The Science Work
History
Site is for sale: mail@thesciencework.com
Category: History

From the history of cultural integration of Abazins into the public system of the Russian state



b. M. Dzhemakulova

FROM the HISTORY of CULTURAL INTEGRATION of ABAZINS INTO the PUBLIC SYSTEM of the RUSSIAN STATE

Work is presented by department of national history of the Karachay-Cherkess state university of U.D. Aliyev. The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor G.V. Smyr

A basic element of cultural integration of Abazins into the public system of the Russian state was distribution of literacy among the population. At the same time the first Abazin educators worked for the benefit of the people in education, acquainting both mountaineers with achievements of the Russian culture, and the Russian public with the culture of Abazins and other indigenous people of the Caucasus.

The main element of cultural integration of Abaza into the public system of Russia was the spread of literacy among common people. At the same time the first abaza enlighteners worked hard for the benefit of people in the field of education, acquainting both mountaineers with the achievements of the Russian culture and Russian public with the culture of Abaza and other native peoples of Caucasus.

Already in the first half of the 19th century Russia did the first attempts of education of children of the most notable and the richest of the Abazin noblemen. The tsarist government willingly admitted children of the nobility to the Russian educational institutions to bring up them in the corresponding spirit of devotion to a tsarism.

More and more Russian society inclined to a thought that peace-loving policy with the North Caucasian people "can lead to their strong conquest, everyone another, based on ruin and bloodshed, is harmful..." To make the Caucasus an organic part of the Russian Empire, a source of its force, but not weakness, it was necessary to win it culturally, politically, spiritually and economically.

Accession of the Northwest Caucasus to Russia had a great influence on the culture of the Abazin people. The thirst for the Russian culture and Russian at Abazins appeared even before completion of accession of the Northwest Caucasus to Russia. Progressive representatives of the Abazin people Adiel Weight Keshev, Umar

Mekerov, Tatlustan Tabulov and others saw positive sides of influence of the Europeanized Russian culture. Therefore the advanced people from Abazins sought to learn Russian, to read the Russian books, to get acquainted with the Russian literature. The important role in it was played by the best minds of Russia: Decembrists, great Russian writers of the 19th century, democrat revolutionaries who showed interest and attention in all people of the Caucasus. Well-known, what the Caucasian motives in A.S. Pushkin and M.Yu. Lermontov's creativity with what love they wrote about courageous and freedom-loving inhabitants of the Caucasus Mountains figured prominently. Democrat revolutionaries N.G. Chernyshevsky and N.A. Dobrolyubov devoted special articles to events on Kavkaze2.

It should be noted that the biggest and invaluable contribution to business of implementation of the Russian culture and knowledge to the people of the Caucasus, and in particular the Abazin, ESA-terinodarsky and Stavropol gymnasiums brought, at which according to instructions of the emperor still

in 1842 "offices for preparatory education" - boards for children of the mountain nobility were created. In them children of the Abazin princes and noblemen studied: Loov, Du-darukovykh, Zhanta world, Karmovy, Kyachevy, Sheremetovy, Kumuzovy, etc.

The Stavropol provincial gymnasium in which in 1850 the son of the Abazin prince Kuchuk Kyachev - Adiel Weight was enlisted became to the 60th gt. 19th century one of the most advanced educational institutions in the country. In the years of study Adiel-Girey (Kyacheva) Kesheva the gymnasium endured a time of the highest blossoming. In it a big merit of the director of a gymnasium Ya.M. Neverov. Under the influence of his progressive pedagogical ideas the foundation of democratic outlook Adiel-Girey Kesheva is laid, his art and esthetic ideals are formed.

Some Abazins, having graduated from aulny school, continued study at schools of nearby villages. For example, in 1912-1914 gt. in the station Bekeshevskoy several Abazin from the Kumsko-Loovsky aul studied, living with friends of the parents. At the beginning of the 20th century in the Batalpashinsky men's gymnasium mountain children got an education: in 1912-12 people, in 1916 already the 56th persons. This gymnasium was ended by Abazins O. Magazhokov, K. Karatov, A. Dzyba, B. Zaurumov who subsequently devoted the life to development of education among tribespeople. In 1876 the resident of the Dudarukovsky aul of Biyaslan Sheremetov who graduated the Labinsk mountain school sent the application to the chief of the Batalpashinsky County about assistance in its aspiration to continue training. Shereme-tov was suggested to come as the private guest to the Yalta school of gardening and winemaking at an imperial Nikitsky garden. Subsequently he headed Dudarukovsky school.

The most capable Abazins had an opportunity to study in higher educational institutions. At the Moscow and St. Petersburg universities was organizo-

vano 10 grants for representatives of the Caucasian and Transcaucasian people. Here some examples: in 1860 Abazin Adiel Weight Keshev was enlisted in number of students of the St. Petersburg university; here sons of the Abazin educator Umar Mikerov-Hamid and Abulkerim studied; at the beginning of the 20th century in capital higher education institution other Abazin - Murzabek Aliyev studied. At the same time Highway akherby Magometov Dudarukov was a student of the Kiev university of St. Vladimir. Having returned to the native land, they actively promoted development and deepening of the Russian-Caucasian communications.

At the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century among teachers national shots appear. From among Abazins the activity with development of national education was connected by B. Kam-biyev, B. Sheremetov, T. Tabulov, etc. The big contribution to education of the people was made by the educator Tatlustan Zakireevich Tabulov who became the creator of the Abazin alphabet and making considerable efforts for education democratization.

If most of the Abazin educators worked for the benefit of the people in education, popularizing scientific knowledge in his environment, acquainting ordinary mountaineers with achievements of the Russian culture, then Adiel Weight Keshev who was the talented writer and the publicist, on the contrary, acquainted the Russian public with the culture of Abazins and other indigenous people of the region. And. - G. Keshev (Kyachev) - one of the few representatives of the Abazin people who managed to become the famous public figure whose creativity made one of tops of the so-called North Caucasian educational movement which falls on the 60-90th of HGH of century

Adiel Weight Keshev was familiar with many progressive figures of the Russian literature and science. He made for rapprochement with the Russian people and its culture not only Abazins much, but also other people of the North Caucasus. Very few people from scientists of that time and writers so in details,

as And. - G. Keshev, described life, life and the culture of mountaineers.

In 1867. And. - G. Keshev moved to Vladikavkaz, having received a position of the editor of "Tersky sheets" - the first Russian newspaper in the region. In principle tsar's authorities, "Tersky sheets" had to become the conductor and the propagandist of official policy of autocracy among mountaineers. But, having entered the editor's position, he, contrary to severe acceptable conditions, carried out the progressive and progressive ideas of the time in the newspaper. And. - G. Keshev managed to involve in cooperation in the newspaper of progressive contemporaries mountaineers - the Ossetian ethnographer Inaluko Tkhostov, the Kabardian educator Kazi Atazhukin, the participant of the revolutionary student's movement of the Ingush Adiel-Girey Dolgiyeva and many others. In the period of its redaktorstvo (1868-1872) "the Tersky sheets" regularly and consistently put cardinal problems of economic and public life of edge, allocated the big place to ethnography and folklore of its different races and multilingual population.

In the 90th of XIX and the beginning of the 20th century the practical education connected with creation of alphabets, school manuals with the organization of network of elementary schools, printing houses, the edition of the first newspapers, etc. is put in the forefront. This period in the history of the Abazin enlightenment is connected with Umar Mikerov and Tat-lustana Tabulov, Pago Tambiyev's names.

For example, thanks to Umar Mikerov's efforts in 1879 in the Biberdovsky aul the two-storeyed building of one-great school in which two years later 20 pupils studied was built. Being for the time rather educated person, U. Mikerov created on the basis of the Arab graphics the alphabet of the Abazin language which was used for training for children in Biberdovsky school.

By 1895 the mountain schools began to work in other Abazin auls: Loovsko-

Cuban, Kuvinsky, Loovsko-Zelenchuk-skom, in 1898 in the Kumsko-Loovsky aul (sovr. The red East) the first two-great school was founded. By data for 1910, initial schools worked already in 7 auls of Abazins, besides specified, also in Duda-rukovsky, Klychevsky, Shakhgireevsky.

Teachers of educational institutions gave appreciation to abilities of mountain boys which "are taught to read in Russian during the shortest time". However school business developed not simply even if to judge it on evolution of views of the mountain intellectuals. The first educators recognized need of education, at least, for the top class, stood up for separate training in class sign. But at the end of the 19th century the thought that social-class and sexual distinctions have to be alien to education what they indicated became widespread And. - G. Keshev and T. Tabulov. Understanding that the literacy is not privilege, not a whim and not luxury, and what the person cannot do in the ordinary everyday life without came. Therefore education had to answer a number of requirements: first, to be general available; secondly, obligatory for all; thirdly, applicable in practice; fourthly, it is reasonable to combine teaching native and rus-4

sky languages.

At the beginning not all population understood value of new schools, but later, in the 90th of the 19th century, the aspiration to obtaining at least initial knowledge so amplified that all new decisions of village assemblies on opening of schools, extension of programs and increase in number of pupils at old schools appeared. It was already impossible to meet desires of all who wanted to be admitted to schools. The issue was resolved, of course, in favor of prosperous population groups. The main mass of the population remained illiterate. Also the attempt to adjust training did not make success

girls. The Moslem doctrine always was against training of female-goryanok. In 1915 in the aul of Teberdinskom the Abazin teacher Tat-lustan Tabulov suggested to train girls at a teacher's conference in the diploma. His performance was apprehended as "seditious", and it was discharged of work. But at that time T. Tabulov was not lonely. Education a goryanok was supported by many progressive mountaineers teachers, including the Karachay of X. Khalilov and Nogai A. Dzhanibekov5.

Through Russia the cultural estate of the Caucasus became a part of European educated society, and in process of the general educational development the literacy and education became available to the increasing number of people. In this sense many could estimate objectively value and a role of rapprochement of the Caucasus with the Russian civilization which culture already then was recognized and highly appreciated.

At this time the question concerning creation of the Abazin writing which lack seriously slowed down distribution of literacy and inclusion of Abazins to all-Russian, and through it in the all-European culture became aggravated. Essential attention was paid to the Abazin language by N.S. Trubetskoy. His main merit is that he in detail investigated the phonetic phenomena of many Caucasian languages, having revealed their sound compliances. The best representatives of the Russian science were engaged in development of national alphabets. In 1938 the Abazin writing was transferred from Latin on the Russian basis. A.M. Genko, G.P. Serdyuchenko, N.F. Yakovlev, T successfully worked on creation of the Abazin alphabet. 3. Tabulov, A.B. Kurchev. Textbooks and manuals began to be formed, current problems of the theory and practice of training were developed.

P the writing oyavleniye at Abazins brought to life and publishing. Its active development began with the creation in 1925

of the North Caucasian national publishing house printing books in seven languages of radical nationalities of edge. At the same time there was a process of formation of national literatures. In the 20-30th of the 20th century among Abazins the writers and poets appear. Already at a boundary of the 19-20th centuries the North Caucasian community represented set of dynamically developing sociocultural systems in which the large role was played by the external factor which had pronounced modernization character. On the one hand, it is rather strong traditional norms giving to development national and specific the stabilizing character. With another - the powerful integrating impulses which resulted from dialogue of different civilizations. It promoted development of mechanisms of mutual adaptation and led to gradual emergence of new forms of interethnic cooperation, interaction of traditions and innovations.

Mutual exchange of cultural and cultural wealth promoted expansion of a perspective of works, improvement of their art form, language, style, means of expression. Interference of national cultures - creative use of achievements of more advanced literatures, achievements which give interesting shoots on the inonatsionalny soil, enrichment of national traditions and creation of new national values.

Involvement of Abazins in an orbit of the Russian life opened for them the road to culture and education that occurred as a result of educational activity of the advanced part of the Russian and small mountain intelligentsia. She understood the urgent need of peace and harmony with Russians.

Speaking about change of culture and life of Abazins under the influence of proximity of the Russian people, it should be noted also the return process of influence of local culture and

as And. - G. Keshev, described life, life and the culture of mountaineers.

In 1867. And. - G. Keshev moved to Vladikavkaz, having received a position of the editor of "Tersky sheets" - the first Russian newspaper in the region. In principle tsar's authorities, "Tersky sheets" had to become the conductor and the propagandist of official policy of autocracy among mountaineers. But, having entered the editor's position, he, contrary to severe acceptable conditions, carried out the progressive and progressive ideas of the time in the newspaper. And. - G. Keshev managed to involve in cooperation in the newspaper of progressive contemporaries mountaineers - the Ossetian ethnographer Inaluko Tkhostov, the Kabardian educator Kazi Atazhukin, the participant of the revolutionary student's movement of the Ingush Adiel-Girey Dolgiyeva and many others. In the period of its redaktorstvo (1868-1872) "the Tersky sheets" regularly and consistently put cardinal problems of economic and public life of edge, allocated the big place to ethnography and folklore of its different races and multilingual population.

In the 90th of XIX and the beginning of the 20th century the practical education connected with creation of alphabets, school manuals with the organization of network of elementary schools, printing houses, the edition of the first newspapers, etc. is put in the forefront. This period in the history of the Abazin enlightenment is connected with Umar Mikerov and Tat-lustana Tabulov, Pago Tambiyev's names.

For example, thanks to Umar Mikerov's efforts in 1879 in the Biberdovsky aul the two-storeyed building of one-great school in which two years later 20 pupils studied was built. Being for the time rather educated person, U. Mikerov created on the basis of the Arab graphics the alphabet of the Abazin language which was used for training for children in Biberdovsky school.

By 1895 the mountain schools began to work in other Abazin auls: Loovsko-

Cuban, Kuvinsky, Loovsko-Zelenchuk-skom, in 1898 in the Kumsko-Loovsky aul (sovr. The red East) the first two-great school was founded. By data for 1910, initial schools worked already in 7 auls of Abazins, besides specified, also in Duda-rukovsky, Klychevsky, Shakhgireevsky.

Teachers of educational institutions gave appreciation to abilities of mountain boys which "are taught to read in Russian during the shortest time". However school business developed not simply even if to judge it on evolution of views of the mountain intellectuals. The first educators recognized need of education, at least, for the top class, stood up for separate training in class sign. But at the end of the 19th century the thought that social-class and sexual distinctions have to be alien to education what they indicated became widespread And. - G. Keshev and T. Tabulov. Understanding that the literacy is not privilege, not a whim and not luxury, and what the person cannot do in the ordinary everyday life without came. Therefore education had to answer a number of requirements: first, to be general available; secondly, obligatory for all; thirdly, applicable in practice; fourthly, it is reasonable to combine teaching native and rus-4

sky languages.

At the beginning not all population understood value of new schools, but later, in the 90th of the 19th century, the aspiration to obtaining at least initial knowledge so amplified that all new decisions of village assemblies on opening of schools, extension of programs and increase in number of pupils at old schools appeared. It was already impossible to meet desires of all who wanted to be admitted to schools. The issue was resolved, of course, in favor of prosperous population groups. The main mass of the population remained illiterate. Also the attempt to adjust training did not make success

girls. The Moslem doctrine always was against training of female-goryanok. In 1915 in the aul of Teberdinskom the Abazin teacher Tat-lustan Tabulov suggested to train girls at a teacher's conference in the diploma. His performance was apprehended as "seditious", and it was discharged of work. But at that time T. Tabulov was not lonely. Education a goryanok was supported by many progressive mountaineers teachers, including the Karachay of X. Khalilov and Nogai A. Dzhanibekov.

Through Russia the cultural estate of the Caucasus became a part of European educated society, and in process of the general educational development the literacy and education became available to the increasing number of people. In this sense many could estimate objectively value and a role of rapprochement of the Caucasus with the Russian civilization which culture already then was recognized and highly appreciated.

At this time the question concerning creation of the Abazin writing which lack seriously slowed down distribution of literacy and inclusion of Abazins to all-Russian, and through it in the all-European culture became aggravated. Essential attention was paid to the Abazin language by N.S. Trubetskoy. His main merit is that he in detail investigated the phonetic phenomena of many Caucasian languages, having revealed their sound compliances. The best representatives of the Russian science were engaged in development of national alphabets. In 1938 the Abazin writing was transferred from Latin on the Russian basis. A.M. Genko, G.P. Serdyuchenko, N.F. Yakovlev, T successfully worked on creation of the Abazin alphabet. 3. Tabulov, A.B. Kurchev. Textbooks and manuals began to be formed, current problems of the theory and practice of training were developed.

Emergence of writing in Abazins brought to life and publishing. Its active development began with creation in 1925

The North Caucasian national publishing house printing books in seven languages of radical nationalities of edge. At the same time there was a process of formation of national literatures. In the 20-30th of the 20th century among Abazins the writers and poets appear. Already at a boundary of the 19-20th centuries the North Caucasian community represented set of dynamically developing sociocultural systems in which the large role was played by the external factor which had pronounced modernization character. On the one hand, it is rather strong traditional norms giving to development national and specific the stabilizing character. With another - the powerful integrating impulses which resulted from dialogue of different civilizations. It promoted development of mechanisms of mutual adaptation and led to gradual emergence of new forms of interethnic cooperation, interaction of traditions and innovations.

Mutual exchange of cultural and cultural wealth promoted expansion of a perspective of works, improvement of their art form, language, style, means of expression. Interference of national cultures - creative use of achievements of more advanced literatures, achievements which give interesting shoots on the inonatsionalny soil, enrichment of national traditions and creation of new national values.

Involvement of Abazins in an orbit of the Russian life opened for them the road to culture and education that occurred as a result of educational activity of the advanced part of the Russian and small mountain intelligentsia. She understood the urgent need of peace and harmony with Russians.

Speaking about change of culture and life of Abazins under the influence of proximity of the Russian people, it should be noted also the return process of influence of local culture and

life on the Russians who lodged here. Cossacks to also much studied at mountaineers, in particular to housekeeping in mountain conditions.

Thus, the centuries-old neighbourhood of the Russian Cossacks and Abazins mutually enriched spiritual and material culture and those and other people. Feature of development of national cultures became them for-

a mirovaniye during creation of uniform educational space. Process of elimination of continuous illiteracy, opening of schools, average special and higher educational institutions, publishing formation, etc. took place in scales of the whole country and had character of public policy.

& History of the people of the North Caucasus (the end of the 18th century - 1917). M, 1988. Page 172.

Nevsky V.P. Accession of Circassia to Russia and its social and economic consequences. Cherkessk: Circassian book publishing house, 1956. Page 142.

3 In the same place. Page 147.

* N.N. Denisova. The Adyghe enlightenment in the context of the ideas of democratization of education//the World of culture of Adyghe. Maykop, 2002. Page 437.

Essays of history of Karachay-Cherkessia. Cherkessk: Karachay-Cherkess office of the Stavropol book publishing house. 1972. T. 1. Page 559.

Alessi Alberta Adelina
Other scientific works: