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To Pyotr Petrovich Kashchenko's 150 anniversary, to the 100 anniversary of Sivoritsky hospital (St. Petersburg psychiatric hospital of P.P. Kashchenko)


O.V. Limankin

St. Petersburg psychiatric hospital No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko

Pyotr Petrovich Kashchenko was born on December 28, 1858 (on new style - on January 9, 1859) in Tambov in family of the military doctor. In many modern publications the place of its birth call the city of Yeysk of Krasnodar Krai. Possibly, this mistake is connected with the fact that Kashchenko's family lived in Tambov short time, and the childhood and youth of the psychiatrist famous in the future passed in Yeysk.

In 1876 Pyotr Kashchenko ended the Yeysk Kuban army gymnasium and arrived on medical faculty of the Moscow university, but in 1881, having taken 5 courses, was expelled from the university for participation in the student's movement and banished to the Stavropol province.

In 1884 P.P. Kashchenko was released from under public supervision of police and could continue education at the Kazan university. L.F. Ragozin, the director of district psychiatric hospital (in the future - the director of Medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs) was the first teacher P.P. Kashchenko who played a significant role in his destiny. Under the influence of L.F. Ragozin Kashchenko made the decision to become the psychiatrist.

It is specified in the known biographies of P.P. Kashchenko that young professor of the Kazan university V.M. Bekhterev was the figure which influenced his professional choice. This popular belief: Bekhterev came to Kazan to manage department in the fall of 1885 after P.P. Kashchenko's termination of the university. They got acquainted later and closely cooperated during Pyotr Petrovich's work in the St. Petersburg provincial zemstvo.

In 1885 P.P. Kashchenko received degree of the doctor and a rank of the district doctor, began to work as the doctor of the Stavropol diocesan women's school. In 1886 he moves to the Tver province and gets a job the psychiatrist in the first in Russia specially built psychiatric hospital colony in the village of Burashevo. Her creator and chief physician M.P. Litvinov realized the most advanced for those times inquiries in treatment of the insane, combining medicamentous therapy and therapy Wednesday, work and measures of not constraint. Became Burashevo school not only for P.P. Kashchenko, but also for many territorial psychiatrists, famous in the future.

After the I congress of domestic psychiatrists which participant was P.P. Kashchenko he on L.F. Ragozin's representation became the manager of psychiatric department of the Nizhny Novgorod territorial hospital. For rather small term, since 1889, P.P. Kashchenko was succeeded to reconstruct matter of contempt of the insane in all Nizhny Novgorod province. The office run by it became an independent territorial psychiatric clinic with workshops and greenhouses and also the system of entertainment for patients (now - the Nizhny Novgorod city clinical psychiatric hospital No. 1). At the initiative of P.P. Kashchenko and with assistance of A.M. Gorky (they were in the friendly relations), the Nizhny Novgorod office of the Russian society of protection of national health was organized. Built the prospects of development of mental health services in P.P. Kashchenko's province on exact statistical calculations. In 1889-1890 he - for the first time in Russia - conducted a census of the insane to 8 of 11 counties of the province and reported on its results in 1893 at a meeting of the Moscow society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists.

In 1891 P.P. Kashchenko became the member correspondent of the Moscow society of neuropathologists and psychiatrists. In 1892 took active part in fight against cholera in the Volga region.

In 1898 it managed to remove the help to the insane out of hospital limits, having organized in Balakhna and the village of Kubintsevo family patronage. The same year construction of psychiatric hospital colony in the village of Lyakhovo began, and 10 the first buildings of hospital on 30 beds (nowadays Nizhny Novgorod regional psychiatric hospital No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko) were open on February (23), 1901.

Thus, in the Nizhny Novgorod provincial zemstvo of P.P. Kashchenko for the first time in Russia created the stage-by-stage organization of mental health services including: a) psychiatric hospital with reception and sorting office for again arrived patients and patients with sharp states (in Nizhny Novgorod); b) hospital colony for patients with long forms of frustration (village of Lyakhovo); c) the family concentrated patronage for the recovering and chronic patients (Balakhna, the village of Kubintsevo).

The created organization involved with the originality many psychiatrists and territorial figures of Russia, and itself P.P. Kashchenko came for consultations on the organization of mental health services to various provinces; made reports at provincial territorial meetings, territorial congresses of doctors, Pirogovsky congresses, the Bruxelles international congress on contempt of the insane.

In 1898 P.P. Kashchenko was sent by the Nizhny Novgorod provincial zemstvo to Europe where studied experience of the organization of mental health services in Germany, Belgium, France, England and Scotland. The published 3-volume scientific report on results of a trip received a wide resonance among domestic psychiatrists.

In 1899 P.P. Kashchenko receives the invitation to work from the St. Petersburg provincial zemstvo. The capital province before the beginning of the 20th century had no own psychiatric hospital, and it was offered to Pyotr Petrovich to take part in development of the plan of the organization of mental health services in zemstvo and to hold a post of the director of future hospital.

The choice of the place for construction of Items of Kashchen-co stopped on Sivoritsa's manor (nowadays the village Nikolsky of the Gatchina district) in 60 km from St. Petersburg. Sivoritsa since the beginning of the 18th century belonged to the general admiral of the Russian fleet F.M. Apraksin, then his descendants, later - Demidov. The outstanding architect of the Russian classicism I.E. Starov in 1775-1777 created in Sivoritsakh for P.G. Demidov the farmstead complex including the palace, numerous constructions located in the formal garden around the artificial lake. Many years of Sivoritsa were the known estate with which names of A.I. Turgenev, G. von Rej-mersa, S.F. Shchedrin, Ya.D. Zakharov, I. Georgi, P. Lavrov, P.V. Zavadovsky, A.G. Orlova-Chesmen-skogo and other figures of national history and culture are connected. Vida Sivoritskaya the estates created at the end of the 18th century by the famous Russian artists S.F. Shchedrin and I. Tankov are stored in the State Russian to a muse, the Tretyakov gallery, the Ekaterinburg museum of Fine Arts.

In 1902 the provincial zemstvo for 200 thousand rubles gets Sivoritsa's manor from the owner baron of that time K.P. Liliyenfeld-Toal. The famous civil engineer of an era of Russian

became the winner of a competition of projects of future hospital

modernist style I.Yu. Moshinsky. Many members of society of psychiatrists of St. Petersburg - V.M. Bech-terev, A.E. Cheremshansky, O.A. Chechot, etc. participated in completion of the project, besides P.P. Kashchenko. In 1904 the provincial territorial meeting approved the final project of hospital, however because of financial difficulties and the begun Russo-Japanese war construction was postponed in this connection also P.P. Kashchenko's moving to the St. Petersburg province was postponed. In 1904 it it becomes temporary the chief physician of the Moscow psychiatric hospital at the Kanatchikovy dacha (nowadays Moscow city psychiatric hospital No. 1 of N.A. Alekseev). In the period of the management of hospital (1904-1907) P.P. Kashchenko made for development of the principles of not constraint and humane keeping of the insane, the organization of mental health services in Moscow much and also for improvement of working conditions of medical personnel.

Having arrived to St. Petersburg, P.P. Kashchenko begins work with the profound analysis of a condition of provincial psychiatry. At the initiative of P.P. Kashchenko and under his direct management the new census of the insane of the St. Petersburg province according to the special program developed by it was conducted. According to data of a census, in the province there were 2,225 insane from which not less than 46% demanded public care. On the basis of data of a census of P.P. Kashchenko developed a long-term plan of development of mental health services to the population.

At the beginning of 1909 the construction of hospital by Sivoritskaya was completed, and on June 10 (on June 23 on new style) the first party of patients came to Sivoritsy.

For not quite obvious reasons in the Soviet literature the St. Petersburg period of activity of P.P. Kashchenko was underestimated. Perhaps, this tradition goes back to Yu.V. Kannabikh who in the "History of psychiatry" [4] absolutely unreasonably carries Kashchenko to representatives of the Moscow school of psychiatrists, and in the St. Petersburg zemstvo mentions his work casually. In later time other famous expert T.I. Yudin in "Essays of history of domestic psychiatry" [8] directly opposes Moscow (territorial, progressive) school St. Petersburg (state and often "reactionary"). Actually, many bright territorial psychiatrists were representatives of the St. Petersburg school (to enough remember V.I. Yakovenko and M.P. Litvinov). And P.P. Kashchenko can hardly be ranked as the Moscow school: he studied psychiatry at "statesman" L.F. Ragozin in Kazan and at M.P. Litvinov in Bura-shevo; as the independent organizer of territorial psychiatry proved in Nizhny Novgorod. The periods of its work in Moscow were very short-term (3 years in Alekseevsky hospital and one and a half in Narkomzdrava). During the St. Petersburg period P.P. Kashchenko's activity differs in the highest creative maturity, gains the all-Russian character and brings it glory.

The hospital complex created by I.Yu. Moshin-sky, including about 30 buildings (from them 4 medical cases) and constructions in the territory of 925 hectares, answered the most advanced for the time to sanitary and hygienic and scientific and technical requirements (stage location of buildings in a park zone, the thought-over functionality in placement of economic services, convenient planning of rooms, the first-class material support).

Hospital buildings were provided with electric lighting (from power plant), steam and water heating (from the boiler house), the prityazhny and exhaust ventilation, water supply (artesian wells) and the sewerage (with the general system and the biological station of cleaning). There was a telephone exchange with a long distance communication. The economy of hospital included greenhouses, greenhouses, kitchen gardens, an orchard, the stable, the farmyard and workshops.

Before revolution the first stage of construction - 220 beds from which 198 is at the disposal of provincial zemstvo, and 22 - at the disposal of the St. Petersburg governor was put into operation. The contingent arriving on treatment (up to 300 people a year) was made by recently sick patients and also patients chronicles. The most part of patients was treated free of charge; a number from among recently sick (sharp) patients arriving according to the petition of individuals, charitable and other societies was treated for a payment which amount was established by a provincial meeting.

The most part of patients (about 90%) was made by residents of various counties of the St. Petersburg province, the others - of St. Petersburg and other provinces. In the nosological plan the list of the arriving patients looked as follows: schizophrenia of-40%, manic-depressive psychosis - 13%, progressive paralysis - 13%, epilepsy - 7%, intellectual backwardness - 7%, alcoholism - 7%, others of a nosology - 13%.

In the activity on a post of the director of hospital P.P. Kashchenko realized essentially new system of service of the insane based on the humanistic principles and including the wide system of not constraint, creation of conditions of keeping of the patients who are brought closer to house for what all available means - sport, entertainments, music, games, theater, a cinematograph were used.

Not constraint was provided with enough the ward area (about 6-7 sq.m) and the areas of other rooms in office (about 9 sq.m) falling on 1 patient. All precautions necessary for keeping of the insane were observed (including ship glasses in offices for uneasy patients, etc.), at the same time bed, but not restrictive keeping of patients in whose service the female personnel began to be involved widely was used.

Much attention was paid to dietary food. Selection of dishes was diverse, in the menu there was a large number of dairy, meat products, fruit and vegetables.

of Office were equipped with musical instruments (from an accordion, a balalaika - to a grand piano and a harmonium); patients played music, danced, listened to a record player, played board games (cards, checkers, dominoes), used library which fund was made by hundreds of books and magazines. In the territory of hospital the platform for games with the football field, gymnastic apparatus, a swing, the platform for croquet was equipped. On the bank of the Sivoritsky lake, two closed swimming baths were equipped.

The building for entertainments which united church (with an altar, a carved wooden iconostasis, the room for 250 praying, the bell tower) and the auditorium on 300 viewers with a scene, an orchestra pit, bathrooms, the light equipment became the original work of a modernist style. In this building, amateur theatricals and concerts which participants were both patients of hospital, and employees were put. Later regular are cinema sessions - for patients and employees.

Existence of big economy at hospital, special workshops gave the chance of Items. Kashchen-co is rather wide to perform the labor therapy which is a little developed at that time in other clinics.

In a therapeutic arsenal actually medicamentous means took the modest place. The bigger value had balneotherapy, electroprocedures. The average term of treatment was from 115 to 150 days.

It is possible to refer introduction of a rigid schedule of work, fixed working hours, rather high compensation, providing employees with housing, the organization of collective food and cultural rest to P.P. Kashchenko's merits. Number of staff of hospital was 130-150 people. A ratio of number of the medical personnel which are directly serving patients, and numbers of the last equaled in 1912 108 to 201.

Paying much attention to comprehensive training of employees, P.P. Kashchenko created at hospital medical school for junior medical staff with the one-and-a-half-year program of training. Along with lecture classes, demonstrations of patients widely practiced. Among average personnel at P.P. Kashchenko there began the activity as the nurse and in the future the outstanding scientist Vladimir Nikolaevich Myasishchev.

Being a zealous supporter of the idea of decentralization and approach of mental health services to the population, P.P. Kashchenko a leading role assigned to the territorial medical site which function had to enter accounting of patients, observation of patients, providing them with drugs,

the direction in hospitals and patronage. At the same time, provincial psychiatric Council with psychiatric bureau as executive body has to be the coordinating body of communication of mental health service and territorial medicine.

Fully carried out such association of P.P. Kashchenko in Sivoritsakh. He organized close connection with all local hospitals and points of almost all counties of the province, conducted with them extensive correspondence, brought together doctors and paramedics of the province on instruktazhny courses at hospital, developed a card of accounting of the insane for territorial medical sites, organized a monitoring system of a condition of the patients discharged from hospital.

In 1913 in the village of Tikhkovitsy it created the province's first patronage: the hospital gradually acquired pribolnichny offices like small colonies which played a considerable role both in treatment of patients, and in economic activity of hospital - preparation of firewood, agricultural products, etc. (Tikhkovitsa, Hinkolovo, Rotkovo).

Sivoritskaya hospital, keeping in a continuous communication with territorial medical sites and providing comprehensive advice, gradually turned into the center of organizational psychiatry of the St. Petersburg province. Here constantly doctors from various places of the Russian Empire, in particular, delegates of the All-Russian congress of psychiatrists in 1910 came to get acquainted with experience of the organization of psychiatric business.

Not accidentally Sivoritskaya the hospital appeared among those medical institutions of Russia which were presented in 1911 at the Dresden international hygienic exhibition where deserved numerous positive reviews of foreign experts. In 1913 at the All-Russian hygienic exhibition in St. Petersburg the Items Ka-shchenko were awarded the honourable diploma for development of data in a census of the insane in the St. Petersburg province, and the St. Petersburg zemstvo got the small gold medal "For the Device and the Fine Equipment of Hospital for the Insane in Sivoritsakh" which model and exhibits were presented at this exhibition.

In 1913 P.P. Kashchenko, participating in review commission of the medical legislation in Russia, put forward the provision, revolutionary for the time, that when developing the legislation in the field of mental health care the interests of the patient, but not the principle of "danger of the patient to society" are priority. In the years of World War I it actively dealt with issues of the help "with the insane to soldiers", accounting of mental incidence among the military personnel.

Being as N.N. Bazhenov, V.I. Yakovenko and other eminent persons of territorial psychiatry, the supporter of the progressive ideas in the organization of mental health services, patronage, development of out-patient psychiatry, polyclinic service, scientifically organized statistics, etc., P.P. Kashchenko as nobody else, could systematize these ideas and realize them.

Enjoying wide popularity and appreciation of the Russian psychiatrists and territorial doctors in general, P.P. Kashchenko was an active figure of the St. Petersburg society of territorial doctors, the participant and the speaker VIII, IX, X of his sanitary congresses; IV, IX and XII Pirogovsky medical congresses; I, II and III congresses of domestic psychiatrists and the I congress of the Russian union of psychiatrists and neuropathologists on which the third in list it was elected to Board of a congress. He a long time was a permanent associate editor of the Sovremennaya Psikhiatriya magazine and "Psychiatric newspaper" on which pages repeatedly made detailed articles concerning the organization of mental health services.

After the October revolution in 1918 P.P. Kashchenko moves to Moscow and according to the offer of the Russian union of psychiatrists and neuropathologists becomes the head of the first Soviet highest psychiatric organization - the Central nevropsikhiatrichesky commission at Council of medical boards which after creation Narkomzdrava was transformed to a nevro-psychiatric subsection of medical section of Civil department Narkomzdrava by RSFSR. Heading mental health service of the Soviet Russia, P.P. Kashchenko was engaged in the organization of affairs in regions, stood at the origins of creation of a new form of the extra hospital help to the insane - regional (dispensary).

His performance at the I All-Russian meeting on psychiatry and neurology in 1919 was devoted to the organization of treatment in mental health facilities, to standards of regular personnel, creation of the psychiatric organization at provincial medical and sanitary departments.

Thanks to the high human qualities, selfless activity, democratism, P.P. Kashchenko enjoyed wide popularity not only in the professional medical environment, but also in broad sections of the public. Being highly cultured and widely educated person, Pyotr Petrovich differed in special musical endowments, played many national instruments, perfectly conducted (at the time to him was even made offer to take the place of the chorus master in the Kazan opera theater). Everywhere, where it happened to it to work, he much and with love practised music with children, created children's ensembles and choruses, wrote and staged small plays operas for children.

P.P. Kashchenko suddenly died of hemorrhage in a stomach in surgical clinic of the Moscow university on February 19, 1920, it is buried on Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.

After P.P. Kashchenko's death his name was appropriated to Sivoritskaya to hospital in Petrograd, Alekseevsky hospital in Moscow and Lyakhovsky hospital in Nizhny Novgorod.

The first people's commissar of health care N.A. Semashko estimated P.P. Kashchenko as the large organizer who "had enormous versatility of the statesman". The historian of psychiatry Yu.V. Kannabikh wrote that P.P. Kashchenko acting through whom "the Russian psychiatry lost almost ingenious organizer and huge scale of the doctor social activist" was a link between psychiatry territorial and Soviet.

A lot of things in theoretical and practical activities of P.P. Kashchenko remains relevant and demanded in line with the reforming of mental health services which is carried out in Russia within the last decades - decentralization and development of various forms of mental health services, improvement of quality of life mentally sick, development of psychosocial rehabilitation, a legislation humanization in the field of mental health care, etc.

The victim in the years of civil war, Gray ritskaya the hospital which was called to the Leningrad psychiatric hospital No. 4 of P.P. Kashchenko in the 1920-1930th developed as large health and scientific center. In pre-war years here under the direct guide of professor P.A. Ostan-kov (1867-1949) there was a peculiar research group of doctors, many of which were Pyotr Aleksandrovich's pupils and subsequently substantially defined the person of the Leningrad school of psychiatry: I.E. Kashkarov, M.Ya. Lyakhovitsky, B.E. Maximov, I.F. Sluchevsky, L.B. Sluchevskaya, A.S. Borzunova, M.I. Dubrova, P.V. Mash-lakova, A.S. Chistovich, N.V. Bukreev and others.

Power of hospital reaches 1,500 beds (including pribolnichny branches colonies). Under the leadership of P.A. Ostankov wide-ranging scientific research was developed, laboratories are open, scientific works were published. In the late thirties in the Leningrad Gorzdrava and Narkomzdrava the question of creation on the basis of hospital of P.P. Kashchenko of research institute on studying pathogenesis and treatment of epilepsy, alcoholism and also on scientific development of different types of social treatment, first of all, of work therapy was considered.

However to these plans it was not allowed to be carried out. Progressive development of hospital was interrupted with war. In 1941 during occupation the hospital was turned into military hospital for soldiers and officers of the 18th German army besieging Leningrad. Nearly all 1,500 patients died - from hunger and as a result of a mass action of the euthanasia organized by Hitlerites. The chief physician of hospital M.I. Dubrova was executed. In 1944 at retreat the Germans plundered hospital and blew up the most part of medical cases. In 1946 when in Nuremberg the trial of the chief war criminals began, the tragedy Sivorits-koy of hospital became one of sad pages of materials of the International Tribunal.

Post-war years were the difficult period (at one time even the issue of expediency of restoration of hospital was discussed, and it nearly shared lot of other historical clinic - the hospital to them A. Forelya destroyed military hard times). In the 1950th years the hospital is gradually restored, accepting on treatment, generally lungs, sore-hronikov and mentally sore with tuberculosis.

In 1960-1970 the reconstruction of the Leningrad psychiatric hospital No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko begins, new medical cases, technical services, the inhabited town, school, kindergarten are under construction. In the center of Leningrad the reception opens, the hospital is given areas of service of the city with the general population of 1.3 million people, and bed power since 1975 is 2,500 beds.

In medical activity, since 1970th years, becomes the core direction rehabilitation. In 1970 in the commonwealth with specialists of institute of V.M. Bekhterev the USSR's first sanatorium and rehabilitation offices were open for mentally sick here. The hospital became the pioneer of so-called industrial rehabilitation in the Leningrad psychiatry, having opened the timber industry site in the item Rybatskoye.

In the 1990s offices were open for rehabilitation chronically sick, in 2001 - the hostel for the patients who lost social communications in 2007 - the center of psychosocial rehabilitation.


In the last decades in hospital the famous doctors, scientists, organizers of health care - B.E. Maximov, I.T. Viktorov, N.G. Efimovich, S.B. Semichev, N.D. Bulkin, A.E. Yakovlev, G.A. Kondratyev worked,

B.H. Bondarev, S.M. Moyefes, S.D. Meshman, A.A. Sokolov, Vl. D. Styazhkin, Vick. D. Styazhkin, F.N. Styazhkina,

S.A. Dzivaltovsky, Vick.K. Smirnov, A.Ya. Fakturovich,

A.item. Hares, A.R. Tadtayev, E.A. Breslav, R.V. Blyablikov,

B.A. Muratov, N.L. Skvortsov, V.A. Semyonov, I.A. Pocho-but, G.I. Kuzmina, K.V. Korabelnikov, Yu.P. Linets, N.V. Vasilyeva and many others.

Consultants of hospital were E.S. Averbukh,

S.S. Mnukhin, V.A. Sorokin, V.I. Kashkarov, B.A. Le-bedev, V.A. Tochilov.

Now the St. Petersburg city psychiatric hospital No. 1 of the Items Ka-shchenko is one of the largest hospitals of the city. The reception department of diagnostics is located in Nevsky district of St. Petersburg, and the main clinical base - in the village of Nikolskoye where in the territory of about 250 hectares over 100 buildings and constructions forming an autonomous hospital complex are placed. Besides medical and technical cases, the hospital includes the inhabited town (about one and a half thousand inhabitants living in the special residential district), school, kindergarten, shops, sports constructions, pharmacy, the youth, leisure and hotel centers.

In hospital 1,530 beds in 24 offices (all-psychiatric, gerontopsikhiatrichesky, somatopsikhiatrichesky, psychotubercular, rehabilitation, the infectious insulator), 2 laboratories, physiotherapeutic office, office of functional diagnostics (the ECG, EEG, ultrasonography), radiological service, various offices and the polyclinic center of specialists doctors, pharmacy, pathoanatomical office and also numerous technical services, including the boiler house, garages, power substations, uzel-ny, catering department, automatic telephone exchange, engineering services, etc. are developed

In 2007 in hospital the center of psychosocial rehabilitation which does not have analogs united the services existing earlier and again organized - psychological laboratory, the psychotherapeutic block, studio of art creativity, social service, musical studio, choreographic studio, sports gyms and the fitness center, library, drama school, labor workshops and offices of an ergoterapiya, hairdressing salon was open.

In hospital about 1,200 employees from whom 130 - doctors and medical psychologists work. Advisory and organizational work is carried out by professors V.I. Krylov and B.V. Andreyev. In hospital the large educational and methodical complex including branch of the St. Petersburg medical college No. 1 (receiving secondary medical education), courses of primary specialization in psychiatry and developing the skills of nurses and School of the junior health worker is created.

An important factor of improvement of lechebnoreabilitatsionny work are programs of cooperation with institute of V.M. Bekhterev, St. Petersburg State University, the Moscow scientific research institute of psychiatry and also various projects of the international cooperation in treatment and rehabilitation mentally sick (with Finland, Sweden, Belgium, Canada, Estonia, Japan).

In a year of 100-year anniversary we with gratitude remember names of the chief physicians who made a big contribution to development and prosperity of hospital: P.P. Kashchenko (1907-1918), M.L. Falk (1918), N.S. Popov (1919-1924), I .I. Sukhov (1924-1927), L.Ya. Stepanova (1927-1928), P.V. Belov (1928-1931), I .E. Kashkarov (1931-1935), B. E. Maximov (1936-1937 and 1945-1946), M.I. Dubrava (1937-1941),

S.D. Meshman (1947-1950), N.D. Bulkin (1950-1952), N.G. Efimovich (1952-1954), E.A. Breslav (1955), I .T. Viktorov (1955-1959), V.N. Bondarev (19591961), L.P. Durov (1961-1962), P.E. Kalinkin (1962-1963), A .E. Yakovlev (1963-1972), G.A. Kondra-tyev (1972-1975), A .P. Zaytsev (1975-1983), V.A. Moura-tov (1983-1988), V.A. Semyonov (1989-1998). Since 1998 the chief physician of hospital - O.V. Limankin.

The St. Petersburg psychiatric hospital No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko which century history reflected all stages of development of domestic psychiatry surely looks in tomorrow and in the activity continues to develop the humanistic ideas of the founder.


1. I.T. Viktorov. A short essay of history of the Leningrad psychoneurological hospital of P.P. Kashchenko in 50 years (1909-1959)//Questions of psychiatry and neuropathology. 1961. Issue VII-L.
2. Gerish A.G.P.P. Kashchenko. M.: Medicine, 1980.
3. A historical essay of construction of Eya of Imperial Majesty Monarchess Empress Maria Fiodorovna of hospital consisting under Most august protection for the insane of SPb. Provincial Zemstvo in Sivoritsa's manor, eya descriptions and an overview of the activities from June 10, 1909 to January 1, 1911 SPb., 1912.
4. Yu.V. Kannabikh. Psychiatry history. M.-L., 1929.
5. Limankin O.V. P.P. of Kashchenko//Three centuries of St. Petersburg. The encyclopedia in three volumes. Volume II. The nineteenth century. The third book. SPb.: SPGU, 2004.
6. O.V. Limankin Psikhiatriya//In the same place. The fifth book. SPb.: SPGU, 2006.
7. Limankin O.V. Sivoritsa//In the same place. The sixth book. SPb.: SPGU, 2008.
8. T.I. Yudin. Essays of history of domestic psychiatry. M, 1951.



O.V. Limankin

Article contains materials about life and activity of the outstanding domestic psychiatrist P.P. Kashchenko during the territorial period (in Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, St. Petersburg) and Soviet period. Unknown the facts are presented earlier. The history of creation and development St. Petersburg psychiatric is in detail stated

hospitals No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko in 100 years (1909-2009) in the context of history of the Leningrad and Russian psychiatry.


O. V. Limankin

This article contains materials concerning life and activities of an outstanding Russian psychiatrist P.P.Kaschenko in his zemstvo period (in Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, St.Petersburg) and in Soviet time. The author presents some unknown facts from Kaschenko’s biography. He also describes in detail the history of establishing and development of the

St.Petersburg Psychiatric Hospital No. 1 (named after Kaschenko) during the last 100 years (1909-2009) in the context of history of the Leningrad and Russian psychiatry.

Oleg Vasilyevich Limankin is a candidate of medical sciences, the chief physician of the St. Petersburg psychiatric hospital No. 1 of P.P. Kashchenko of e-mail:;

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