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Metal of a kondrashkinsky barrow of an era of bronze


A.D. Degtyareva

The author describes metal articles obtained from Kondrashkino mound of the Bronze Age on the territory of the Middle Don basin from view point of typology, composition and micro-structural analysis. She substantiates an idea of imported nature of weapon articles and tools and also relates a burial type in the said mound to Petrovka-Sintashta and Potapovka group of sites.

In the last decades the brisk discussions are caused by the Indo-European, and in particular Indo-Iranian, perspective connected with search of the ancestral home of Indo-Europeans and localization of sources of resettlement of separate language groups. T.V. Gamkrelidze and V.V. Ivanov's linguistic theory which main kernel is reconstruction Indo-European & #34; праязыка" according to front and epigraphic data of the end of Asia Minor III — the beginnings of the II millennium BC, it is rather in details analyzed in a number of works in terms of compliance of conclusions to archaeological materials [Merpert, 1988, page 7-36; Chernykh, 1988, page 37-57]. As showed researches, definition of the Indo-European ancestral home is possible only in the presumable plan as the main arguments are only indirect observations allowing to reveal on linguistic traces some concepts & #34; праязыка" and to coordinate them to lines of economic way, social and hierarchical structure, cult life, geographical and climatic conditions. So, N.Ya. Merpert to a certain extent conditionally correlates an Indo-European area to the territory of an enormous tsirkumpontiysky zone of the beginning of a bronze age of the second half of IV — the first half of the III millennium BC inhabited by representatives of a number of ethnocultural communities which system of communications caused & #34; contact непрерывность" and close process of tribes in a zone [Merpert, 1988, page 28-32].

According to E.N. Chernykh, carriers of cultures of the tsirkumpontiysky metallurgical province of an early bronze age could be the most probable protoindo-Europeans, without excluding more concrete localization of the main Indo-European groups in steppe East European regions [Chernykh, 1988, page 52].

During the subsequent critical periods of cultural destabilization, in the middle of III thousand and in the second quarter of the II millennium BC, there was an allocation of dialects of Indo-European language. With disintegration of the tsirkumpontiysky province the new block of steppe and forest-steppe cultures along with exarticulation of group of the Indo-Iranian languages is formed.

Most of archeologists connect the most ancient Indo-Iranians with the population of andronovsky and srubny cultural and historical communities of the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe area [Kuzmina, 1994, page 6-12]. In the 18-16th centuries BC in the territory of Eurasia there were active migration processes which caused resettlement of a part of Indo-Iranians to Western Asia, Iran, India. Echoes of these events were recorded in mitanniysky, hettsky documents, the Iranian Avestya, the Vedic texts containing the first written information about the most ancient Indo-Iranians. These data were used by linguists, historians and archeologists for reconstruction of material and spiritual culture of tribes of an era of bronze. Comparing social and economic characteristic of life of protoindo-Europeans and the Indo-Iranian tribes, it is easy to notice, as that and others were engaged in cattle breeding and agriculture, particular importance was attached to horse breeding with use of chariots, had the developed metallurgy, complex social and hierarchical structure of society up to a concept & #34; царь". At Indo-Iranians the title of the governor meant literally & #34; managing director конями" in relation to the privileged military nobility the term & #34 was used; standing on колеснице".

Rather steady interest shown by researchers to the Indo-Iranian subject is caused also by the fact that in recent years quite frequent the facts of detection of burials with chariots or with specific stock in monuments of a sintashtinsko-Petrovsky, potapovsky circle of cultures, the dono-Volga abashevsky culture became. In the territory of Srednego Podo-nya a significant amount of burials with disk-shaped psaliya, characteristic military stock, sacrifices of horses, dogs, small cattle is revealed. These burials are characterized by A.D. Pryakhin as & #34; социально-престижные" the allocations of military elite of society reflecting process. Burials of Staroyuryevsky, Bogoyavlensky, Kondrashevsky, Kondrashkinsky, Sofyinsky burial grounds, barrows at villages Drakes and Pi-chayevo [Pryakhin, Matveev, 1988, page 123-136 belong to their number; Pryakhin, Besedin, Left, etc., 1989; Pryakhin, Moiseyev, Besedin, 1998, page 3-30].

Burials of the Kondrashkinsky barrow which was near the village of Kashirsky of the Voronezh region were investigated in 1989 Kurgan contained three burials occurring at different times which were interpreted by researchers as catacomb (the basic pogr. 2), abashevsky (pogr. 1) and srubny (pogr. 3). Burial 1 is of the greatest interest to us. In a rectangular hole the man in the writhed situation was buried in the left side, with the bent hands, focused by the head on the northeast. Near the head the spear tip, tesla, around a nape — a knife in a wooden cover, under a thorax — the visloobushny axe from the remains of a wooden handle and traces of organic chemistry from a case are found copper. To the north of frame lay a scattering of 25 silicon tips of arrows, to the south — a fragment shchitkovy a psaliya and a plug-in thorn. On the remains of timbered overlapping of a sepulchral hole the gorshkovidny vessel with slightly unbent nimbus and horizontally drawn lines on top and three copper brackets is found. Authors connect with burial 1 and the remains of four sacrifices, two of which contained bones of horses, one — extremities of a dog and teeth of a horse and one — bones of two individuals of small cattle. Burial was referred to a late stage of the dono-Volga abashevsky culture.

According to written sources, a similar standard set of equipment: a spear, a dagger, a quiver with arrows, the tesla, the fighting axe — had kolesnichy (& #34; standing on колеснице"), belonging to privileged estate of soldiers [Kuzmina, 1994, page 189-194]. Similar sets are found in burials of a sintashtinsko-Petrovsky, potapovsky circle of the monuments dated by researchers within the 17-16th centuries BC

Dating of a complex is defined on a psaliya and to a set of copper objects. Though a psaliya it is difficult to restore a full form, the product can be carried to type with the truncated segment of a disk, the rectangular allocated level and small openings located along a chord with plug-in shpenka. The product is ornamented, around the central opening is decorated with blades, along a level — a zigzag and blades. Absolutely similar two psaliya with identical style of figuration were found in the Potapovsky burial ground (kurg. 5, pogr. 8) [Vasilyev, Kuznetsov, Semyonova, 1994, fig. 33, 2, 3]. In burials of barrows of 1 and 5 Potapovsky burial grounds also the similar ceremony of burial is recorded — it is writhed on the left side, with hands in the face of [In the same place, page 71-72]. Psaliya of this type, the ornamented compositions finding perfect analogies in art of mine tombs of Mycenae are dated E.E. Ku-zminoy the 16th century BC though she does not exclude a possibility of an udrevneniye of this date for a century in case of indisputable revision of age of the Mycenaean tombs [Kuzmina, 1994, page 177-179].

The Visloobushny axe belongs to type massivnovisloobushny with the-shaped outline, poorly slanted top side of a butt and a profile (fig. 1, 1), wedge-shaped without excesses. The product considerably differs from abashevsky type of tools from Pepkinsky, Kondrashevsky barrows, from the Malokizylsky settlement — uzkovisloobushny, gratsilny, with an arcuate outline, a wide curved blade, strongly slanted top side of a butt, the accurate excess in a profile separating an obushny part from a blade [Zamyatnin, 1922, page 13, fig. 4; Sealing glands, 1954, page 74, fig. 20; Halikov, Lebedinskaya, Gerasimova, 1966, page 13, tab. VIII].

The axes similar to kondrashkinsky are found on monuments Petrovsky sintashtinskogo a circle and also in seyminsko-turbinsky burial grounds: on the settlement Kulevchi of III, in Cyn-tashta burial grounds (CM, pogr. 3, 39), Diet, Sokolovk, Murzikh I [Vinogradov, 1982, page 97, fig. 3, 1; Chernykh, Kuzminykh, 1989, page 128, fig. 70, 4-8; V.F. Gening, Zdanovich, Gening V.V., 1992, fig. 100, 8-9]. Axes of this type are very close on morphological indicators to tools of srubny cultural and historical community and, quite possibly, became a prototype of srubny axes. The last, unlike kondrashkinsky, at preservation of the general proportions have more massive obushny part and a wide edge [Chernykh, 1970, page 58, fig. 51; Pryakhin, 1996, page 19-22, fig. 1, 2].

The tip of a spear belongs to KD-4 type, according to E.N. Chernykh, S.V. Kuzminykh — shod, with the short not close sleeve, a feather of a listovidny form, rhombic section of a stiffening rib (fig. 1, 2). Similar products are found in Pokrovsky (kurg. 15, pogr. 2), Sintashtinsk (CM, pogr. 18, 30) burial grounds and in burials of seyminsko-turbinsky monuments — Diets, Ust-Gayva, Size [Chernykh, Kuzminykh, 1989, page 64-65, fig. 25, 26; V.F. Gening, Zdanovich, Gening V.V., 1992, fig. 100, 10-11]. It is necessary to recognize that in complexes of seyminsko-turbinsky, syncretic srubno-abashevsky, alakulsky monuments the bigger distribution was received by similar cast option of type with some modifications: there is an ear and the cast roller along edge of the sleeve. Similar products are found in Diet (3 copies), Reshn (2 copies), the Pokrovsk burial ground (kurg. 8), burials in barrows Drakes 2, Twins, Bekteniz, the Curve lake, on the settlement of Box cinema of I [Chernykh, Kuzminykh, 1989, page 79-84]. Most likely, production of shod and cast tips of copies is explained by availability degree to the tin sources localized within Kalbinsky and Narymsky ridges of East Kazakhstan. This new, very valuable, a ligature allowed to increase fluidity of copper alloy and to receive high-quality castings of products with the thin continuous sleeve. So, from the seyminsko-turbinsky tips of copies of 86% analyzed E.N. Chernykh and S.V. Kuzminykh by method of the spectral analysis are made of tin bronze with tin impurity mainly in the range of 5-12%, 11% of products — from the copper of natural origin low-alloyed by arsenic up to 1.8%, 3% — from & #34; чистой" copper [Chernykh, Kuzminykh, 1989, page 289-290].

The abashevsky tips of copies, known in South Ural, with the opened sleeve considerably I differ from a kondrashkinsky spear: they have the long ornamented sleeve and a short triangular feather [In the same place, page 64-65]. After kondrashkinskiya the type of copies in cast option became widespread in complexes of srubny community Podonya, but with certain changes — narrower feather, roundish section of the sleeve [Chernykh, 1970, fig. 45, 46; Pryakhin, 1996, page 27-28].

The tesla has slightly roundish butt with the side sides which are gradually extending to an edge, the asymmetric edge in a profile pro-forged on the one hand (fig. 1, 3). Identical products are known generally on poltavkinsky and potapovsko-sintashtinsky monuments: in D37 barrow at page. Equal, burial grounds Koltubanksk (kurg. 12, pogr. 5) Pokrovsk (kurg. 35, pogr. 2), the Tsarevy barrow at Kuibyshev and also in Sintashta's burials (10 copies; CM, pogr. 6, 39; With I, pogr. 14, 15; With II, pogr. 2, 7) [Rykov, 1927, S. 78, Abb. 21, 1; Zbruyeva, Smirnov, 1939, page 194, tab. 1, 8, 9; Krivtso-va-Grakova, 1955, page 57-59, fig. 13, 1, 2; Sealing glands, 1967, page 191, fig. 23, 12; V.F. Gening, Zdano-vich, Gening V.V, 1992, fig. 61, 8; 127, 3; 148, 14-16; 152, 7-8; 175, 7-8; 184, 6]. It is also necessary to note that this category of tools was widespread also among abashevsky tribes of South Ural, but abashevsky tesla have parallel side sides and sometimes — an expanded heel of an obushny part.

Fig. 1. The layout of shlif on products (the secant the line designated cuts on objects).

1 — An. 318; 2 — An. 319; 3 — An. 320; 4 — An. 317; 5 — An. 321; 6 — An. 322; 7 — An. 323.

The knife has the planned cross hairs, the narrow rounded shank heel, an expanded lezviyny part lentiform in the section (fig. 1, 4). This type of tools is characteristic of a potapovsko-sintashtinsky circle of monuments, rannesrubny and alakulsky cultures. Similar products are found in burials of the Volga region and South Ural — in burial grounds Potapovsk (kurg. 5, pogr. 8), Pokrovsky (kurg. 35, pogr. 2), Sintashtinsk (With I, pogr. 15), New Koumac (pogr. 25), the Tsarevy barrow at Kuibyshev, Twins, at the village of Yagodnoe [Zbruyeva, Smirnov, 1939, page 194, tab. 1, 2; Measures Perth, 1954, page 148, fig. 10, 2, 3; Krivtsova-Grakova, 1955, page 54, fig. 12, 9; Andronovsky culture, 1966, page 51, tab. 38, 13; Sealing glands, 1967, page 318, fig. 51; Kuzmina, 1994, fig. 30, 61].

Thus, it is easy to notice that the zone of distribution of the metal products similar to kondrashkinsky covers generally the Areas of Volga region and South Ural. Identical objects of arms and the tool come from funeral complexes potapovsko - Petrovsky sintashtinskogo a circle of monuments, alakulsky, rannesrubny cultures and from burial grounds seymin-sko-turbinskogo a transcultural phenomenon. A certain communication is looked through also with metal working of poltavkinsky culture. In particular, initial forms for teset and, perhaps, knives poltavkinsky tools were.

Dating of complexes is defined on the basis of the balkano-Mycenaean line of the chronological reference points including ornamental systems on metal, a bone and disk-shaped psaliya — from Ishim in the east to mine tombs of a circle And in Mycenae in the West. Proceeding from this chronological line and considering a complex of the Borodino treasure containing import from the turbinsky Ural center of metal working, a silver tip of a spear, E.N. Chernykh and S.V. Kuzminykh date complexes of a seyminsko-turbinsky transcultural phenomenon of HUP-HU of centuries BC [Chernykh, Kuzminykh, 1989, page 256-261]. Dating of a sintashtinsky complex is defined within HU11-HU1 of centuries BC. Within the same period of E.E. Kuzmin considers monuments new kumakskogo the chronological horizon to which carries both Petrovsky sintashtinskiye, and potapovsky complexes [Gening V.F., Zdanovich, Gening V.V., 1992, page 375-376; Kuzmina, 1994, page 38-40]. On the basis of the above the kondrashkinsky complex can quite be included in number of monuments potapovsko - Petrovsky sintashtinskogo the horizon of the period of initial relationship, on a trope of N.Ya. Merpert, not dismembered yet, Indo-Iranian on ethnic origin, two enormous historical and cultural communities of an era of bronze — srubny and andro-novsky. Metal products, most likely, are import in Podonye and come from the Volga-Ural centers of metal working that is confirmed also by analytical data.

Metal products were investigated by methods of the microstructural, microx-ray spectral and microx-ray diffraction analysis. The microstructural research is executed in laboratories of department of archeology and ancient history of the Voronezh university, micro X-ray spectral and microx-ray diffraction analyses — in metalgraphic laboratory of enterprise A 35-56 Voronezh by T.M. Popova, N.G. Kizinoy, V.M. Astredinov to whom I express the sincere gratitude. The microstructural research is conducted on MMR-2R microscope, microx-ray spectral — on MAR-2 installation, microhardness is measured on the PMT-3 microhardness gage.

At interpretation of structures & #34; чистой" copper N.V. Ryndina's method of studying metal of the eneolit and an early bronze age of the South of Eastern Europe and also N.V. Ryndina's results and I.G. Ravich of test of model samples of copper [Ryndina, 1971, is used by page 32-43; Ryn-dina, Oryol, 1979, page 287-297; Ravich, Ryndina, 1989, page 91-100; Ryndina, 1998, page 15-21]. The microx-ray diffraction research included precision determination of parameter of a lattice of metal of products and the analysis of a form of a X-ray diffraction curve, the parameter of a lattice was determined by a center of gravity position of lines 311 and 222. Function of distribution of intensity received when scanning of the specified lines in points with a step of 0.1 and 0.05 degrees savings of impulses in 10 seconds over time. An attempt of assessment of size of non-uniform elastic deformation of a crystal lattice on sleeves of a hatchet and tip of a spear in the direction perpendicular to the reflection plane on a profile of X-ray diffraction curves 311 and 111 was also made. As a standard the profile of the sample containing 99.5% of copper of which full splitting of a doublet of Ts-2 is characteristic that is connected with lack of microtension is investigated and confirms legitimacy of acceptance of a sample as a standard.

The microx-ray spectral analysis showed that all products are made from metallurgical & #34; чистой" copper. Four objects — the axe, a spear, tesla, a knife — have iron impurity within 0.6-1% while three brackets consist practically of 100% copper. In microstructures of all products nonmetallic gray-blue inclusions of sulfides are found. In structure of the axe they rare, but quite large — up to 20 microns in size, in a spear microstructure — are more numerous, but it is less than the size — to 12 microns. In other products are found small

single inclusions up to 12 microns in size. Existence of inclusions of sulfides in a microstructure of products demonstrates use of sulphidic ores for receiving initial metal.

The metalgraphic research allowed to restore technological schemes of production of stock which can be consolidated to two: casting with an insignificant side job of a lezviyny edge and forging of a cast semi-finished product with extents of the deforming influence of 50-90%. From seven objects only two — the axe and tesla — are received by casting, other five — the spear tip, a knife and three brackets — are formed from the corresponding cast semi-finished products.

The Visloobushny hatchet is cast in a bilateral casting mold with a plug-in insert (An. 318, fig. 2, 1-3). Filling of metal in a form was made through the ingate located on a tool back (the ingate remains near the sleeve, traces of foundry seams on a back and a paunch). The microstructural research of a cut of edge of the sleeve revealed the cast dendritny structure which is not broken by the deforming influence while on the section of an edge of the axe the deformed structure with quite large grain is found, dendrites are extended by places in the longitudinal direction, deformation strips are noticeable here and there. Microhardness on Vikkersa on an edge is 145.6 kg/mm2, on the sleeve — 79.6 kg/mm, lattice parameter on the sleeve is equal 3.6108±0.0003

A. Relative microdeformation of a crystal lattice on the sleeve is Q ™ 0.123. Microstructural indicators demonstrate that the cast hatchet will be subjected to insignificant completion by the forging directed to elimination of defects of casting and a point of a lezviyny edge with small extents of deformation — about 40%. Forging was made on cold metal after preliminary heating of a working part what larger sizes of grain on an edge in comparison with structure of edge of the sleeve testify to.

Features of manufacturing techniques of a hatchet — casting from an insignificant pro-malleable edge of an edge (while this category of tools after casting usually is exposed to the considerable deforming influences) and also indicate absence on its surface of traces of use functional belonging of a product to category of fighting shock tools [Ryndi-na, Degtyareva, Ruzanov, 1980, page 159-160].

According to the similar technological scheme it is made tesla which is cast in a casting mold, unilateral with a flat cover, with completion of a working edge cold forging (An. 320, fig. 2, 4). The research of section of an edge revealed the cast dendritny structure changed by the deforming influence. At the edge of an edge the dendrites have almost fibrous outlines while far from it the arrangement of dendrites is changed in insignificant degree. The cast tool was slightly finished by the cold forging directed only to a point of a lezviyny edge with extents of sinking of 80-90%. Existence in composition of metal of inclusions of sulfides, fragile at cold deformation, was the reason of a strong vykroshennost of a lezviyny part of the tool. The rate of microhardness is 177.5 kg/mm2, lattice parameter — 3.6108±0.0003 A.

More labor-consuming and difficult was the scheme of production of a tip of a spear (An. 319, fig. 2, 5-6; 3, 1). The product is made of previously cast flat preparation of subtriangular shape by forging with use of a number of forge operations: foldings of the sleeve on a mandrel of a roundish profile, a punched hole of two openings on edge of the sleeve, connection by welding of two parties of a plate along a rib, pro-forging on a figured anvil with a fillet for receiving a stiffening rib, an extract, a plyushcheniye of a lezviyny part. Cross cuts of a lezviyny part, edge of the sleeve, a stiffening rib are microscopically investigated. On an edge the fibrous deformed structure against the background of which separate fine grains with poorly looked through borders characteristic of low-temperature forging are visible is revealed. The rate of microhardness is 131.3 kg/mm2. On the sleeve the recrystallized structure characteristic of the annealed state is found, on its background the dendritny likvation is hardly looked through. Crystals differ in the expressed heterogeneity: against the background of the vast majority of large grains of 0.15-0.2 mm in size with roundish outlines separate smaller crystals with a diameter of 0.065 mm are visible. Parameter of a lattice is equal to 3.6108±0.0003 A. Quality standard of influence of factors of a blochnost and microtension specify that on the sleeve the blocks of a mosaic of a nedispersna and are larger than 0.1 microns, and the weak physical broadening equal ~ 2.21, is caused only by microdistortions of a crystal lattice.

Relative microdeformation of a crystal lattice approximately is Q ™ 0.0205.

Fig. 2. Photos of microstructures (took away. 120).

1-3 — the axe, An. 318 (1, 2 — shl. 1, 3 — shl. 2); 4 — tesla, An. 320; 5, 6 — a tip of a spear, An. 319

(5 — shl. 1, 6 — shl. 2).

Quality standard of a form of the line and quantitative assessment of relative microdeformation allow to assume that in a sample processes of dynamic recrystallization proceeded, at the same time the stage of dynamic return of primary and collective recrystallization was passed. It follows from this that the product was subjected to heating in the range of temperatures of 600-800 °C. Indicator of the microhardness of 77.2 kg/mm2.

Fig. 3. Photos of microstructures (took away. 120).

1 — a tip of a spear, An. 319, shl. 3; 2, 3 — a knife, An. 317; 4 — a bracket, An. 321; 5 — a bracket, An. 322;
6 — a bracket, An. 323.

On the section of a stiffening rib the recrystallized structure against the background of the expressed fibrous dendrites is revealed. In the center of a shlif the zone of welding on which middle there passes the deep crack is visible. The size of grains as well as on the sleeve, differs in the expressed heterogeneity — from 0.15 to 0.035 mm. Indicator of the microhardness of 113.4 kg/mm2. The given observations allow to draw a conclusion that molding of the tool — folding of the sleeve, welding of edges of a plate with the subsequent use of an anvil with a fillet — was made for obtaining rhombic section at high temperatures — 600-800 °C. Plyushcheniye, the extract and a point of a lezviyny part of a feather with its simultaneous hardening proceeded in the mode of incomplete cold forging at temperatures of 200-450 °C. Completion of a lezviyny part was followed also by the most essential extents of sinking of metal — about 90-100% while the sleeve practically did not experience the deforming influence what confirm the nature of texture on the section of an edge and microdistortion of a crystal lattice on a sleeve cut.

The knife is received a malleable plate preparation which initial form significantly differed from a final product (An. 317, fig. 3, 2, 3). The microscopic research is conducted on cross cuts of a lezviyny part and a scape. On an edge the recrystallized structure against the background of fibrous dendrites is revealed. Crystals in size small — 0.015-0.035 mm, microhardness

— 124.3 kg/mm2. On a cut of a scape the deformed fibrous texture with the separate fine looked-through grains, a microhardness indicator — 185.3 kg/mm2 is found. The molding of a product developing of a number of operations — extensions of the case of the tool, a point and hardening of its lezviyny part, was followed by considerable extents of sinking of metal

— about 80-90%. Forging was made at temperatures of 450-550 °C, and the completing operations on a knife scape plyushcheniye — at low temperatures, 200-300 °C.

The last three products presented by brackets are made by forging of plates preparations (fig. 1, 5-7). Extents of sinking of metal at completion were different. The smallest extent of deformation — about 50-60% — is revealed at a research of sample 321 (fig. 3, 4). At its microscopic study the complete recrystallized structure against the background of hardly distinguishable deformed dendrites, the size of grains of 0.025-0.035 mm is found. Inclusions of sulfides have the irregular and rounded form. Indicator of microhardness of metal of 87.1 kg/mm2.

A little big extents of the deforming influence — about 60-70% — were tested by the second product (An. 322, fig. 3, 5). On a cut the complete recrystallized structure with fine grains of 0.025-0.035 mm in size is revealed. Parameter of a lattice is 3.6091±0.0003 A, an indicator of the microhardness of 132.4 kg/mm2.

With the greatest extent of sinking there was a prokovana the third bracket (An. 323, fig. 3, 6). The nature of the deformed fibrous structure with the looked-through crushed crystals with a diameter less than 0.01 mm demonstrates that production of a product was followed by 90-100% sinking of metal. Indicator of the microhardness of 149.7 kg/mm2. Proceeding from features of microstructural data, the complete nature of the recrystallized structures, measurements of microhardness, existence of inclusions of sulfides, fragile at cold deformation, it is possible to draw a conclusion that forge operations at production of brackets were made at temperatures of 450-550 °C.

The manufacturing techniques of metal stock of the soldier-kolesnichego from the Kondrashkinsky barrow are characterized by rather steady skills of metal working. It is possible to refer use to their number metallurgical & #34; чистой" copper with the high content of iron of natural origin, most likely melted from sulfur chalcopyrite ores, production of massive large tools by casting in forms with receiving high-quality castings, forge molding of products from cast semi-finished products, production of forge operations mainly at low temperatures in the modes of incomplete cold and incomplete hot forging of 200550 °C. It is necessary to refer to number of features of metal working also that methods of receiving cast products from & #34; чистой" copper with thin section were not fulfilled. Casting of tips of copies with the thin continuous sleeve was difficult process because of complexity of centering of an insert, considerable length of the tool, low fluidity of copper fusion.

On technological indicators kondrashkinsky metal differs from abashevsky Don tools. Though abashevsky masters also made products according to two technological schemes, but, unlike kondrashkinsky smiths, they preferred to carry out completion of tools on hot metal at temperatures about 600-800 °C or in the modes of incomplete hot forging. At the same time selection of temperature conditions was in an experimenting stage, cases of a perezhog of metal with melting of borders of grains, decrease in durability and rejection of products were allowed.

Concerning ore sources of kondrashkinsky metal without full spektroanalitichesky let speak it is difficult. It is definitely possible to approve use as initial raw materials of the sulphidic chalcopyrite ores which are presumably localized by E.N. Chernykh in

region of the Mugodzhar Hills (Dzhangana field) [Chernykh, 1970, page 14-20]. Thus, typological, microstructural indicators and composition of metal demonstrate that products were import for Podonya and, quite possibly, are connected with metal working Petrovsky sintashtinskogo and a potapovsky circle of monuments of the XVII—XVI centuries BC. Comprehensive, complex investigations of monuments are necessary for reconstruction of a full picture of development of tribes of this chronological horizon.


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Tyumen, Institute of problems of development

North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Robert Harvey
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