The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Labor protection and social security on Dona

 © 2007 V. Gotovkin


Rostov-on-Don, small district town on the bank of Don, in the 1860th the persons contained the population of 18 thousand. After an abolition of serfdom and the begun industrial revolution the population of Rostov-on-Don began to grow quickly. Continuous inflow of raw materials created a strong basis for development of the Don industry. There were such enterprises as the main railway workshops of the Vladikavkaz railroad, Pastukhov's plants, the gvozdilny plant of Panin, tobacco factory of Asmolov. Thanks to industry development the number of residents of Rostov by the end of the 19th century increased to 120 thousand people

The bulk of citizens worked at the industrial enterprises and mines for 14 - 16 h in day under trying conditions. Up to the 90th of the 19th century in the Dona mines the manual work prevailed. One haulage man rolled away for change of 7 cars, overcoming during this time distance honor in 16 versts [1]. Under these conditions the highest earnings of the worker-miner made 1 ruble 20 kopeks a day and fluctuated from 15 to 30 rubles a month. At Pastukhov's plant in Sulin at insufferably severe conditions and the 10 - 12-hour working day even the qualified worker-founder received no more than 15 rubles a month. This sum almost never fell of the worker into hands because of various penalties. Shortchangings, penalties, accustoming to drinking of workers, the system of supply with their goods from master's benches often led to the fact that the worker absolutely lost salary, and sometimes got to debt to the owner which increased from month to month. Working conditions and at tobacco factory of Asmolov were not better. Workers knifed tobacco, sleeves glued hands, cigarettes filled manually. The best workers in day filled no more than 2000 cigarettes. The average salary at skilled workers did not exceed 70 kopeks a day. Even the medical commission at revenues to factory of the woman was passed for the money. Any holidays including it was not necessary to pregnant women. In shops there was no ventilation, workers got poisoned with tobacco dust, the tuberculosis was a widespread disease especially among the children working at factory [2]. The Don capitalists did not care for safety measures at all. It led to the mass accidents which were often coming to an end in the death of workers. Here some the most characteristic of them. In the mine of the Rostov merchant Fayn when raising a tub with water from the mine on a surface the iron handle broke, the tub fell to the mine and killed the worker Z. Rogachyov, and wounded other worker [3]. In Yepifanov's mine during descent of two workers in a tub the handle was unbent, and both miners died. In Chikhirova's mine the process engineer Toropov when checking durability of a felling dropped out of a tub and rolled in the water which flooded the mine. In the mine ROPITa killed with explosion of a copper 15 workers [4]. Several workers were wounded from explosion of dynamite in the mine of Box -

neeva: preparation of dynamite cartridges happened in working barracks. At Vertitsko-Bratchenko 10 people drowned in the mine. At Pastukhov's plant in Sulin there was an explosion of the boiler, as a result of 4 workers died. The decay of a copper was a cause of explosion.

These accidents were first of all a consequence of greed of the businessmen who were not wishing to spend means even for the minimum providing safety measures. All of them remained unpunished. Moreover, the acts concerning accidents usually came to an end with words: "dead illiterate" [5]. It tried to shift the blame on the dead. Also living conditions of workers were awful. It is visible from protocols of the district doctor of the Taganrog district on insanitary living conditions of workers on large coal mines of capitalists Prokhorov, Danilov, Alchevsk, Hlopitsky and the prince Gagarin in the Makiivka volost.

In the protocol of March 28, 1890 it is said that premises of workers in a state, bad to impossibility, are very dirty. Outside they are surrounded with a garbage, water contains in dirty tubs, food substandard [9]. On Hlopitsky's mine, it is written down in other protocol, "... rooms of workers are arranged with deepening to the earth up to 2 & U arshins. A wooden roof, from the thin boards from above covered with clay and very badly covered with earth. All rooms are dirty, dampish, light is not enough, closely. At a fire chamber of furnaces - plates large coal gas passes through cracks of compound plates. Lighting by oil with kerosene impurity in miner's lamps without glasses - air becomes spoiled" [7, l. 14-15]. Workers could buy products only in master's shops. These products were bad quality. For example, the doctor found about hundred poods of the corned beef covered with worms. On the mine there was an accident ward for patients which was in the small room with an earth floor. In it there were three wooden beds which were scenery for the administration as was forbidden to accept patients on these beds strictly. In the accident ward the 70-year-old paramedic who in the specialty was a veterinarian [7, l worked. 15]. The district doctor Yankovsky who noted all these shortcomings of the protocol was discharged from office. On the mine of Alekseevsky mining society where about 1000 workers worked, the doctor visited the mine every two years. At the plant of Pastukhov which was in Sulin in 1879 980 workers were registered. Within a year they 1802 times went to hospital. On average each worker at this plant had two times a year a serious disease. In 1883 the workers asked for medical care in a hospital of 1525 times. In 369 of them the diagnosis - the alternating fever, in 161 - a bilious and mucous diarrhea, in 153 - rheumatism, in 73 - sharp Qatar of the upper airways, in 87 - nervous races - was made

a stroystvo, in 54 - a cachectic ulcer, in 86 - inflammation of belly bodies, in 49 - eye diseases, in 53 - a catarrhal fever, in 130 - bruises, injuries, burns [8].

All this promoted increase in occupational injuries, incidence, growth of mortality, reduction of terms of life. The hard work and small salary forced workers of a message economic struggle with the employers for the 8-hour working day, salary increase, improvement of working conditions. This economic struggle contributed to the development of occupational health which studied influence on an organism of the worker of chemical and physical factors of the production environment (industrial poisons, dust, weather conditions, noise, vibration), labor processes and physiological shifts caused by them in the worker's organism, developed a rational operating mode and rest in favor of capitalists. Work of the doctor A.N. Nikitin of "A disease of workers with the indication of precautionary measures" was the first Russian book about occupational diseases and hygiene. This book was written in 1847. From original sanitary researches F.F. Erisman (1879 - 1893) work on a sanitary research of factories and plants of the Moscow province had practical value [9]. In spite of the fact that I.M. Sechenov scientifically proved in 1900 that the working day has to last no more than eight hours, workers continued to work for 14 - 16 hours a day. Such situation in the field of labor protection lasted till October, 1917

After October socialist revolution the 8-hour working day was entered and the decree about insurance of workers in case of a disease, disability and unemployment is issued. Thus, the Soviet power met all economic requirements of workers in the field of labor protection and social security that in turn promoted reduction of occupational injuries and growth of economic welfare of the people. In March, 1919 there took place the VIII congress of RCP(b). At this congress the new medical program in which it was told that the Soviet government created all conditions for adoption of the first Russian sanitary legislation was adopted, as happened in 1920. It confirmed the right of workers for the 8-hour working day, and for a number of professions established 6- and even the 4-hour working day. It concerned workers of coal, mining, chemical industry and health workers of tubercular, infectious diseases, psychiatric hospitals, morgues. During night shifts duration of working hours was reduced by one hour. Overtime works in the cases which are strictly regulated by the law and only on permission of factory committee were as an exception allowed, they were paid in the increased size. During the working day the one-hour lunch break was provided. There were two weekend a week and annual vacation. Pregnant women were given a holiday in six weeks before childbirth and four weeks after the delivery. The nursing mother was allowed to go home for feeding re-

a benka each three hours or it gave a child care leave [10]. Such attitude of the Soviet power towards workers and employees promoted reduction of incidence, growth of birth rate and increase in terms of life.

To Dona the section of labor protection was created on January 24, 1920 in the form of section of social insurance and labor protection. In the field of insurance the activity of section developed in insurance of people upon unemployment. According to the decree of Council of People's Commissars of December 22, 1917 which was issued for increase in monetary and medical care to Dona the following resolutions were issued: about contribution to health insurance fund by the enterprises of 1% of the valid earnings insured, about insurance in case of a disease, about obligatory assignment of 4% by the enterprises from the valid salary of workers and the unemployed serving in cash desk [11, l. 32]. At the beginning of March, 1920 the section was reorganized and continued to exist as regional department of labor protection. All issues of insurance turned into maintaining regional department of social security that positively affected work of these two bodies.

First of all the regional department of labor protection was engaged in creation of inspection of work. Instead of estimated ten managed to recruit six inspectors of work who having worked as week under the leadership of the experienced employee of regional department of labor protection got to independent work at the plants and factories of the Rostov region. The lack of practical experience of these inspectors slowed down work of all regional department of labor protection. For the purpose of creation of more prepared shots the regional department organized monthly courses of inspectors of work where lectures on labor protection, the professional movement, safety measures, social security, statistics, professional hygiene were given. A number of a practical training on inspection of factories and plants was carried out, Rostov-on-Don and Nakhchivan divided into four sites [11, l. 33]. In everyone the inspector of work worked. The commissions on labor protection at trade-union factory committees were created that promoted establishment of effective communication between inspectors of work and working collectives. Along with inspection of work the sanitary inspection from six veterinarians was organized.

The regional department of social security was created on March 7, 1920. In the first year of the it is active - st it published circular letters on reorganization of sections of social security, on terms of delivery of grants and production of inspections, on survey of sick workers and serving as private doctors and about the organization of control commissions over them, about the amount of pensions temporarily lost working capacity, about delivery of grants to families of citizens, missing persons [11, l. 48].

All these resolutions and circular letters contributed to emergence and the development of a harmonious combination of actions for prevention and leche-

niya of diseases. The positive result was for the first time recorded by the Soviet medical statistics in 1926. If average duration in the Rostov region in 1897 equaled to 32 years, then in 1926 - to 57 years. Significant increase in average life expectancy at all age groups of the population was noted. Average life expectancy of women increased due to release them from hard physical activity and in comparison with 1897 in 1926 increased by 38% [12]. These data demonstrate that the state Soviet health care was not artificial planting, and completely met the requirements of that time.

2. I. Stalsky. Don state tobacco factory. Rostov N / D, 1938. Page 5.
3. GARO, t. 32, op. 2, 963, l. 69.
4. GARO, t. 32. op. 1, 308, l. 368.
5. I.P. Hlystov Don during a capitalism era. Rostov N / D, 1962. Page 304.
6. GARO, f.32, op. 2, 1178, l. 3.
7. In the same place, op. 1, 581.
8. In the same place, op. 2, 1163, l. 20.
9. Big Medical Encyclopedia (BME). M, 1965. T. 6. Page 1049.
10. In the same place. T. 32. Page 876.
11. GARO, t. R-97, op. 1, 74.
12. BME. T. 26. Page 847-848.


1. Mountain magazine. 1888. T. 3. Page 196. Rostov state university On October 23, 2006
James Lester Robert
Other scientific works: