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To a question of features of an internal political course of Alexander III

nadezhda of BIYuShKINA


Article is devoted to the analysis of the concept "counterreforms". In work attention is paid to classical assessment of an internal political course of the Russian government of this period. The author offers arguments in favor of other understanding of the reasons and the maintenance of a complex of the organizational and legal actions developed and held by K.P. Pobedonostsev, Alexander III, etc. outstanding statesmen.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept of counter-reform. Attention in the article is paid to classical estimation of the internal political course of the Russian government in this period. The author offers arguments in favor of other understanding of the reasons and the maintenance of the complex of the organizational-legal actions developed and spent by K.P. Pobedonostzev, Alexander III and other outstanding statesmen.

counterreforms, Alexander III's reforms, government doctrine; counter-reforms, reforms of Alexander III, governmental doctrine.

It is obvious that the definition of "counterreform" represents heritage of an era of Alexander III and has author's character. The ideologist and the developer of this concept, as we know — senator, the chief prosecutor of the Holy synod, the member of the State Council, the emperor's mentor Alexander III C.P. Pobedonostsev. On an extent of more than 150 years in the course of studying history of the domestic state and the right this term took roots and was not subject to transformation neither in pre-revolutionary, nor in Soviet, nor in modern istoriografii1. Let's dare to cite the researcher E.N. Kuznetsova her work devoted to counterreforms of the 80-90th of the 19th century in Russia: "Most of representatives of extreme reaction considered the only means of maintenance of a ruling class return to prereform orders, restoration of a class system, in such look as it took place to an abolition of serfdom... Therefore these representatives of government bureaucracy of reactionary sense sought to achieve full abolition of reforms" 2.

At the same time by direct consideration of the definition studied by us we come to a conclusion that the prefix kontr-3 means the direction, opposite predydu1 P.A. Zayonchkovsky. An abolition of serfdom in Russia. — the 3rd prod., reworks. and additional — M.: Education, 1968; Troitsk N.A. Russia in the 19th century: a course of lectures — M.: The higher school, 1997; T.A. Filippova. Reform and reformer: onions for Robin Hood//Rodin, 2006, No. 9, page 2 — 7; A.E. Nolde. The review of scientific legal activity of K.P. Pobedonostsev (Obituary)//the Magazine of the Ministry of national education, 1907, h 10 (August), page 83 — 116; V.P. Meshchersky. My memoirs. — M.: Zakharov, 2003; M.V. Nemytina. Judicial counterreform and N.V. Muravyev's commission: yew.... PhD in Law: 12.00.01. — Saratov, 1987; A.A. Liberman. Institute of territorial chiefs. 1889 — 1905: yew.... to. and. the N is M., 1976.

2 Kuznetsova of E.N. Kontrreforma 80 — 90 years of the 19th century in Russia (State and legal characteristic): yew.... PhD in Law: 12.00.01. — L., 1977, page 48-49.
3 Counter-[Latinas. contra] (knizhn.) — the first part of compound words meaning opposite or counter process, counteraction to what is expressed in the second part of a word, e.g. the counter-claim, counterstroke, counterintelligence, a counterrevolution//the Explanatory dictionary of Russian. In 4 t. / under the editorship of D.N. Ushakov. — M.: State. in-t "Owls. entsikl."; OGIZ; State. publishing house inostr. and national. words, 1935 — 1940;

Nadezhda Iosifovna BIYUSHKINA — to. bb. N, associate professor of the theory and history of state and law of UNN of N.I. Lobachevsky of á$уа_Ыушккта1 @

to the shchy phenomenon whatever it was. And the similar term is more applicable to definition of military operations. From definition it is visible that use of a prefix of Alexander III, counter-in relation to reforms, has to assume set of the actions directed to return to prereform development of the Russian state by cancellation of all transformations of the 60-70th of the 19th century both in state and legal and in social and economic the relations.

What in fact represented Alexander III's course? Whether it is possible to call it back directed in relation to previous? Depending on answers to these questions it will become clear whether there corresponds the term "counterreforms" to actually occurring complex inside - and the foreign policy events held by the emperor Alexander III from March, 1881 to 1895

We will try to analyze objectively the government doctrine created in the Russian state during the considered period.

So, K.P. Pobedonostsev in the numerous compositions repeatedly emphasized need of transformations of the serf relations, judicial part, local government, education and press, etc. 1 At the same time he warned about danger of blind following to the western paradigm both at a stage of development of the regulatory base, and in the course of carrying out

1 K.P. Pobedonostsev. Moscow collection. — the 2nd prod. — M.: Synod printing house, 1896.

reforms. For example, K.P. Pobedonostsev, expressing disagreement with the nature of carrying out educational reform, specified: "The government went recently, obviously, in the false way, having undertaken legalization of meetings. It was wished by only the worst part of students and professors; unfortunately, the government thought to find a support in this worst part" 2. Other public and political figures of that time (N.H. Bunge, M.N. Katkov) who are fairly carried to a conservative current in general were solidary with a position of the main ideologist of the Russian conservatism.

In consciousness of most of people the term "counterreforms" is present at in the same way imposed negative foreshortening. However we came to a conclusion about its undoubted constructive value. We consider that the complex of government actions of 1881 — 1895 directed to restoration of legality and law and order, economic welfare and social stability in the country represented not kickback to patriarchal feudal Russia, but correction of the liberal course of Alexander II taking into account the developed social and economic, politikopravovy situation in Russia at a boundary of the 70-80th of the 19th century at all. Therefore, we have to change the attitude and to all components of the internal political course conducted by Alexander III and K.P. Pobedonostsev.

2 Pobedonostsev's letters to Alexander III. — SPb., March 22, 1881, t. 1; the same with predisl. M.N. Pokrovsky//Centrarkhiv, "New Moscow", 1925, page 322.
James Saunders
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