 240, l. 19 (about).

a silkworm, cocoons which are giving vent bigger and the steadiest in the conditions of Central Asia. The Tashkent grenazhny station headed by A.I. Vilkins the first was engaged in the solution of this task. In 1887 at the Tashkent station the first 8 pounds of a tsellyulyarny grena which was free of charge distributed to local silkworm breeders were received. From the same station the good-quality grena was sent to silkworm breeders of the Khivan khanate who, since 1885, were not engaged in production of cocoons in general. It is possible to tell that with emergence of grenazhny stations the new stage of development of silkworm breeding in the Turkestan region begins.

Insufficient volumes of the tsellyulyarny grena developed at government grenazhny stations were an incitement to development of private business. The French grener of I. Aloisi who in 1890 laid the foundation for import of a foreign grena was the first business owner in Turkestan. In the beginning the delivered parties small on volume were good-quality, but soon the high profit of foreign grenotorgovets led to the big competition, than speculators used. They at rather high price sold not tsellyulyarny I will burst, but industrial which allowed the known percent of infection.

Such situation threatened to turn back stagnation in the begun revival of local silkworm breeding again. For the termination of a further supply of the infected grena in Turkestan the obligatory government control for it torgovley3 was founded. Strict control and also opening of private grenazhny institutions, along with government stations, allowed to satisfy needs of silkworm breeders for it. In 1907 in the Fergana region there were 9 grenazhny institutions (three — in Skobelev, four — in Kokand, two — in Namangan), and by 1914 their number grew to 11.

As a result of the taken measures from 90th the output of cocoons begins to increase. If in 1891 in Turkestan 50 thousand poods of crude cocoons, in 1892 — 80 thousand, 1893 — 120,

by
3 Materials to characteristic of the national economy in Turkestan were received. Annex to the report on audit of the Turkestan region gr. K.K. Palena. Part I, otd. II. - SPb., 1911, page 143.
1894 — 185, in 1900 the general collecting reached 375 thousand poods.

In 1901 the obligatory control of a grena was cancelled, and grenazhny stations in Tashkent, Samarkand, Margilan and Petro-Aleksandrovsk are closed. Instead of them the Control grenazhny station which was under authority of Management of agriculture and the state imushchestvo was created.

In 1904 at the station the nursery of mulberry trees which had by 1908 already 53 thousand trees (by 1913 the number of nurseries was brought to eleven) was put. Since 1912 in Turkestan the position of the regional specialist in silkworm breeding was entered.

Thus, in the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries silkworm breeding in the Russian Turkestan became important branch of the national economy and played a large role in life of 175 thousand Dehkan farms. The main shelkovodchesky district of Turkestan was the Fergana region. It possessed 57% of all production of cocoons of edge. The Samarkand region produced 40% of cocoons. From 1892 to 1907 by the Central Asian railroad the export of cocoons and silk from Turkestan to Russia increased from 6.1 up to 84.7 thousand pudov1. And in 1910 110 thousand poods for the sum of 4 million 600 thousand rubles of 2 were taken out already

In Central Asia handicraftsmen were engaged in production of silk. Shelkomotalny workshops, as a rule, were small, were placed in houses of the owner under whose supervision family members or hired workers (no more than 2 — 3 people) worked. The equipment of a shelkomotalna was primitive and consisted of the center with a copper and several wooden machines. Handicraft unwinding of cocoons was labor-consuming and had seasonal nature. In these conditions only the exclusive skill of handicraftsmen provided high quality of products.

Were engaged in Shelkorazmotka in all shelkovodchesky districts of the Turkestan region, and the Fergana region gave up to 80% of products. Raw silk was one of the main objects of export. From

1 In the same place, page 298.
2 Materials for studying cotton breeding. Issue II. Value of Turkestan in trade

Russia with the adjacent countries of Asia / sost. A.F. Gubarevich-Radobylsky. — SPb., 1912, page 28, 32.

Fergana also finished products from silk and a sarnak were taken out to Bukhara, Tashkent and Russia. A significant amount of silk was developed also in other important area of silkworm breeding — in the Samarkand region. In a little smaller volume the shelkoobrabatyvayushchy industry was developed in the Syr Darya region. In Tashkent in 1885 there were 514 handicraft institutions with 1,073 workers.

Development of the Turkestan silkworm breeding dictated need of creation of own shelkomotalny industry. The first factory was organized by the famous businessman M.A. Hludov. Silk unwinding was made on advanced machines here, teenagers from among local community were razmotchik. The silk produced by them was not worse europeyskogo3.

After it also other businessmen tried to arrange shelkomotalny production.

In the last quarter of the 19th century in Turkestan the new type of the industry — kokonosushilny appeared. So, by 1913 only in one Fergana was 27 kokonosushilen. Large production was not here, but the medium-sized and small enterprises were profitable. Work in kokonosushilny institutions had seasonal nature and continued three months. In total on edge for 1914 more than 2 thousand workers, a half of whom — women, were engaged in this industry. Total amount of production kokonosushilen was over 3 million rubles

The Fergana Valley and Bukhara where there were dozens of quarters in which shelkotkach lived only were considered as the center of a shelkotkachestvo.

Thus, with accession of Turkestan to the Russian Empire a serious impulse gained development of all shelkovodchesky industry. With creation of the first grenazhny stations there was a new industry which brought Russia on production of a good-quality grena to the third place in the world. In general, by 1917 the shelkovodchesky industry ranked third among other industries of production in the Turkestan region. Later it gained intensive development already during the Soviet period.

3 Petrovsky N.F. Silkworm breeding and a shelkomotaniye in Central Asia. — SPb., 1874, page 105.
Charlotte Silke
Other scientific works: