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To the history of medical societies in Russia



SIBIRSKY MEDICAL MAGAZINE No. 12007

MERCY, DOCTOR AND PATIENT

To live for others - not for itself - here a true medical prescription. He has to sacrifice not only tranquility, benefits, conveniences and pleasant things of life, but also own health and life, even that above everything, the honor and glory if he wants to achieve the highest objective - preservation and life, and health of others.

Therefore iatrotechnics is connected to the highest and sacred duties which merge with the first holy laws of religion and philanthrophy which demand full self-rejection and the eminence of spirit over wordly calculations. The doctor in true value of this word, has to be the purest morality of people, and then he will find entire happiness in the knowledge.

Gufeland

UDC 61 (091)

* A.Yu. Kolomiytsev, ** S.A. Not Krylov,

*** A.V. Nedostup

E-mail: medicina@tomsk.ru

To HISTORY

medical societies in RUSSIA

* The Tomsk scientific center from the Russian Academy of Medical Science; ** Tomsk state university; *** The II Moscow medical institute of a sechenov

Lessons of development of Russia show amazing regularity: at the time of the hardest shocks, economic crises, wars and accidents when the bases of public and private life of people collapse, moral guidelines are lost and it seems that there is already no place to look for rescue, the strong belief helping to find a second wind and to revive the great power comes to the rescue. There is nothing surprising that heads of our state, understanding importance and the urgent need of search of the additional reserves helping 118

to stabilization of society and unity of positive forces, in the union with Russian Orthodox Church, addressed traditions of spirituality and mercy.

After many decades ways of reunion and interaction of the doctor and the priest were outlined. On July 22, 1993 the Resolution "Principles of the Legislation of the Russian Federation on Protection of Public Health" providing to any citizen of our country the right on "the admission to it of the priest is accepted, and in medical institution - on granting conditions for departure of religious practices...".

In many hospitals the medical personnel consecrate hospital rooms, in offices of doctors and in chambers - icons. In recent years in Moscow, St. Petersburg and many other cities societies and the unions of orthodox doctors which unite all who can render the effective help in relief of sufferings of our Russian patients are created.

In many hospitals there are temples and chapels now, with other cases the clinic is helped by priests from the nearby temple, without leaving heavy patients without dushepopecheniye.

In the history of development of domestic medicine the medical societies played a huge role. They reached the greatest development in the 60-80th years of the 19th century. If by the end of the first half of the 19th century they were less than 10, then by 1896 in Russia were already up to 120 scientific and medical societies; more than a half of all doctors consisted members of various societies. Medical societies resolved not only special scientific and methodical issues, but also vividly responded to public events in the country.

During this period the medical associations were created not only in the large cities, but also in regions of the country, remote from the center. Among the societies organized in the second half of the 19th century - Society of the Russian doctors in Moscow in N.I. Pirogov's memory (1861), the Kharkiv medical society (1861), the Caucasian medical society (1864), Society of doctors of Kazan (1869), the Omsk medical society (1883), Society of scientists and doctors at the Tomsk university (1889) and some other.

We will dwell upon activity of Society of scientists and doctors of the Tomsk university.

The charter of the Russian universities (1884) allowed opening at the universities of similar societies. During the pre-revolutionary period at the Tomsk university several scientific organizations were organized, of which were main: Society of scientists and doctors, Legal society and Obstetric and gynecologic society.

The first meeting of Society of scientists and doctors took place on September 23, 1889, and the charter of society was approved by the minister of national education one month earlier - on August 19, 1889 Society of scientists and doctors consisted at Tomsk

the university also had the following purposes: first, "assistance to progress of all branches of natural sciences and scientific medicine"; secondly, "studying Siberia and the countries adjoining to it in the natural-historical and medical relations, meaning not only the scientific, but also practical purposes of studying the country"; thirdly, "studying the tribes inhabiting Siberia, mainly foreigners, in the anthropological relation and also anthropological study, on archeological sites, the prehistoric tribes living here"; fourthly, "distribution in public of natural-historical and medical data and attraction of the greatest number of persons to natural-historical researches". Thus, systematic and comprehensive study of Siberia was the main task of Society. According to the charter of society, "the persons who signed the draft of the Charter are approved as full members". Among them were the trustee of the West Siberian educational district V.M. Florinsky, and. of the rector of the N.A. Gezekhus university, ordinary professors S.I. Zalesky and N.M. Maliyev, extraordinary professors

A.page. Dogel, A.M. Zaytsev, S.I. Korzhinsky and E.A. Lehman. In the next years all professors of the university, practical doctors of Tomsk and other cities of Siberia and also teachers and some students of the Tomsk university became members of Society. By the end of 1899 in society there were 161 members, including: 1 honorary members, 155 valid, 4 member employees and 1 member-sorevnovatel. Within this year the society exchanged the editions with 105 institutions and the editorial offices. After allocation in 1905 of doctors of aku-sherov-gynecologists in independent society the number of Society of scientists and doctors decreased a little. In September, 1892 professor E.G. Salishchev was elected the chairman of society. He was the chairman of Society of 11 months. On August 23, 1893 E.G. Salishchev to relieve the unhealthy tension in Society, put from himself the chairman's rank. From 1896 to 1903 the chairman of society professor consisted

B.H. Great. Then professor M.G. Kurlov was elected to this post. In 1903 at the initiative of the last the medical section transformed later to medical department was allocated. From now on work of society is divided into two directions: medical and natural-historical.

The medical department under the chairmanship of professor M.G. Kurlov united all doctors at the meetings. At general meetings of society under the chairmanship of professor V.V. Sapozhnikov reports of scientists were made. The main work of Society of scientists and doctors consisted, first, in holding meetings where scientific messages listened with delight and discussed; secondly, in assistance of the organization and also implementation of excursions to the means; thirdly, in opening of public readings in the form of separate lectures or systematic, popular courses on natural sciences and medicine.

So, for example, at the initiative of Society the practicing Tomsk doctors continued registration of infectious patients. Let's remind that in 1892 in Tomsk there was cholera epidemic. In a type of a possibility of return of cholera epidemic in the city according to the proposal of professor M.G. Kurlov the commission of 8 people was formed. Besides Kurlov, the doctor, and then the Tomsk mayor Alexey Ivanovich Makushin, the doctor Vladislav Stanislavovich Pirussky and others entered it. The commissions charged to discuss measures and to put into practice those from them which Society could serve in business of fight against epidemic. They included lectures about cholera which were given by nurses at the Tomsk office of Society of the Red Cross headed by professor M.G. Kurlov, to schoolgirls of school of midwives, pupils of veterinary school, pupils of high school of theological seminary and schoolgirls of women's diocesan school. Members of Society organized short courses on disinfection at hospital of the Order of Public contempt, having trained thereby hospital attendants in case of fight against cholera. the number taken these courses and received the corresponding certificates exceeded 200 people. Society published the brochure made by M.G. Kurlov "what is cholera and as to save itself from it". It was published at the expense of Society in number of 13 thousand copies. They quickly dispersed, and the second revised edition of this brochure was required.

In addition, society published Works of the Tomsk Society of scientists. In them minutes of meetings (later they began to leave separate editions), papers of the scientific messages made at meetings of society and also short notes, scientific articles and preliminary messages about expeditions and excursions and also the scientific works written by members of Society were printed.

With reports and scientific messages regularly spoke at meetings of Society both physicians, and representatives of natural sciences. In 1912 in memory of scientific and pedagogical activity of professor of department of surgery of the Tomsk university Eraste Gavrilovich Salishchev the Society founded an award of his name - the Salishchevsky award. Fund for an award were money (4280 rub 55 kopeks) offered pupils and E.G. Salishchev's admirers. The main sum of donations (4000 rub) was turned into actions of a 5% loan of Tomsk and represented the inviolable capital. Other money was stored in the state savings bank. Awards to winners of 200 rub had to be given annually from percent from fixed capital. The award was awarded for the best scientific work on medicine and natural sciences executed in Siberia and surely reported in Society. At the same time scientific works of professors on a competition were not allowed.

In the next years the activity of Society considerably decreased. In the years of Civil war of attempt at -

to give to activity of this organization a new impulse were not crowned with success.

by

In 1905 at the initiative of professor I.N. Gram-matikati on the basis of medical section of Society of scientists and doctors founded Obstetric and gynecologic society which permanent chairman he was until the end of the life. It promoted noticeable revival of scientific work at obstetric clinic. From 1905 for 1914 at meetings of society about 80 reports and messages were heard. However, after I.N. Grammatikati's death in 1917 the activity of Obstetric and gynecologic society also considerably decreased.

Research work of students, scholars, young scientists in the Tomsk university was stimulated by student circles, scientific organizations, participation in annual competitions of student's works.

In 1908 ordinary professor of department of embryology and histology A.E. Smirnov, the pupil of the outstanding domestic histologist professor K.A. Arnstein, organized one of the Russia's first student's societies which received a name of the famous scientist N.I. Pirogov.

Scientists of medical faculty of the Tomsk university maintained close contact with large scientific and training centers in the European Russia and abroad, corresponded with domestic and foreign colleagues. Contacts of the Tomsk scientists with the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences were very close. They took active part in work of domestic and international scientific congresses and the congresses. Scientific congresses with rare exception usually gathered in the university cities of Russia, and members of professorial university board were the main scientific force making reports and messages at these congresses. Congresses of scientists and doctors, archaeological congresses were organized.

As recognition of merits of professors of the Tomsk university, they were elected honorary members of the Russian and foreign scientific organizations. So, the Belgian obstetric and gynecologic society, recognizing scientific achievements of I.N. Grammatikati, elected it the honorary member (1914). Professor A.A. Kulyabko was elected by the honorary member of scientific organizations of physiologists of England, Germany, France and some other countries. Works of the Tomsk physicians were regularly printed on pages of the Russian and foreign medical magazines including issued in Berlin, Vienna, Paris. Their monographs, besides Tomsk, were published in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The scientific authority of the Tomsk university admitted many countries of the world therefore professors of the university were invited to various anniversaries of the oldest universities of Europe.

At the end of 1921 when many medical magazines in Russia and in Siberia, scientific ceased to appear

medical council together with Society of scientists and doctors at the Tomsk university and Society of practical doctors of the Tomsk province with assistance Sibzdrava, Sibsanprosvet and the Tomsk state publishing house made the decision on the edition of "The Siberian medical magazine". Since January, 1922 the magazine began to be issued monthly in Tomsk. Editorial council was headed by professors S.V. Lobanov, P.I. of chistyak, N.I. Bereznegovsky and doctor D. Glebov.

With pleasure it is noted that last 2006 the editorial office of "The Siberian medical magazine" celebrated the 10 anniversary of the revived edition. Last century the Siberian medical magazine existed only 10 years from 1923 to 1932. Despite the insignificant term of the edition, it played a huge role in association of scientific and medical forces and resolved many questions of science and applied medicine.

At all variety of tasks which were set for themselves by various societies at big differences of structure, of forms and methods of work the medical societies of pre-revolutionary Russia were of great importance in association and the organization of doctors, activization of their attention to questions of scientific and applied medicine, discussion and permission of pressing problems of medical and sanitary business, developing the skills of doctors.

In postrevolutionary time the scientific and practical medical societies remained, but gained sekulyarizirovanny character. Existence of any orthodox associations became impossible,

OTChET,

Legal izvlecheshya and works

Societies of Prakticheskikh of doctors: Tomsk gubernzh.

1-ny godt) sga суи^стЬеВатя *

Tomrishchsspyu (-I | [Of Part I | |:| L. A-1904.

especially in the medical environment. Realities of modern times of the 90th years of the end of the XX century gave the chance of revival of century historical traditions of the Russian church medicine. The lost moral guidelines, lack of a uniform ethical standard for modern doctors of the former USSR caused recently in part of them feeling of disappointment in communication with each other because of different views on the same problems (euthanasia, abortions, in vitro fertilization, organ and tissue transplantation, etc.), lack of uniform world outlook base and desire to find adherents.

In 1995 in Moscow the small group of doctors of various specialties united by orthodox religion and an orthodox view of the key moments of medicine is formed. The group will be organized in the Russia's first Society of orthodox doctors under the leadership of professor A.V. Nedostup. The staff of Department and Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and also Synod department of social service and charity of Russian Orthodox Church takes part in the organization of Society, drawing up the first charter. Creation of society was blessed by the confessor of Trinity-Sergius Lavra aged man archimandrite Kirill (Pavlov) for many years performing spiritual management of society.

Society was engaged in discussion of crucial issues of modern medicine, the practical help to sick orthodox people and participation in discussion of bills of the State Duma in the field of health care. By 2000 the number of his members reached 40, among them such experts, famous in medicine, as the honored doctor of Russia professor F.V. Kondratyev, professor L.F. Kurilo, professor S.I. Gorodetsky, the expert in bioethics the doctor of medical sciences, professor I.V. Siluyanova, etc. Society includes also famous doctors-priests of Moscow: celibate priest Anatoly (Berestov), abbot Valery (Larichev), archpriest Alexy Baburin, priest Maxim Obukhov, priest Valentin Zhokhov, etc.

Many members of society were a part of Tserkovnoobshchestvenny Council for biomedical ethics at the Moscow Patriarchy.

After Moscow in Russia societies of orthodox doctors and in other cities of Russia began to arise (today them there are already several dozen). From them the most representative and effective is the St. Petersburg society headed by the doctor of medical sciences archpriest of the lake Sergius Filimonov. In the nearest future merging of regional societies of orthodox doctors in All-Russian is supposed. Societies of orthodox doctors work also in brotherly Belarus and Ukraine.

The orthodox Church with permanently high respect treats profession of a physician which cornerstone the service of love directed to prevention and relief of human sufferings is.

Healing of the human nature damaged by a disease appears as execution of the God's plan

about the person: "God of the world yes will consecrate you in all completeness, and your spirit and soul and a body in all integrity yes will remain without defect in coming of the Lord our Jesus Christ" (1 Fes. 5. 23). The body free from enslavement to sinful passions and their investigation - to diseases, has to serve soul, and sincere forces and abilities, changing gifts of the Holy Spirit, to direct to an ultimate goal and purpose of the person - an obozheniye. Any true doctoring is intended to become involved to this miraculous healing made in Christ's Church.

As you know, personal contacts of people, especially scientific and exchange of views, - one of conditions of their successful scientific activity. During the pre-revolutionary period as a constant form of such contacts and exchange of views served scientific organizations, and a temporary and periodic form - scientific congresses. Basic changes did not happen also at the beginning of the 21st century.

Creation of Society of orthodox doctors in Tomsk was preceded by long work as specially created group of doctors scientists at the Siberian medical Fund of D.D. Yablokov. Regular meetings of doctors take place in the Temple of the Saint martyr of the princess Elisavety in the building of GU of scientific research institute of cardiology of the Tomsk scientific center FROM the Russian Academy of Medical Science with direct participation of the priest A. Lugovsky on blessing of the Archbishop Tomsk and Rostislav Asinovsky.

Society of orthodox doctors, in our opinion, has to be today professional association of doctors of various specialties which puts before itself both scientific and educational, and practical tasks. The realization of scientific and practical tasks is enabled as follows: members of Society develop the set subject, make messages at a meeting of Society. After the discussions and critical remarks materials of reports are submitted for discussion of the general medical public, using for this purpose the press, television, radio (for example, in the form of Debating club). The subject of reports includes: "Problems evta-

naziya", "Features of a communion of surgical and therapeutic patients", "An orthodox view of a blood transfusion problem", "Medical starvation and posts", "The right to life of children with congenital malformations and deviations in mental development", "An orthodox view of acupuncture", etc. Enlarged meetings of debating club are supposed to be held regularly, once a month in the Tomsk town house of Scientists.

The main task of enlarged meetings - development of uniform cathedral opinion of orthodox doctors on the put problem and preparation of decisions which would suit both Society of orthodox doctors, and secular medicine.

the Tomsk society of orthodox doctors has in "The Siberian medical magazine" the section - "Mercy, Doctor, Patient".

The supreme body of Society is the general meeting of his members. In intervals between meetings the board elected on supervises the work of Society

1 year. The board consists of the chairman, the secretary, deputies for activities (medical, scientific, educational, publishing departments, department of censorship). In the future in work of Society of orthodox doctors it is supposed to allocate surgical, therapeutic, a psychologo - psychoneurological, pediatric and other directions.

An indispensable factor of successful development of orthodox society is association of his members uniform eucharistic and devotional life, obedience to a hierarchy, accurate performance of authorized provisions of Society, respect of the cathedral decisions made at plenary sessions.

At the same time, considering experience of similar societies in other cities, it is necessary to avoid attempts of a violent churching of doctors; the wrong churching of doctors leads sometimes to serious troubles at work up to dismissal as some doctors neophytes make many mistakes in relationship with administration. All this pushes away from Church of many experienced doctors. At the same time, ostronapravlenny commercialization of medicine more often deprives of doctors of an opportunity on-122

to mogat the disadvantaged as it was earlier. The known difficulties are created sometimes by violation by priests and doctors of limits of mutual competence (the first sometimes forbid to be treated, the second undertake the solution of spiritual problems of the patient) that prevents dialogue between church and medicine.

However despite all available fears, creation of Society of orthodox doctors, undoubtedly, is important as it promotes a gradual churching of doctors, development of agreement of opinion on complex problems of medicine in terms of bases of the orthodox doctrinal truth. In general creation of societies assists consolidation of various forces of society, their coordination in fight against devilish and occult currents, interferes with their distribution in medicine.

In conclusion, we with awe acquaint readers with the text of a prayer of the doctor which maintenance was followed not by one generation of the Russian doctors:

". Clean me from spiritual leprosy and award with all blagougodivshy to You Saint doctors to glorify your favor, to Christ Redeemer mine, and philanthrophy of your beznachalny Father, with Consubstantial to You Blessed Spirit, for ever and ever.

Amen".

Olsen Josef
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