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Istoriya the State of Alaska and the native people inhabiting it in the American historiography



n. Ch. Taksami

The HISTORY of the STATE OF ALASKA AND the NATIVE PEOPLE INHABITING IT IN the AMERICAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

In article the short review of the American historiography of the 20th century devoted to studying problems of relationship between the native population of Alaska and the power is given (federal and local). Throughout all history of the last century in the region the unique legal, economic and political structure of the state directed to satisfaction of economic and cultural needs of aboriginals was formed.

N. Taksami

ALASKA AND ALASKA NATIVES HISTORY IN AMERICAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

A short survey of American historiography of the 20th century is given with a focus on the studies of the relationship between Alaskan Natives and local and federal government. During the 20th century history a unique legislative, economic and political state structure oriented for satisfying economic and cultural needs of the Native population was formed in the region.

The appeal to the history of Alaska is associated in most cases with a subject of the Russian board on the peninsula and adjacent islands, that is with the history of the Russian-American Company (RAC). Really, historical science of the second half of XX — the beginning of XX! centuries it is rich in complex researches of different aspects of activity of RAC, the history of its formation, relationship and interaction with the native people of Alaska, the reasons prekra-

a shcheniye of its activity and also value in the history of both states of process of sale to its United States of America.

After in October, 1867 in New Arkhangelsk the Russian flag was lowered and it is lifted American and completely the Russian economic, social and political impact in the region stopped, also the flow of information to Russia on local lands and their inhabitants stopped. Alaska entered in but -

a vy historical era — the "American" period of its history began. Together with the termination of the Russian influence the traces of presence of Russians were almost completely erased in local culture. Only the orthodox church on Alaska remained an outpost of the Russian culture and the keeper of the Russian orthodox heritage in North America and here and there the Russian place names remained. In 1959 Alaska becomes the 49th state of America. And from this point in a domestic historiography the detailed historical annals of the region stop. The subject of the Russian America and studying native cultures of Alaska remains the main subject in domestic historical and ethnographic researches still.

The American historiography devoted to the history of the state and its native population is rather extensive. Nevertheless, it is necessary to allocate the main works on this perspective giving a general idea about the directions of a historical research. The beginnings of the American period the monograph G. W. Spicer "The constitutional status and government of Alaska" [25] which appeared in 1927 became one of the first works on the history of Alaska. In it relationship of the regional authorities operating at that time with the federal government and the solution of the questions connected with obtaining the status of the territory by Alaska were discussed. "Commerce and industries of Alaska which left decade before work of A. G. Robinson, Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippine islands" did not concern [22] questions of the political and administrative device, considering only industrial resources of the region and the prospects of their production and use from 1908 for 1912. According to the author, the exclusive superiority at that time in the extracting industries remained for gold

fishing was production, on the second place. In this historiographic review it is possible to track as the ratio of industries throughout the history of Alaska in 200 years changed.

In the middle of the XX century in the American historiography there is a number of the works applying for coverage of history of Alaska since board CANCER, in more detail — from the transaction between Russia and the USA selling Alaska, till 1950 when the issue of the status of this region was widely discussed by both citizens, and the political authorities. The history of Alaska in interpretation of C. L. Andrews [6] which left in 1938 became one of the first such publications. The small head of the history of the Russian America proceeds detailed detailed statement of history of Alaska, since the moment of its sale up to 1938, covering such important points of history as military occupation, placement of naval bases, distribution of missions and schools, construction of the railroad. Need of civilian rule and formation of the status of the territory for Alaska became turning points of its history [6, page 171]. A year before there was a work of I. W. Hutchison of "Stepping stones from Alaska to Asia" [13] giving the detailed geographical, economic and biological description of the Aleutian Islands, the islands of Kodiak and Unalaska. In 1945 in the USA the work of "Alaska promyshlennik and sour-dough" [26] giving complete overview of history of the state since V. Bering's expeditions, history CANCER, and then Klondike, fight for the status of the territory was published that brought the period of relative political tranquility, sustainable development of development of economic resources. Thereof there was an increase in welfare and some increase in population of Alaska [26, page 284].

In 1953 there is S.S. work as Hul-ley "Alaska 1741-1953" [12]. The publication consists of two parts: the first — is devoted to the history of the Russian Alaska, the second — American to history period by 1952 inclusive. Consideration of the American history begins the USA with military occupation of Alaska, right after its transfer in 1867-1878. In work the political system of the region of 1884-1906 is in detail studied. The particular emphasis is placed on the period of World War II and the post-war device. In 1967 there is a collective work under the editorial office M. B. Sherwood as "Alaska and its history" [3]. This collective monograph can be determined as one of the first most detailed works by the history of Alaska of the American period. It is specified in work that studying history of Alaska has regional, national and international value. By the time of writing of this work as researchers the scarcity of historiographic material on the history of Alaska was noted [3, page XVII]. Therefore the collective monograph represents attempt to capture the biggest period of history from the basis of Sitka during the Russian board and until when need of making decision on creation of the 49th state in 1958 finally ripened. That is all American period of history of Alaska till 1967 found the reflection in articles of such famous American historians and politicians of the time as C. Andrews, R. A. Pierce, C. C. Hulley, E. Gruening. The circle of subjects captured in work is also rather wide for a research of the time. Here questions of formation of borders of Alaska, development of the mining industry on Alaska in the 19th century, the reasons and terms of sale of Alaska by Russia for America, Sheldon Jackson and Benjamin Harrison's board, anglo-amerikan-enter

sky crisis in the Bering Sea 18901891, gold mining in Klondike and Nome, influence on the history of Alaska of government of Theodor Roosevelt, the history of construction of the Alaskan railroad and, the most important — problems of formation of social and political structure of Alaska before formation of the state. The main issue in the research B. Cooper "Alaska — the last frontier" [10] is process of formation of statehood on Alaska and its transformations into the state. Up to this point the specified subject was not considered in detail in the Russian historiography as, however, and all American history of the state. The researcher begins the analysis since 1884 when the first Organic law providing the governor's post on Alaska, district court and formation of various posts of the power was adopted. But from the point of view of scientists, it was rather senseless and badly made. Alaska was still left the earth without laws on the earth [10, page 59].

In 1959 Alaska turns into the 49th state of America. Discussion and adoption of the constitution of the state, a great number of others of problems relevant at that time was on the agenda. But, the main thing — before this earth there was in reality a problem: what it to be what political and social institutes to build and develop that caused the publication of a wide number of the works devoted to this subject in the American historiography. In the 1960th — the 1970th among the authors who devoted it the works there is a wish to note the following: G. W. Rogers [23; 24], D. A. Kresge [16; 17], T. A. Morehouse [20], R. A. Cooley [9], G. S. Harrison [5].

Work of G. W. Rogers of "Alaska in transition", on the one hand, continues the subject considered above — the history of Alaska during the American period — begins the new section in a historiography with another

Alaska the XX centuries. It was already the look from Alaska which became during this time the state and acquired all relevant rights and obligations to the government. History, the reasons and ways of creation of institutes of the local government of such difficult region in the geographical and historical plan as Alaska — the subject which is insufficiently widely studied in a world historiography.

Long fight for statehood reflected, on the one hand, desires of alyaskinets to create such social environment in which the order would reign and which would maintain the status of "the country" with another — there was desire of local interests to continue to do the business beyond the law, without adhering to severity of the law and taxation. Also desire of alyaskinets to receive the representation in the United States Congress took place. Collaboration of the same authors of D. T. Kresge and G. W. Rogers with other researcher of the same perspective of T. A. Morehouse led to writing during the same period of work of "Issues in Alaska Development" [17]. In it questions of evolution of political system of Alaska as the taken place staff which got by then nine years' experience of statehood, i.e. full life of the state were considered. Name of one of heads "Statehood: the political and legal structure for development" shows that that development of the state about which aboriginals worried at the very beginning of the XX century stood the main problem. Consideration of possible models of development of future state up to 1990 became the main subject of study by researchers.

From the moment of transformation of Alaska into the state in 20 years of its history the political relations between the USA and Alaska entered the new relations. On history foreground except a question of repartition

land property there is also a problem of local government. Self-government was understood as internal self-government and self-checking of groups of the population at the level of the state or local community here. Certain criteria of such self-government are: development of political, social and economic structures which reflect the interests of aboriginals, growth of participation of natives in development and implementation of the local and federal programs influencing life of aboriginals, increase in economic security of natives and their abilities to protect interests.

Work of R. A. Cooley "Alaska." [9] is devoted by A challenge in conservation to the most important and painful both for the federal authorities, and for native inhabitants to a subject of distribution and possession of allotments. In Richard Cooley — the economist working with natural resources and conducting the researches generally for Fund of preservation of lands. The multiple documents provided here on volumes and quality of lands, about terms of use of lands the oil, gas, wood-processing companies [9] are invaluable material in studying a problem of the status of lands on Alaska.

When Alaska received the status of the state in 1959, the Congress allowed the new state to choose 104 million acres of lands, free from federal possession, the next 25 years. The future of rich and undeveloped natural resources of Alaska (the woods, natural minerals, water resources, fauna) depended on that policy which staff will establish concerning selection, classification and use of the remained lands.

Work under the editorial office G. S. Harrison of "Alaska Public Policy" [5], articles for to -

with a Torah the same authors of G. W. Rogers, T. A. Morehouse and G. S. Harrison wrote, considers the same problems facing Alaska with a new form of the administrative device including the section of federal and native land grounds. Four main components of economic wellbeing of again formed state are spread out to the following groups: questions of lands, land grounds, federal possession of the earth and status of land reservations.

The following group of problems is devoted to development and prospects of oil and gas industry, operation of native lands by oil and gas companies. Distinctive feature of Alaska both in geographical, and in the economic plan is existence of reserved zones where environmental issues are defining at further development of mineral deposits, simultaneous with it.

And, at last, the last, fourth component, development of rural Alaska is considered: problems of migration, urbanization and assimilation and also influence on social and demographic processes of the Law on the satisfaction of land claims. Decade later one more work of the same subject — "Economic base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska" is published [11]. In spite of the fact that the region of a research is narrowed to one of the districts of Alaska here (then not the state yet), the material presented in work allows to draw conclusions about economic, political and social development of the territory at that time of history.

In the second half of the XX century among historians ever-increasing interest in the culture of the native population around the world appears. To some extent it was connected also with sudden economic and industrial recovery in the region in connection with opening of natural oil and gas fields. In the environment me-

the stny native population growth of consciousness, desire of fight for the rights for use of the territory and upholding of the native rights is noted. Local bodies of power and self-government, bodies of representation of the state at the state level are formed.

the History of relationship of the native population with the government of the United States throughout all "American" period of history of Alaska in detail is considered by

in works of D. Mitchell of "Sold American" [19] and D. Case of "Alaska natives and American laws" [8]. The emphasis in these researches is still placed on three features of historical development of Alaska noted by us above. The most important and interesting to our research in work of D. Mitchell chapters devoted to questions of formation of reservations in all territories of the state in general are submitted to how this law was applied to the State of Alaska and also the history of formation of Alaska as the state in protocols and documents of that time.

In the work D. Case also leans on the documentary party of long relationship between the federal authority and the native population of the region, since the middle of the 19th century up to now. From the very beginning of the "American" history of Alaska the federal government did not treat indigenous people as dependent Indian communities. Introduction of distinction between "the uncivilized tribes and other inhabitants inhabiting this territory was the main provision of Article III of the Contract on sale of Alaska. This issue of "civilization" was discussed throughout almost century as influenced not only naturalization, but also an issue of training at schools. Other part of work is devoted to formation various

local authorities of indigenous people: associations, native societies and other political institutes.

Studying historical development of any given region, the fate of its population, it is impossible to avoid the analysis of a school system as the system forming the fundamental principles of education of the person in any given environment. Adaptation of the native population to the dominating society, and questions of preservation of cultural heritage, ethnic psychology and language of the people also is connected with it. In this regard for our research works of the American scientists on the system of school education were important. Works of J. S. Kleinfeld of "Alaska&s small rural high schools" [15] and "Eskimo school on the Andreafsky" [14] are of great interest from this point of view. Professor of J. Kleinfeld devoted the most part of the life to teaching and at the same time maintaining scientific projects in Department of Education at the university of the State of Alaska (Fairbanks). Direct acquaintance of professor to the situation which developed in school education at national schools and also the detailed scientific analysis of the statistical data collected independently in the most remote corners of Alaska does these publications especially valuable.

In questions of maintaining native cultures of Alaska it is impossible to ignore works of the orthodox priest of M. Oleksa and, perhaps, one of its main works — "Orthodox Alaska" [21]. Till today the role of orthodox heritage in the Aleutian culture is very big. Influence of orthodox church in this region remains one of the most interesting and current problems for the historians, ethnographers and anthropologists who are especially dealing with problems of indigenous people of the state at the present stage. In the 19th century the orthodox missionaries extended the belief

in the territory of Alaska, about 12,000 natives of Alaska were members of Orthodox Church. After sale of Alaska by Russia the Synod of Orthodox Church created the Alaskan-Aleutian diocese to which care about all members of church in America was entrusted. Within more than two centuries of existence of a Christian mission on Alaska Orthodoxy became belief of her natives.

Such unique social and political phenomenon in world history as native corporations on Alaska, is a subject of a separate research. Work of A. J. Mc Clanahan, H. L. Bisset of "Na&eda" is an example of it [18]. The structure of formation of corporations and functioning of their system in general became a subject of heated disputes for many years, as found lighting in this work. To twelve regions of the State of Alaska there correspond 12 native corporations of the state. Among them: Atna Inkorporeyted, Aleutian corporation, regional corporation Arktik Sloup, native corporation Bering of Streyt, native corporation Bristol Bey, Kalista corporation, Alaskan corporation Chugach, CIRI (corporation of the region of Cook Inlet), Doyon Li-mited, Dray-horses Inkorporeyted, regional corporation NANA, corporation of Sialyask. The thirteenth regional corporation is the corporation with the headquarters in Seattle — at the time of adoption of law on the satisfaction of land claims it was the center for the aboriginals of Alaska living beyond its limits.

Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, the political aspirations of many native people which are not the dominating population in the country are directed to establishment of sovereignty and recognition of the language and culture at the state level. In this plan experience of Alaska — its legislative initiatives and initiatives native korpora-

tion — is a striking example of permission of all conflicts and contradictions between indigenous people and the power of any level — from local to federal. These problems which found the lighting in considered by us above

works — an important source and for the experts studying similar problems in different regions of the globe and for representatives of indigenous people in their fight for the political and economic rights.

LIST OF REFERENCES

1. U. Meyer. Native Americans. New resistance movement of Indians / Edition, lane, vstup. Article Yu. P. Averkiyeva. M.: Progress, 1974. 94 pages
2. U.D. Hikl. Problems of public property. Model of Alaska — an opportunity for Russia? M.: Progress; Anchorage: Institute of the North, 2002. 359 pages
3. Alaska and its history/Ed. by M. B. Sherwood. Seattle, London: University of Washington Press, 1967. 475 p.
4. Alaska and the Yukon/Ed. by B. Milne, M. Wright. New York: Facts of publication, 1983. 160 p.
5. Alaska public policy. Current problems and issues/Ed. by G. S. Harrison. Fairbanks: University of Alaska, 1971. 327 p.
6. Andrews C. L. The story of Alaska. Caldwell; Idaho: The Caxton printers, 1938. 303 p.
7. Anthropology of the North Pacific rim/Ed. W. Fitzhugh, V. Chaussonnet. Washington; London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994. 380 p.
8. Case D. S. Alaska natives and American laws. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1984. 515 p.
9. Cooley R. A. Alaska. A challenge in conservation. Madison: University of Wisconsin press, 1967. 170 p.
10. Cooper B. Alaska — the last frontier. London: William Morrow and Company, 1972. 248 p.
11. Haring R. C., Correia C. C. Economic base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1967. 156 p.
12. Hulley C. C. Alaska 1741-1953. Portland; Oregon: Binfords and Mort, 1953. 406 p.
13. Hutchison I. W. Stepping stones from Alaska to Asia. London; Glasgow: Blackie, 1937. 246 p.
14. Kleinfeld J. S. Eskimo school in Andreafsky. A study of effective bicultural education. New York: Academic Press, 1979. 367 p.
15. Kleinfeld J. S., McDiarmid G. W., Hagstrom D. Alaska&s small rural high schools. Are they working? Anchorage: Institute of Social and Economic Research Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, 1985. 165 p.
16. Kresge D. T. Bristol Bay. A socio-economic study. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1974. 69 p.
17. Kresge D. T., Morehouse T. A., Rogers W. R. Issues in Alaska Development. Seattle; London: University of Washington Press, 1977. 223 p.
18. McClanahan A. J., Bisset H. L. Na&eda. Anchorage: The CIRI Foundation, 2004. 126 p.
19. Mitchell D. C. Sold American. The story of Alaska natives and their land, 1867-1959. The army to statehood. Hanover; London: University Press of New England, 1997. 564 p.
20. Morehouse T. A., McBeath G. A., Leask L. Alaska&s urban and rural governments. Lanham; New York; London: University Press of America, 1984. 261 p.
21. OleksaM. Orthodox Alaska: A theology of mission. Crestwood; New York: St. Vladimir&s Seminary, 1998. 252 p.
22. Robinson A. G. Commerce and industries of Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippine islands. Washington: Government printing office, 1913. 116 p.
23. Rogers G. W. Alaska in transition. The southeast region. A study sponsored by the Arctic institute and North America and Resources for the future. Publication for Resources for the future. Baltimore: John Hopkins press, 1960. 384 p.
24. Rogers G. W. A comparison of the employment impact of the alternative routes on the state of Alaska//Alaskan oil: alternative routes and markets/Ed. C. J. Cicchetti. Baltimore; London: John Hopkins University Press, 1972. 142 p.
25. Spicer G. W. The constitutional status and government of Alaska. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1927. 133 p.
26. Tompkins S. R. Alaska. Promyshlennik and sourdough. Norman: University of Oklahoma press, 1945.352 p.

REFERENCES

1. Mejer U. Korennye amerikancy. Novoe dvizhenie soprotivlenija indejcev/Red., per., vstup. stat&ja Ju. P. Averkievoj. M.: Progress, 1974. 94 s.
2. Hikl U. D. Problemy obschestvennoj sobstvennosti. Model& Aljaski — vozmozhnosti dlja Rossii? M.: Progress; Ankoridzh: Institut Severa, 2002. 359 s. 3. Alaska and its history/Ed. by M. B. Sherwood. Seattle, London: University of Washington Press, 1967. 475 p.
4. Alaska and the Yukon/Ed. by B. Milne, M. Wright. New York: Facts of publication, 1983. 160 p.
5. Alaska public policy. Current problems and issues/Ed. by G. S. Harrison. Fairbanks: University of Alaska, 1971. 327 p.
6. Andrews C. L. The story of Alaska. Caldwell; Idaho: The Caxton printers, 1938. 303 p.
7. Anthropology of the North Pacific rim/Ed. W. Fitzhugh, V. Chaussonnet. Washington; London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994. 380 p.
8. Case D. S. Alaska natives and American laws. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1984. 515 p.
9. Cooley R. A. Alaska. A challenge in conservation. Madison: University of Wisconsin press, 1967. 170 p.
10. Cooper B. Alaska — the last frontier. London: William Morrow and Company, 1972. 248 p.
11. Haring R. C., Correia C. C. Economic base of the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1967. 156 p.
12. Hulley C. C. Alaska 1741-1953. Portland; Oregon: Binfords and Mort, 1953. 406 p.
13. Hutchison I. W. Stepping stones from Alaska to Asia. London; Glasgow: Blackie, 1937. 246 p.
14. Kleinfeld J. S. Eskimo school in Andreafsky. A study of effective bicultural education. New York: Academic Press, 1979. 367 p.
15. Kleinfeld J. S., McDiarmid G. W., Hagstrom D. Alaska&s small rural high schools. Are they working? Anchorage: Institute of Social and Economic Research Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, 1985. 165 p.
16. Kresge D. T. Bristol Bay. A socio-economic study. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1974. 69 p.
17. Kresge D. T., Morehouse T. A., Rogers W. R. Issues in Alaska Development. Seattle; London: University of Washington Press, 1977. 223 p.
18. McClanahan A. J., Bisset H. L. Na&eda. Anchorage: The CIRI Foundation, 2004. 126 p.
19. Mitchell D. C. Sold American. The story of Alaska natives and their land, 1867-1959. The army to statehood. Hanover; London: University Press of New England, 1997. 564 p.
20. Morehouse T. A., McBeath G. A., Leask L. Alaska&s urban and rural governments. Lanham; New York; London: University Press of America, 1984. 261 p.
21. OleksaM. Orthodox Alaska: A theology of mission. Crestwood; New York: St. Vladimir&s Seminary, 1998. 252 p.
22. Robinson A. G. Commerce and industries of Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, and the Philippine islands. Washington: Government printing office, 1913. 116 p.
23. Rogers G. W. Alaska in transition. The southeast region. A study sponsored by the Arctic institute and North America and Resources for the future. Publication for Resources for the future. Baltimore: John Hopkins press, 1960. 384 p.
24. Rogers G. W. A comparison of the employment impact of the alternative routes on the state of Alaska//Alaskan oil: alternative routes and markets/Ed. C. J. Cicchetti. Baltimore; London: John Hopkins University Press, 1972. 142 p.
25. Spicer G. W. The constitutional status and government of Alaska. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1927. 133 p.
26. Tompkins S. R. Alaska. Promyshlennik and sourdough. Norman: University of Oklahoma press, 1945.352 p.
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