The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Materials to paleodemografichesky characteristic of sargatsky community


N.P. Matveeva

The author publishes paleo-demographic calculations on the data of burial grounds belonging to Sargatka culture of the forest-steppe zone of West Siberia (Early Iron Age). She uses materials on 43 necropolis and 705 individuals grouped into two chronological stages: 5th-3d centuries B.C. and 2nd century B.C. — 4th-5th centuries A.D. Expected life-duration for individuals reached a grown-up age is 16.5 years. Mas-culinization index equals to 1.3-1.4. An average mortal age for grown-ups in the earlier chronological stage is, for men, 36 years of age, in the later chronological stage — 36.5 years of age; for women, respectively, 32.9 and 34.5 years of age. As quite probable are patriarchal relations with survivals of a group marriage (without polygenism) and more comfortable social life conditions for men. Due to absence of mortal peaks in adolescent and young age for women, one can assume lack of practice of early marriages and childbirths. Beginning of a reproductive period refers to 16-17 years of age. Women’s mortality during a reproductive period (17-35 years of age) is generally not higher than that of men’s which points out to a high share of men’s deaths from mutilations and wounds conditioned by cattlebreeding way of life and permanent wars. Paleonthological observations point out to high physical loads on joints and spine among the people of the Sargatka culture starting from the adolescent age which is connected with horse-riding as well as regular stresses and malnutrition among the representatives of all age and social groups.

It is possible to approach understanding of social and living conditions of life of the ancient population by paleodemografichesky studying materials of funeral monuments. For the early Iron Age of Western Siberia such researches were not conducted yet, but they are very relevant. Successful experience of paleodemografichesky and paleoecological reconstruction is received on the archaeological cultures of adjacent territories — tagarsky Southern Siberia [Mednikova, 1995] and dzhetyasarsky East Priaralya [Buzhilova, Mednikova, 1993].

In this article we consider materials of sargatsky culture — one of the most fully studied in the territory of Western Siberia. For almost thousand-year period hundreds of burial grounds and settlements from which more than 150, including about 60 necropolises, adequately suitable for statistical calculations are studied now are left carriers of this culture. Unfortunately, the majority of sargatsky funeral monuments are investigated partially and only some — entirely therefore full paleodemografichesky reconstruction cannot be presented today. However materials of the most studied objects and total parameters allow to define some characteristics giving an idea of global demographic processes and private situations. So, on peak of mortality of women at the beginning of the reproductive period and also to differences in a funeral ceremony the establishment of hypothetical age of consent is possible. As in demography for the beginning of the reproductive period it is considered to be 15 years, and its duration is defined in 22 years [Alekseev, 1972, 1989], therefore, also generation change speed is subject to calculation. On our series the reliable information, most available to calculation, from which it is possible to pass to duration of the reproductive period and generation in general — middle age umershikh1_ [Transition from concrete to average values does not demand any assumptions therefore they also are objective. 2]. Further, having found out a ratio of men's and female groups of the population, we will be able to judge social conditions of living and life in the ancient time, the status of floors.

Life expectancy of the population of sargatsky culture authentically is not defined because of a lack of information on child mortality. The share of children from all dead makes 25-35% (in different burial grounds) and cannot be recognized as correct. Possibly, a considerable part of children's burials did not remain owing to placement them in floors of nowadays opened barrows and also outside tombs. Life expectancy was more, than average age of death in population in general, but at its definition assumptions in view of the reasons stipulated above are necessary.

1 Transition from concrete to average values does not demand any assumptions therefore they also are objective.

We used materials of 43 burial grounds, 705 burials (tab. 1) [Data on gender and age of buried are based on M.S. Akimova, A.N. Bagashev, V.A. Dremov's materials. I thank A.N. Bagashev for the definitions which are specially executed for this work.] For calculations the data are grouped at first in three chronological periods: rannesargatskiya (V — the first half of the 2nd century BC); srednesargatskiya (second half of the 2nd one or II century BC of century AD); pozdnesargatskiya (Ш^ centuries AD); but as social and cultural differences between the average and late periods it is less, than at them with early [Matveev, 1997a, 1997b], in total group the called stages are united in one.

T and l and c and Burial grounds of sargatsky culture

No. Monument Kolich. pogre-beny No. Monument Kolich. pogre-beny

1 Abatsky 3 47 23 Abramovo 4 36
2 Fomintsevo 10 24 Vengerovo 7 19
3 Abatsky 1 42 25 Old Garden 9
4 Kokuysky 3 9 26 Ust-T artos 22
5 Likhachevsky 24 27 Mountain Bitiya 17
6 Nechunayevsky 21 28 Bogdanovk ^-highway of centuries BC) 12
7 Ipkulsky 11 29 Bogdanovka 2 24
8 Savinovsky (!!-! centuries BC) 7 30 Bogdanovka 3 7
9 Krasnogorsky 1 6 31 Strizhevo 2 39
10 Krasnogorsk barques 6 32 Isakovka 1 82
11 Olkhovka 7 33 Isakovka 3 20
12 Tyutrinsky (Sh-and centuries BC) 17 34 Gajewski 1 25
13 Novoobolon 8 35 Mysovsky 6
14 Beshchaul 2 23 36 Vorobyev-sky 1 17
15 Beshchaul 3 17 37 Prygovsky 1 12
16 Sidorovka 20 38 Savinovsky O-I of centuries AD) 7
17 Okunevo 2 10 39 Tyutrinsky (I-highway of centuries AD) 20
18 Kartashovo 1 14 40 Bogdanovka (N4 of centuries BC) 28
19 Kartashovo 2 40 41 Strizhevo 1 17
20 Kokonovka 19 42 Kokonovka 2 34
21 Kalachevka 1 6 43 Kokonovka 3 11
22 Easily soiled 1 46

T and l and c and 2

The number of gender and age groups in funeral monuments of sargatsky culture on the periods

Age, advanced in years Early Average — late All

Kolich. % Kolich. % Kolich. %

17-25 13 5.18 24 5.29 37 5.25
26-35 47 18.73 74 16.3 121 17.16
36-55 14 5.58 36 7.93 50 7.09
56-70 3 1.2 8 1.76 11 1.56

Only 77 142 219

17-25 14 5.58 21 4.43 35 4.96
26-35 57 22.71 91 20.04 148 20.99
36-55 29 11.55 77 16.96 106 15.04
56-70 9 3.59 7 1.54 16 2.27

Only 196 305



0-1 17 6.77 47 10.35 64 9.08
1.1-11 35 13.94 56 12.33 91 12.91
12-16 13 5.18 13 2.86 26 3.69

Only 65 116 181

Total 251 454 705 100

Gender and age structure and average age of death. Considering the number of gender and age groups in sargatsky populations in general (tab. 2), we note considerable prevalence of male population over women's: during the early period — by 1.42 times; during the average and pozdnesargatsky periods — by 1.38 times. As ethnographers consider, the numerical prevalence of men of reproductive age over women interfered with development of a poliginiya as limited for this purpose human resources and caused preservation of remnants of group marriage [Gemuyev, 1984, page 70]. Other feature of data is the insufficient number of children — 25.55-25.89% from all buried though child mortality could be about 50% and more [Gryaznov, 1956].

The greatest number of death at sargatets are the share of age of 26-35 years both at women, and at men (fig. 1, 2). In a men's series during the late period also mortality in age group of 36-55 years is high, and in women's — is slightly higher in group of 17-25 years; the last can be explained with death at childbirth. It is important to note that mortality of women at reproductive age (in the range of 17-35 years) in general not above men's. It says about deviations in natural demographic struktu-


re and probably about low birth rate. But to assume it it is much below traditional for the pastoral people (3-5 children on one woman) it is not necessary as the sargatsky community steadily existed within nearly ten centuries, keeping generally the area.

Rice 1. A ratio of age groups of women in burial grounds rannesargatsky, average

and pozdnesargatsky the periods, in % \

it is probable

>, the main reason of relative equality of female and men's mortality at reproductive age was the death of young men, more frequent at sargatets, in wars blocking number of death of women at childbirth. Indicators on persons of senile age, especially at women are extremely low that testifies to severe in general vital conditions at which did not live up to an old age.

The expected duration of the forthcoming life for adults — 16.56 years; for women during the early period — 14.47 years, in late — 16.6 years; for men — respectively 16.95 and 18.21 years. It turns out that life expectancy of women was 2-3 years less men's. Average age of death men at an early stage — 35.95 years, at women have 32.89 years, on late — respectively 36.54 and 34.53 years (tab. 3, fig. 6) that will be coordinated with the standard ideas of a demographic situation in the early Iron Age [Alekseev, 1972]. As A.P. Buzhilova and M.V. Mednikova fairly believe [1993, page 257], society then created more comfortable living conditions for a male part of the population.

According to the schedule of a ratio of age groups of children (fig. 3) it is possible to assume that at an early stage infantile mortality was much lower, than on late and that during the late period mortality of children of younger age and almost twice — teenagers was a little reduced. The significant increase in mortality of babies seeming paradoxical is explained by the fact that cases of their burial with adults in barrows whereas at an early stage it did not practice became more frequent. This circumstance is connected with the general growth of costs of a funeral of members of collective by the end of existence of sargatsky culture [Matveeva, 1997a]. And here decrease in teenage mortality seems to us quite objective indicator recorded by rather complete sample (116 units). The following fact attracts attention: the share of the died teenagers and young women during the early period is identical, and at a late stage mortality of the first is twice less, than the second (see tab. 2). Besides, the lack of peaks of mortality at teenage and young age at sargatsky women can demonstrate lack of the developed practice----------------------------------


In fig. 1, 2, 4, 5 the death rate in age categories is counted from all number of women and men separately.

early marriages and childbirth (12-15 years). The beginning of the reproductive period at sargatets belonged, probably, to 16-17 years that partly is confirmed by a high share of death at the age of 18 years by definitions of anthropologists. Thus, at average age of death of 35 years generation length at the sargatsky population was 19-20 years.



/ lake \

\Average N of pozdnesargags*iya \v

□ about

56-70 years

Fig. 2. A ratio of age groups of men in necropolises rannesargatsky, average

and pozdnesargatsky the periods, in %.


\\& #34; ■ Early getskna \are

Average and late are of eiders of skiya - — ^

12-1B years

Fig. 3. A ratio of age groups of babies, children and teenagers in burial grounds of the rannesargatsky, average and pozdnesargatsky periods, in %.

It should be noted that indicators on average age of death and the expected life expectancy for adults during the last centuries BC — the first half of the I millennium AD increased and bo-

leu of everything it concerned women (fig. 4, 5). Therefore it is lawful to assume considerable improvement of living conditions and a diet of population in general by the end of development of sargatsky culture.

For assessment of the general demographic condition of the sargatsky population we will address materials of the previous era — a bronze age. Data on a forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia are not available. In materials on a steppe zone of the European part of Russia the indicators of average age of death of adults on different cultures fluctuate from 20.6 to 25.2 years. And, by data A.E. Kisly [1995, page 115], by the end of an era of bronze and the beginning of the early Iron Age the tendency to growth of this indicator was outlined: for example, for catacomb culture an average — 22.4 years, srubny — 22.5 years, Belozersk — 25.2 years, Scythians 1U-Sh centuries BC — 20.7 years, late Scythian burial grounds Naples Scythian, the Gold Beam, Nikolaevka-Kozatsky — respectively 25,8, 27,6 and 29.5 years. Spasmodic increase in life expectancy in the early Iron Age in comparison with an era of bronze is established also by V.P. Alekseev [1972, page 19, fig. 5]. On absolute values our data on sargatsky culture strikingly differ from those A.E. Kis-logo on a Scythian era — almost on 10 let1 — and are close to indicators on the synchronous kochevnichesky cultures of Asia [Alekseev, 1972]. This circumstance forces to support V.P. Alekseev's conclusion [In the same place] about more healthy lifestyle of mobile cattle-farmers unlike the settled and agricultural population. It was caused by the small number of communities, frequent change of settlements providing a favorable sanitary and hygienic situation. To its component the smaller birth rate which was probably regulated by rather high age of consent — was presumably not lower than 16 years — and some ideologically motivated standards of sexual behavior owing to what mortality of women in labor was lower.

When comparing with paleodemografichesky characteristics of territorially close dzhetya-sarsky culture we see coincidence on average age of death, but at dzhetyasarets high female mortality in childbearing age, characteristic of normal population with the stable mode of reproduction is fixed [Buzhilova, Mednikova, 1993, page 258]. Though in one of necropolises the deformation of gender and age structure which was not providing the effective and reproductive size [In the same place, page 272], allowing to assume migrantny origin of the group which left this burial ground is noted. Perhaps, as as a part of sargatsky populations there were family and related groups and the whole childbirth of migrants, at first completely endogamny, at the approval of the status suffered considerable human losses.

We will check this hypothesis the analysis of demographic structure of the largest of the explored burial grounds: Isakovki 1 and Abatskogo 3 (tab. 4, fig. 7, 8) 2. The index of a masculinization across Isakovka 1

— 1.15, across Abatsky 3 — 1.25. Average age of death of men in Isakovka 1 — 34.81 years, women

— 32.93 years; in Abatskom 3 — respectively 37.05 and 36.03 years.

As we see, the general demographic characteristics of these necropolises are close to common cultural. But in Isakovka 1 at women one peak of mortality, in an age interval of 26-35 years is observed, and men have two peaks, at 26-35 and 36-55 years (see fig. 8). On materials of the same necropolis, female mortality at reproductive age is slightly more men's that expresses a natural ratio of floors. In the Abatsky 3rd burial ground two identical peaks of mortality at men and women are observed, and there are no distinctions on number of death in childbearing age (see tab. 4, fig. 7).

Paleopatologiya. Studying pathological changes of bones of skeletons is of great importance for characteristic of social living conditions of the population. On sargatsky culture such work is done only selectively, on materials of excavation of L.I. Pogodin in Priirtyshje and group of authors on Gajewski 1 burial ground on Iset, but results, certainly, can be extrapolated to all community.


Partly distinctions are caused by the fact that A.E. Kisly includes in group of adult individuals from 15 years, we — from 17 years.

2 Hereinafter provide data on the burials defined in the gender and age relation which number is slightly less than a total of burials in the burial ground.

It can be one of arguments in favor of migrantny origin of the population which left this necropolis. Other arguments were adduced by us earlier [Matveeva, 1994].].


- about - Women

\N \H o-Men

\^ Ch.

56-70 years

Fig. 4. The schedule of demographic structure of populations of a rannesargatsky stage, in %.

Fig. 5. The schedule of demographic structure of populations of average and pozdnesargatsky stages, in %.

A significant amount of the pathologies of a skeleton connected, in particular, with the musculoskeletal device is characteristic of osteological collections. In Strizhevo's burial ground 1 at the man of mature age (kurg. 11, pogr. 2a) the fracture of the fourth left edge and strong bone growths on all vertebras are recorded. Also mature man (kurg. 12, pogr. 2) the massive constitution had the begun to live change on edges and osteochondrous growths. At buried from Strizhevo 2 and Beshchaula the deforming backbone arthroses, accretion of vertebras with a sacrum were observed that limited working capacity [Zakharov, Zakharova, 1992, page 49 — 50]. In Gajewski 1 burial ground at a half about -

analyzed skeletons the backbone pathologies caused by osteochondrosis, spondilo-zy and spondiloartrozy are noted including the teenager has defeats and accretion of vertebras because of an overload of a basic system; at five of 14 individuals — arthroses of extremities, joints [Kurto, Razhev, 1997, page 87-106].

T and l and c and 3

Demographic structure of sargatsky populations and average age of death

on the periods

Early Average — late

Category Kolich. % Average age of death, advanced in years Kolich. % Average age of death, advanced in years

Men 109 43.43 35.95 196 43.17 36.54

Women 77 30.68 32.89 142 31.28 34.53

Children 65 25.89 5.89 116 25.55 4.43

The general 251 100 34.42 454 100 35.54

T and l and c and 4 Gender and age structure of population in Isakovsky 1 and Abatsk 3 burial grounds

Age, advanced in years Isakovsky 1 Abatsky 3

Kolich. % Kolich. %

17-25 6 7.89 2 4.76
26-35 14 18.42 8 19.05
36-55 6 7.89 5 11.9
56-70 1 1.32 1 2.38

Only 27 35.53 16 38.1

17-25 7 9.21 2 4.76
26-35 13 17.11 8 19.05
36-55 9 11.84 10 23.81
56-70 2 2.63 0 0

Only 31 40.79 20 47.62


0-1 10 13.2 1 2.38
1.1-11 4 5.26 2 4.76
12-16 4 5.26 3 7.14

Only 18 23.64 6 14.29

Total 77 100 42 100

the Considerable number of people sustained injuries and perished from wounds. For example, in the burial ground the Lower Ingal 1 (kurg. 1, pogr. 1) the man and the woman with the tips which got stuck in a body are buried. In Strizhevo's burial ground 2 (kurg. 3, pogr. 4) the one-legged disabled person of mature age without the right brush is buried. At the mature woman (kurg. 3, pogr. 8) there were no feet and brushes though the grave was not robbed. In the same necropolis the ploskorakhitichesky female basin is met, in others — detection cases obshcheravnomerno of the narrowed basins are frequent that interfered with realization of genital functions of women [Zakharov, Zakharova, 1992, page 51]. In Gajewski 1 burial ground from 11 analyzed skeletons of adults seven had signs of injuries, and women — a breach of a skull and a chopped wound of a leg, the man — fractures of edges, shins, an injury of knees and an ankle joint. Many of these injuries are connected with constant riding a horse [Kurto, Razhev, 1997, page 107].

Thus, big physical activities were characteristic of sargatets that caused the strengthened development of a belt of the upper extremities both in men, and in women and the curvature of legs at men caused by regular riding [In the same place, page 107]. Diseases of joints, mainly in the top belt, are noted at a half of people, and men and women, since 20-25 years. Diseases of a backbone indicate a raising and carrying of weights, probably, in the conditions of a systematic stress and overcooling.

The condition of human skeletons, along with richness of stock and the sizes of tombs, speaks about social privileges of the population which left Gajewski 1 burial ground. These are such facts as 50% caries and periodontosis in an anthropological series, and the first is characteristic already of children of 10-11 years; a set of the begun to live changes including which are successfully healed in the conditions of the long immovability demanding foreign good leaving; presence of the deformed skulls at men with the developed muscles and big physical force at poor development of muscles at women [Kurto, Razhev, page 87-106]. But also people of the high social status had periodic stresses and malnutritions. In the same burial ground at three individuals the rickets, anemia, the termination of growth at children's age caused by hunger are noted.


z Average and pozdn


мта< mines women fly

6. Average age of death in sargatsky populations in general, advanced in years.

Fig. 7. Structure of population in the Abatsky 3rd burial ground, in %.

The demographic structure of the dzhetyasarsky population of a boundary Ayr and the first centuries AD when between carriers of these cultures there were stable relations is close sargatsky. It also differs in a disproportionate ratio of men and women, early female mortality: average age of death of the second is much lower, than the first; an average for all — 34.8 years. Reproductibility level — 1.5 [Buzhilova, Mednikova, 1993, page 257-258] — does not allow to reproduce normal family composition therefore we consider it insufficient. M.B. Kozlovskaya [1993, page 275] assumes lack of the general hunger strikes, sharp differences in a zhizneobespechennost of floors, noting stress markers

at the majority, especially growth inhibitions and starvation in youth at women and prevalence in their diet of vegetable food.

Fig. 8. Structure of population in Isakovsky 1 burial ground, in %.

An ethnographic example of a close demographic situation is the structure of the semi-nomadic Bashkir population in the 19th century. At Bashkirs the prevalence of male population over women's for 10.2% was observed, but in age group of 20-40 years the number of women was 16% higher that contacts high men's mortality as a result of wars and hard physical work [than Kinya-bayev, 1997, page 203]. 40 years are aged more senior the share of female population promptly decreases, the prevalence of men for 36% is noted further that speaks about presenilation and wear of an organism childbirth. The birth rate was high (eight and more childbirth on the woman) and was leveled by also high child mortality (not less than 40% of decrease of the children's population by 15 years). Specific weight of children — about 41.2%, old men — 4.7%. The prevalence of women among people of young and mature age provided high viability of family and people in general [In the same place, page 204].

Quantity and population density. Determination of population on the basis of anthropological data is impossible as it is not clear what term of use of the burial ground, how many generations are buried what part of population is buried beyond its limits. An attempt of calculation of population of mobile cattle-farmers on the basis of the ecological capacity of the steppe was made by B.F. Zhelez-chikovym [1984], but, considering coexistence semi-settled and semi-nomadic economic and cultural types of sargatsky culture and also considerably the big environmental-demographic capacity of the forest-steppe, we cannot use its method.

Understanding all approximateness of such calculations, we will try to determine population by resettlement kernels on the basis of settlement materials. For the Average Pritobolya is eight kernels with ancient settlements, several settlements and burial grounds [Matveeva, 1997v]. Having taken for the main population of inhabitants of the ancient settlement and having assumed that seasonal settlements and burial grounds are left by them, we will define the average number of families households for the private (Pavlinovo) and central (Rafaylovo) of kernels. On the first it is recorded more than 70 housing zapadin, belonging not less than to two construction periods [Ivanov, Batanin, 1993, page 105]; at the same time there could be, probably, about 25-30 households in which 250-360 people lived. For the second it is expected that at the same time there could be about 160 households and, therefore, up to 1600-1700 people of the population. Believing that Kolovskoye ancient settlement, but in was the same central settlement

later, than Rafaylovo, the period, we will define seven privates and one central kernel. In total we receive about 4-4.5 thousand people. Considering incompleteness of schemes of residual resettlement, we will add 10% — total 4.5-5 thousand people. If to consider all sargatsky territory, i.e. four such areas as Pritobolye, then will turn out that its population totaled at least 16-18 thousand people It comparably with an approximate number of Sarmatians whom at South Ural Square and Zavolzhye about 10 thousand at the same time could live in 1 million [Zhelezchikov, 1984, page 66].

When determining quantitative structure of ancient populations information on population of Siberia to arrival of Russians can be to some extent used. For example, at the beginning of the 17th century 2620 foreigners lived in the Tyumen County which is territorially corresponding to the pritobolsky region of sargatsky culture [Long, 1960, page 43]. We consider that by this time because of big losses in wars against the Russian pioneers and an otkochevka of a part of the rebellious population to the steppe the number of inhabitants forest-steppe Pritobolya considerably decreased — perhaps, for 10-20%, and really made about 3-3.4 thousand people that there is less estimated number of the sargatsky population. At the same time it must be kept in mind smaller population density at groups with prevalence of the appropriating economy what were medieval inhabitants of the forest-steppe — representatives of taiga ethnic groups. In the Tarsky County uniting lands Priishimya, Priirtyshje and Baraby, according to B.O. Dolgikh, at the beginning of the 17th century there were 5050 foreigners [In the same place, page 50-57] that allows to assume accommodation here in the past about 6.3-6.5 thousand people. Thus, the total number of indigenous people in the considered territory before arrival of Russians was about 10-12 thousand people. The volume of kurganny and fortification construction, blossoming of material and spiritual culture in the sargatsky millennium tell about the bigger density and organization of the population therefore very approximately minimum total number of sargatsky monks of the forest-steppe and a subtaiga zone can be defined in 16-20 thousand people.

Other example — population of the barbaric states on borders of the empire of Han, in particular East Turkestan, on the Chinese sources. In total in Xingjian there were 34 states in which about 1 million people, i.e. on 15-25 thousand people could live in everyone. On 50 thousand population the army had to make 12 thousand people [Litvinsky, 1989, page 247]. By comparison to so densely inhabited Xingjiang nevertheless it is visible that sargatsky association for the time was quite big not only on the area, economic resources, but also on population. It was an equal partner of Sarmatian military-political and sako-usunsky early national associations.


Alekseev of V.P. Paleodemografiya of the USSR//SA. 1972. No. 1. 21 pages

Alekseev of V.P. Paleodemografiya: contents and results//Historical demography: problems, judgments, tasks. M.: Science, 1989.

A.P. Buzhilov, M.B. Mednikov's

>. Experience of paleodemografichesky reconstruction of the population of East Pri-aralya in the last centuries BC — 8th century AD on materials from crypts of dzhetyasarsky culture//Lower reach of the Syr Darya in the ancient time. Part II. Dzhetyasarsky culture. Crypts. M, 1993. Page 253-270.

I.N. Gemuyev. Family at Selkups. Novosibirsk: Science, 1984. 157 pages

M.P. Gryaznov. The history of the ancient tribes of Upper Ob on excavation near page. Big Small river//MIA. No. 48.

1956. 163 pages

Long B.O. Rodova and the breeding structure of the people of Siberia in the 17th century. M.: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960. 622 pages

B.F. Zhelezchikov. The probable number of savromato-Sarmatian of the Southern Cisural area and Zavolzhye in the 6th century BC — 1st century AD according to demographic and ecological data//Antiquities of Eurasia in skifo-Sarmatian time. M.: Science, 1984.

Page 65-68.

B.I. Zakharov, N.B. Zakharova. Options of anomalies of development of a skeleton in materials of paleopatologichesky researches//Ethnic history of the Turkic-speaking people of Western Siberia and adjacent territories: Mater. konf. Omsk: Omsk. un-t, 1992. Page 46-51.

N.O. Ivanova, Batanina I.M. Pavlinovo the ancient settlement — a monument of the early Iron Age forest-steppe Pritobolya//Nomads of the uralo-Kazakhstan steppes. Yekaterinburg: Science, 1993. Page 102-121.

M.R. Kinyabayeva. Demographic structure of Bashkirs of the 18th centuries//the Second international congress of ethnographers and anthropologists. Summary of reports and messages. Part 1. Ufa: "East university", 1997. Page 203-204.

Sour A.E. Paleodemografiya and possibilities of modeling of structure of the ancient population//SA. 1995. No. 2. Page 112-122.

M.V. Kozlovskaya. To a question of an originality of the mineral status of a bone tissue of carriers of dzhetyasarsky culture on materials of dzhetyasarsky crypts//Lower reaches Cheese Darya in the ancient time. Part II. Dzhetyasarsky culture. Crypts. M, 1993. Page 271-279.

P. Kurto, D.I. Razhev. People//the Culture of the trans-Ural cattle-farmers at a boundary Ayr. Gajewski burial ground of sargat-sky community: anthropological research. Yekaterinburg: Yekaterinburg, 1997. Page 86-113.

B.A. Litvinsky. East Turkestan in the ancient time and early Middle Ages. History essays. M.: Science, 1988. 456 pages

N.P. Matveeva. Early Iron Age Priishimya. Novosibirsk: Science, 1994. 152 pages

N.P. Matveeva. Social analysis of sargatsky burial grounds//Social and economic structures of ancient societies of Western Siberia: Mater. konf. Barnaul: Viola. un-t, 1997 ampere-second. 129-132.

N.P. Matveeva. Hypothetical structure of the population of sargatsky culture//Social organization and sotsiogenez primitive societies: theory, methodology, interpretation: Mater. konf. Kemerovo: Kuzbassvuzizdat, 1997b. Page 55-59.

N.P. Matveeva. System of resettlement of tribes of the early Iron Age of the West Siberian forest-steppe//Cultural heritage of Asian Russia: Mater. The I Sibiro-Uralsky historical congress. Tobolsk: Tob. ped. int, 1997 century of Page 64-65.

M.B. Mednikova. Ancient cattle-farmers of Southern Siberia: paleekologichesky reconstruction according to anthropology. M.: RAS news Agency, 1995. 216 pages

Tyumen, Institute of problems of development of the North of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science

Richard Johnson
Other scientific works: