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Activity of bodies of the Ufa city self-government in 1900-1914.

razdet HISTORY

UDC 94 (470.57)

BBK 63.3(2 of Dews. Bash)


O.A. Polyanina.

In article an attempt to track development of relationship of bodies of the Ufa city self-government with public organizations, class institutions and ordinary citizens in 1900-1914 is made.

The term "city self-government" means attraction to the solution of municipal problems of the general population. However at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century because of high property qualification no more than 1% of citizens used the right to choose and be elected to bodies of city self-government of the Russian Empire [1]. This circumstance caused keen interest in numerical and social composition of both voters, and vowels. Conclusions about prevalence of representatives of wealthy minority among them quite often make an impression of the fact that between members of City Councils and ordinary inhabitants there was a certain right-of-way. Meanwhile, the analysis of the current documentation of City Councils shows that they could not complain of lack of "feedback" from the population. Moreover, citizens of the beginning of the 20th century were saved from a peculiar "complex of democratic fault" when condemnation of "people's deputies" is equated to condemnation of those who chose them. Having the full moral authority to treat critically activity of the Duma vowels, residents of the cities at the same time well understood that local governments are obliged to reflect their interests.

The example of the Ufa thought shows that impact which had on it by citizens had various forms and was carried out in several directions.

The most constructive relationship developed at City Council with public organizations. At a turn of the 19-20th centuries in Ufa, as well as in the majority of the Russian cities, there was a set of various public associations. Their mass emergence, in fact, meant the second stage in destruction of monopoly of the state for expression of public concerns. At first supreme authority within so-called continental model of development of local government transferred a part of the duties to City Councils. Later, in those spheres where efforts of city managements appeared obviously nedosta-

exact, citizens began to take the initiative. In the 80th years of the 19th century the Ufa Free and fire society appeared. Its role in ensuring fire safety of the city was so considerable that soon it practically ceased to be considered as purely public organization. The free team was subsidized from the municipal budget, and many vowels of the Ufa thought were proud of membership in it [2].

The Society of doctors daring to criticize not only separate vowels, but also activity of all thought had noticeable impact on the Ufa municipal government. In the open letter made at a meeting of Society in

1909 year, physicians said that "on our medical concepts, Ufa has no city medical organization" and that "such order already addressed... in one of properties of local government". In the same letter the Society of doctors planned a number of the measures aimed at prevention of epidemic of a diphtheria. The majority of these recommendations was realized, and the mayor S.P. Zaykov even expressed to Society the gratitude [3]. Four years before Zaykov's predecessor - A.A. Malleev himself addressed members of Society of doctors for explanations concerning hardness of water from a city water supply system, and the question of further expansion of all water supply system was put into dependence on the decision of Society [4].

Interaction of the municipal government with other similar societies was carried out generally by "personal union". So, the Ufa thought always treated requests of local veterinary society favourably though in general assistance to sick animals was in competence of provincial zemstvo. Nevertheless, with active participation of City Council in 1911 the veterinary society opened the out-patient clinic in Ufa. In a year, having made sure that it got trust of Ufa residents, the municipal government began to build for out-patient clinic the certain building [5]. All this time interests the General

stvo in a thought were supported by a peculiar "veterinary triumvirate": A.I. Vernikovsky, S.A. Ba-simov and M.V. Ryabinin, each of which was at the same time both a member of town council, and the member of veterinary society [6]. In the sphere the word of the Ufa district board of Imperial Russian Society of rescue on waters was rather powerful. In the spring of 1902 in connection with flood threat the board developed instructions for protection of life and health of inhabitants. At the same time it was recommended to Ufa town council to allocate boats and temporary rooms for the evacuated Ufa residents. If to consider that the chairman of the board of Society was the mayor A.A. Malleev, then it is not necessary to be surprised to the fact that all these wishes were considered

Active cooperation of the Ufa thought with Committee of guardianship about national sobriety led to emergence in Ufa of two parks, popular among citizens, - on the abrupt river bank Béla (so-called Sluchevsky mountain) [8] and in the working Northern settlement. And in the second case the justice spoke in the beginning against the relevant initiative of Guardianship as it planned to allocate this territory under urban development. But at the general meeting the thought nevertheless recognized the public importance of the project and agreed to allocate the space for the park [9].

There are a lot of chances "to reach" fathers of the city had various ethnoconfessional associations. Old Believers and Catholics, despite the extreme small number (2.2% and 0.8% of the total number of Ufa residents respectively [10]) rather easily achieved from City Council of allocation of farmstead spaces for construction of a house of worship and a church. Traditionally high unity of representatives of these faiths became the key to success: their petitions always proceeded not from certain people, and from the whole arrivals [11]. Besides, Old Believers and Catholics, the majority of whom had rather high property qualification, surely were each part of City Council.

The numerous initiative was taken by the Muslim part of the population making in 1911-1913 about 18% of Ufa residents [12]. Approximately the representation of Muslim vowels in City Council was same. For the first decade of the 20th century the municipal government determined sites for construction of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Ufa mosques by petitions of the Muslim communities. However vowels rejected the application on allocation of the space for the 6th mosque because freedoms -

Nye the earth could be required for school buildings [13]. In relationship with the municipal government of the most effective there was tactics of creation of "initiative groups" which undertook a part of the expenses interfaced to implementation of any given project. As a result of the petition of the Muslim communities, supported with the undertaken financial obligations, quite favourably were considered by the Ufa thought. At the request of Muslim ladies' charity the vowels free of charge allocated the space for construction of madrasah [14], one of a mekteba was also located on the earth provided by municipality [15].

From class institutions the closest contacts with City Council were supported by merchant community as the majority of the vowels which even were not belonging to merchants officially anyway were engaged in business activity. The large merchant Sergey Petrovich Zay-kov some time even combined positions of the mayor and the merchant head [16]. Most willingly the municipal government supported those initiatives of merchants which were aimed at establishment of a most favored nation treatment for all commerce and industry circles of the city. In September, 1903 the Ufa merchants appealed to town council to promote in opening of commodity exchange. The Duma joined the petition, and the charter of the Ufa exchange was approved by Nicholas II in July, 1905 [17]. The exchange committee created thus at the head of which there was also one of vowels [18] constantly drew the attention of a thought to need of development of the transport system. In particular, many merchants were disturbed that because of a drift of the bed of the Beloy River sand and silt heavy-load steamships hardly climb it. In

1910 year to the Ufa thought together with exchange committee and provincial zemstvo managed to achieve allocation from Management of inland waterways of one of two zemlecherpatelny cars necessary for the city [19].

The City Council treated the uzkokorporativny interests of merchant society more frostily. For example, in the years of World War I the merchants had to prove long that at such high prices of raw materials the dachshunds established by town council on finished goods do production unprofitable [20].

It is the most difficult to establish what impact on process of adoption of the Duma decisions ordinary Ufa residents had. The vast majority of applications, petitions and notes had especially private

character: about removal of shortages, withdrawal of farmstead places, purpose of grants. However, if the same addresses became too much, then the problem was submitted for the general meeting of a thought. For example, discussion of a question of construction of theater began with the statement of one of members of a justice that he "had to hear from persons, belonging to various population groups, the instruction on the sensitive gap in city improvement consisting in lack of the theatrical building" [21] more than once. In some cases "voice of the people" was used by the Ufa thought as evidential base of any given decision. So, numerous complaints of house owners about overvaluation of territorial collecting forced vowels again and again to petition before the government for allocation of the provincial center in independent territorial unit [22].

However, the application written by the ordinary Ufa resident just is frequent sank in lots of other papers. The characteristic case happened to the gardener by the name of the Hump. Having graduated from the Kremenchuk school of gardening, the Hump was going suit nursery forest in Ufa. Having suggested a justice to lease it a part of the city vygonny earth, the gardener promised to supply the municipal government of saplings of trees. The petition of the Hump was rejected as the area of the site mentioned by the gardener and was so small [23]. Meanwhile, several years before a thought itself planned the structure of nursery forest [24], needed saplings and the gardens - to the petition of the Hump just did not pay due attention.

In comparison with applications of certain Ufa residents, the local press rendered direct and well noticeable influence on policy of city self-government. However a part of editions had the official status therefore they not only sensitively fixed any change of public opinion, but also expressed the point of view of provincial administration. In particular, according to pages of "The Ufa provincial sheets" 1904-1905 transition from a hard guarding line of the governor I.N. Sokolovsky to the liberal softness of his successor B.P. Tsekhanovetsky is very accurately looked through. In 1904 and the first half of 1905 rare number of "Provincial sheets" did without criticism of the Ufa thought, at the same time not only specific actions of vowels, but also all system of territorial and city self-government were treated to attacks. Seeking to prove laziness, nonprofessionalism and uselessness of electoral bodies of city self-government, editors of newspapers did not disdain as unchecked

the facts, and statements that City Councils need "energetic government repression" [25].

Such groundless criticism did not promote adequate actions from vowels even then when the noticed defects of municipal economy (interruptions in power supply, lack of pavements, etc.) really took place. Moreover, discredit of bodies of territorial and city self-government could cost much to the Ufa province in connection with the coming cholera epidemic, all weight of fight against which lay on City Councils and Provincial zemstvo. If Ufa residents ceased to carry out the health regulations developed by town council, then in the provincial center epidemic could flash. Concerned vowels made the petition addressed to the Minister of Internal Affairs, having reflected in it the vision of this problem. Under the address the head A.A. Malleev signed by the first Ufa, then members of already mentioned Society of doctors began to sign the petition. One of them, doctor Sheftel, probably by mistake, suggested to join protesters the contractor G.A. Busov, the active figure of the Union of the Russian people. On its denunciation in March, 1905 Sheftel was arrested, and the Society of doctors which stood up for the colleague - is closed for half a year [26]. Everything changed in July, 1905 when in Ufa there arrived the new governor - B.P. Tsekhanovetsky. Faithful editorials in "Provincial sheets" were replaced by essays "from rural customs", on A.A. Malleev and the Ufa thought praises, sometimes so undeserved, as well as criticism of administration of I.N. Sokolovsky fell down [27]. The relations with the local press gained constructive character only when "Provincial sheets" were divided into official and informal parts (the last began to be published under the name "Ufa Region"). The analysis of publications of 1909-1910 shows that "The Ufa region" quite replaced to the municipal government modern polls, "hotlines", etc.

Based on written and oral messages of citizens and also reports by own correspondents, the newspaper editorial office carried out, in our opinion, very important work: pointed out those defects of activity of the Ufa thought which could correct to vowels quite. Emphasizing this moment, there is a wish to pay attention to what for carrying out in life of "recommendations" of many inveterate critics of the Ufa thought (and right and left), was required, at least, a feather -

to watch Gorodovy situation and as at most - all political system.

"The Ufa region" and one more newspaper, "the Bulletin of Ufa", also were under partial control of administration and were not free from various tactical influences, but their publications really promoted work of vowels. Once the message appeared about a sad condition of a ladder in the city park, the justice already began repair work [28]. In a question of maintenance of city dumps the caustic notes of the local press reached even bigger, than governor's audit. So, in 1908, after the next series of articles [29], the City Council improved access roads to city dumps [30], and less than in a year the same newspapers noted a certain improvement of a sanitary situation [31]. Possessing sometimes more broad outlook, than Duma members, authors of newspaper publications could give a practical advice, recommend to address experience of other cities [32]. The praise which "The Ufa region" noted all "nice" undertakings of City Council [33] was the unexpected instrument of influence. To develop the noticed success vowels considered a point of honor.

However if the municipal government showed to

strong confidence in accepted by it - even if unpopular - the decision, then it was not so simple to affect on vowels. In particular, the Ufa City Council persistently did not wish

to pave one of the central city streets - Big Kazan as its deplorable state was a large trump in fight for permission to raise in favor of the city collecting from the cargoes taken down the river by Béla and by rail [34]. At the same time vowels within several years ignored also requirements of the governor considering that it is a shame to provincial city [35] to have such street, and requests of inhabitants Big Kazan among which there were many eminent citizens [36], and caustic notes of the local press [37].

In general, citizens of the beginning of the 20th century, in the weight being deprived of electoral rights, nevertheless, had direct impact on bodies of city self-government. At the same time Ufa residents tried to obtain the greatest success, acting not as individuals, and as members of public organizations or representatives of various confessional and class associations. In turn city vowels listened to the recommendations of those public associations whose competence they highly appreciated. Support of City Council was found by socially significant projects (in sphere of formation, medicine). As a peculiar compass in variety of tasks of municipal economy for vowels served the unofficial newspapers "Ufimsky Kray" and "Ufimsky vestnik" to which recommendations the Ufa thought reacted most quickly.


1. V.A. Nardova. Autocracy and City Councils in Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. SPb, 1994. Page 20-21.
2. The review of the Ufa province for 1908. Ufa, 1910. Page 39; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1904. Ufa, 1906. Page 182.
3. Protocols of Society of doctors of the Ufa province for 1909 Ufa, 1911. Page 2, 206.
4. Minutes of meetings of Society of doctors of the Ufa province for 1905-1906. Ufa, 1907. Page 6.
5. The summary record about activity of the Ufa Veterinary Society for 1912. Ufa, 1913. S. 4-9;

Collection of magazines of the Ufa provincial territorial meeting XXXVI next sessions of 1910.

Ufa, 1911. Page 307-309 (II).

6. The address calendar of the Ufa province for 1914. Ufa, 1914. Page 80; The Memorable book of the Orenburg educational district for 1910. Ufa, 1910. Page 444, 457.
7. TsGIARB. T. I-11. Op. 1. 1305. L. 11-11ob.
8. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1899. Ufa, 1900. Page 160, 185; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1900. Ufa, 1901. Page 155-156.
9. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1909. Ufa, 1910. Page 439.
10. The Ufa territorial calendar for 1913. Ufa, 1912. Page 22.
11. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1907. Ufa, 1908. Page 194; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1908. Ufa, 1909. Page 410.
12. The Ufa territorial calendar for 1913. Ufa, 1912. Page 22; The Address calendar of the Ufa province for 1912. Ufa, 1912. Page 29; The Address calendar of the Ufa province for 1914. Ufa, 1914. Page 43.
13. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1908. Ufa, 1909. Page 630.
14. Reports of a provincial territorial justice to XXXIX next Ufa provincial territorial SOBR -

niya of 1913. On department of national education. Ufa, 1914. Page 43-44.

15. Mekteba of the Ufa province. A statistical essay of the Tatar and Bashkir lowest schools (mekte-b) of the Ufa province according to a research of the Ufa provincial territorial justice of 1912-1913. M.I. Obukhov made at the request of a justice. Ufa, 1915. Page 47-48.
16. The address calendar of the Ufa province for 1912. Ufa, 1912.
17. Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. August 11. No. 171. Page 3.
18. The address calendar of the Ufa province and the help book for 1911. Ufa, 1911. Page 43.
19. Collection of magazines of the Ufa provincial territorial meeting of the XXXVI regular session of 1910. Ufa, 1911. Page 948.
20. TsGIARB. T. I-311. Op. 1. 9. L. 2, 10-12.
21. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1907. Ufa, 1908. Page 360-361.
22. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1910. Ufa, 1911. Page 540-542, 678-679.
23. TsGIARB. T. I-340. Op. 1. 29. L. 195-196.
24. The report of the Ufa town council to the Ufa City Council about the current state of land grounds of the city of Ufa. Ufa, 1915. Page 1-10.
25. Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. January 11. No. 7. S. 2; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905.

February 17. No. 38. Page 2; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. March 10. No. 55. S. 2; Ufa gu-

Bern sheets. 1905. April 3. No. 75. Page 2; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. June 21. No. 131. Page 2; Ufa provincial sheets. June 26. No. 136. Page 3; Ufa provincial sheets. July 3. No. 141. Page 2.

26. Minutes of meetings of Society of doctors of the Ufa province for 1905-1906. Ufa, 1907. Page 1-5, 7; TSGAOO RB. T. 1832. Op. 4. 7. L. 54.
27. Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. July 26. No. 159. Page 3; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. July 28. No. 161. Page 3; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. August 17. No. 175. Page 3; Ufa provincial sheets. 1905. August 21. No. 179. Page 2-3.
28. Ufa region. 1910. July 7. No. 144. Page 3.
29. Bulletin of Ufa. 1907. September 12. No. 196. Page 3.
30. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1908. Ufa, 1909. Page 502-506.
31. Ufa region. 1909. July 22. No. 157. Page 3.
32. Ufa region. 1910. October 2. No. 121. Page 3; Ufa region. 1909. August 12. No. 173. Page 3.
33. Ufa region. 1911. June 11. No. 122. Page 3; Ufa bulletin. 1914. May 11. No. 104. Page 3; Ufa region. 1910. November 7. No. 240. Page 3.
34. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1913. Ufa, 1916. Page 508-513; The Report of the Ufa town council to City Council concerning establishment of collecting in favor of the city of Ufa from the cargoes taken on railway. B. m, b. of Page 1-2; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1911. Ufa, 1914. Page 400-401; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1912. Ufa, 1916. Page 653.
35. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1903. Ufa, 1904. Page 253-256; Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1904. Ufa, 1906. Page 115-116.
36. Magazines of the Ufa City Council. 1910. Ufa, 1911. Page 317.
37. Ufa region. 1909. September 30. No. 211. Page 3; Ufa region. 1911. April 28. No. 90. Page 2-3.

Came to edition of 03.05.06

Matthew Williams
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