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Motor mechanisms of errors of reproduction of amplitudes of movements



MOTORNYE MECHANISMS of ERRORS of REPRODUCTION of AMPLITUDES

MOVEMENTS

V.I. Goncharov

At different reproduction of verbal material usually there are no difficulties connected with impossibility to state what the person remembered. In this case the success of the reproduction remembered is equal to 100%. Otherwise the situation with reproduction of visual material is. What we remembered visually not always correctly and fully is reproduced.

Difficulties such can arise also at reproduction of parameters of movements. It is connected with the fact that their storing is carried out due to mental functions, and reproduction - by means of movements. It is quite probable that there can be mistakes at the level of an effector part of the motive act.

Such opportunity defined the purpose of our research which studying the effector nature of errors of reproduction of amplitudes of movements was.

These errors of reproduction of amplitudes of movements by authors were practically not investigated. From the works analyzed by us only in F.M. Talyshe-va's research (1964) errors of vosproizvedeniye of amplitudes of movements depending on a condition of the muscular device were studied (a local hypoxia, temperature change and elastoviscous properties of muscles).

INFLUENCE of NUMBER of PRESENTATIONS AND VOSPROIZVEDENY ON CHARACTER AND SIZE of ERRORS of REPRODUCTION of AMPLITUDES

MOVEMENTS

At the beginning of the research we studied influence of number of repetitions of movements in presentations and vosproizvedeniye on a ratio of the translations and not arguments.

Change of number of repetitions has to influence first of all a condition of an effector (as so-called a post of an activation potentsiation to which still N.E. Vvedensky (1886) pointed). It should not lead to any changes in perception causing characteristic mistakes. Most likely the quantity of previously executed movements only extends an exposition of perception of movements that leads to their more effective storing and reproduction. In this regard we assumed that if changes in the ratio of characteristic mistakes are received, then it will speak about their motor character.

This part of a research, as well as the subsequent, consisted of several series of experiments. The first series was carried out on 11 students of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia. In the first experience of this series of amplitude in 200 and 700 on M. Zhukovsky's kinematometra were shown 1 time, in the second - 5 times, in the third - 10 times and in the fourth - 15 times. In all four experiments the examinees reproduced amplitudes by means of 15 following one after another of movements. The translations and not arguments in the first reproduction in relation to the shown amplitude and the translations and not arguments in each subsequent reproduction in relation to previous were considered. The transfers and not arguments considered by us reflect specifics of the found characteristic mistakes which are shown throughout all quantity of vosproizvedeniye and expressed in gain of a mistake in each subsequent reproduction in relation to previous. There were two indicators of characteristic mistakes being used: number of transfers and not arguments and their size.

The analysis of results of a series did not find any expressed progressive change of the relation of number of the translations to number of not arguments. It is shown only on amplitude 70 ° at the number of presentations from 1 to 10 (from 0.78 to 1.45). Nevertheless, if to compare indicators at the 1st and 15 presentations, then it is possible to notice both a prevalence of the translations on 2 amplitudes, and strengthening of their sizes (1.5 against 1.43 on amplitude 20 °, 0.98 against 0.78 on amplitude 70 ° on the relation

p1/p2 and 1.27 against 1.13 on amplitude 20 °, 1.2 against 1.14 on amplitude 70 ° on M1/M2 relation). It indicates a trend of strengthening of the translations in connection with increase in preliminary physical activity.

The number of presentations any expressed, caused by change, change of a ratio of characteristic mistakes was less shown in the analysis the given other series of experiments which is carried out by us on 10 students of the Ussuriysk Pedagogical Institute.

In this series it was two experiments more: were carried out additional 20 single presentations of amplitudes 20 ° and 70 °. Conditions of carrying out experiments were the same. It is possible to find only some trend of increase in sizes of the translations in relation to sizes of not arguments on amplitude 20 °. But at 20 presentations this relation decreases and becomes the smallest - 0.89.

Continuing a research of motor factors as possible reasons of characteristic mistakes, we analyzed at the examinees participating in the first and second series of experiments, number and sizes of the translations and not arguments in the first (2-8 reproductions) and the second (9-15 reproductions) a half of all quantity of vosproizvedeniye at single and fivefold presentations. Reproduction at 10, 15, 20 presentations were not considered because the effect of the second half of vosproizvedeniye could disappear at a large number of presentations.

The meaning of the carried-out analysis was that if characteristic mistakes are defined by a condition of an effector, then in the first half of vosproizvedeniye in comparison with the second the ratio of the translations and not arguments has to be another since in the second half of vosproizvedeniye the condition of an effector has to change at the bigger quantity of preliminary movements.

It was received that in three cases the relation of number of the translations to number of not arguments increased (at reproduction of amplitude 70 ° at 5 presentations in the first series of experiments and at 1 and 5 presentations in the second series of experiments) and in four cases decreased in the second half of vosproizvedeniye. Therefore, there was no certain shift in the nature of mistakes.

When comparing the relations of average sizes of characteristic mistakes strengthening of the translations in the second half of vosproizvedeniye was revealed: in six cases the relation of average sizes of the translations to average sizes of not arguments increased, and in two - decreased.

It means that the trend shown in the previous series of experiments is confirmed and occurs, in connection with change of a condition of the effector caused by increase in volume of movements, strengthening of a certain sort of mistakes - the translations.

INFLUENCE of EXISTENCE of MOTIVE REPRODUCTION ON CHARACTER AND SIZE of ERRORS of REPRODUCTION of AMPLITUDES

MOVEMENTS

For the purpose of further studying effector mechanisms as possible mechanisms of mistakes, one more research consisting of 2 series of experiments was conducted. In the first series the examinees (8 students of the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia) remembered and reproduced amplitudes by means of active movements at visual control, drawing lines of the set length. For storing they drew the line of 1 times, for reproduction - 10 times. Before drawing of each subsequent line, the lines drawn earlier, were closed. In the second series the examinees remembered and reproduced amplitudes visually. For this purpose the experimenter himself drew lines. First Line was drawn for storing, the others - for reproduction. At reproduction examinees, being guided by the subjective standards of extent of movements created during storing spoke, when the experimenter has to stop the movement.

The analysis of the data obtained in this part of a research allowed to reveal though

small, but certain differences between the first and second experience in the ratio characteristic mistakes. Only at reproduction of small amplitude the number of the translations appeared less at active and motive storing and reproduction. In other cases higher rates of the translations were received.

Thus, the picture of dependence of nature of mistakes on a condition of an effector was again shown. This state caused by movements at the aktivnodvigatelny mode of reproduction of amplitudes of movements causes bigger number of errors of certain character - the translations.

INFLUENCE of MUSCULAR TENSION AT the COMFORTABLE AND NOT COMFORTABLE POSITION of the HAND ON CHARACTER AND SIZE of ERRORS of REPRODUCTION of AMPLITUDES of MOVEMENTS

For further studying motor factors as possible factors of errors of reproduction of amplitudes of movements, we conducted one more research (on 14 students of the Ussuriysk Pedagogical Institute).

In the first experience of this research the examinees remembered and reproduced on M.N. Zhukovsky's kinematometra amplitude in 20 ° by means of the standard movements of a forearm which are carried out to itself from situation at which the hand is approximately perpendicularly to a trunk. Such position of a hand is not absolutely comfortable since muscles are stretched and are in some tension. This state remains during all movement of a hand on small amplitude.

In the second experience the examinees for storing and reproduction of amplitude in 20 ° carried out movements from a comfortable position. For this purpose the hand moved counterclockwise to a corner 45 ° in relation to the frontal plane of a trunk. At such position of a hand of a muscle are weakened, and tension of muscles is observed only during their active reduction.

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In the third experience of the movement by means of which the same amplitude in 20 ° was remembered and reproduced from situation what was in the first experience, but the direction of the movement was from itself, i.e. in the opposite direction. Position of a hand in this case is least convenient, the tension of muscles and their tension in process of the movement increases.

In all three experiments there was about one presentation and on five vosproizvedeniye.

As the uncomfortable position of a hand is characterized by tension of muscles, mistakes are caused also by the motor factors connected with excitement of muscles. Therefore, when comparing indicators of characteristic mistakes (translations, not arguments) at inconvenient and convenient provisions distinctions have to be found.

It was received that in the third experience in which examinees made movements in opposite to standard the party and in which tension of muscles was most expressed the translations amplified. Say the relations about it, both number, and sizes of the translations and not arguments. In the first experience in which testing was held from standard and too not of a really comfortable position the translations also prevailed, though is insignificant on their number (p1/p2 it is equal 1.48 against 1.43).

Thus, and in this research the dependence of errors of reproduction of amplitudes of movements on a condition of an effector was confirmed.

INFLUENCE of PRELIMINARY MOTOR LOAD OF REPRODUCTION of AMPLITUDES of MOVEMENTS

For a further research of influence on errors of motive reproduction of amplitudes of movements of a condition of an effector, we conducted one more special research in which physical activity of examinees before reproduction of amplitudes of movements was essentially strengthened.

30 pupils of the 10th classes of high school No. 16 of Ussuriysk participated in this research as examinees.

The examinee set amplitude of movements in 45 ° which they had to reproduce in 5 vosproizvedeniye. Storing and reproduction was carried out in 2 options: with orientation to time of the movement and with orientation to extreme border of amplitude, i.e. to a spatial reference point. These 2 receptions of storing and reproduction as we specified (1998) earlier, have the characteristic mistakes and therefore by means of their use we expanded the range of controlled manifestation of mistakes.

Testing of memory for amplitudes of movements was made in the usual mode and in the conditions of motor activity which was created by means of jumps with a jump rope within 1 minute. At the same time pulse indicators to motor loading and after it were removed. Gain of pulse in percentage terms just also served as an indicator of motor activity. Indicators of vosproizvedeniye of amplitudes in the usual mode and after motor loading were compared. The comparative analysis of vosproizvedeniye at orientation to time and to a spatial reference point was carried out. There were 2 indicators of memory on amplitudes of movements considered at the same time: storing accuracy (a mistake in the first reproduction in relation to the set standard) and storing durability (mistakes in relation to a subjective standard, i.e. to the first reproduced amplitude).

For the analysis of results the parametrical method of identification of reliability of distinctions and a method of rank correlation Spirmen were used.

Comparison of indicators of storing of amplitudes of movements in the usual mode and after motor loading did not show significant, reliable changes of average sizes of all mistakes without their sign. The expected deterioration in indicators after motor loading is not received. Storing accuracy even improved: 3.42 ° and 3.36 ° against 4.18 ° and 4.41 ° according to (distinctions are doubtful). The quantity of mistakes remained approximately same.

The number of transfers in relation to not arguments both at reproduction of the set amplitude, and at reproduction of a subjective standard, on the contrary increased. The size of the translations significantly did not change (distinctions are doubtful, Р> 0.05), average sizes of not arguments in 2 cases decreased, and in the 1st case increased at the reliable level (Р< 0.05).

Therefore, the tendency to strengthening of the translations and weakening of not arguments at preliminary motor loading is available, i.e. existence of an effector factor in vosproizvedeniye. It, most likely, is connected with the motor excitement increasing the speed of separate movements that leads to the translations in vosproizvedeniye.

It is indicated also by the reliable negative correlation received by us (=-0.64 at Р< 0.01) sizes of not arguments and change of pulse in % after motor loading at reproduction of the set standard in option with orientation to a spatial reference point.

CONCLUSION

The conducted research allows to claim that at reproduction of amplitudes of movements, and, most likely, at reproduction of any other material by means of movements without additional control (visual, etc.), there can be additional mistakes at the level of a motive effector part of reproduction. They can be connected with the preliminary motor loading which is making active the motive device and causing muscular tension.

This fact should be considered at application of the techniques using motive reproduction. Otherwise these techniques can raise doubts in their validity.

LITERATURE

1. Vvedensky, N.E.O ratios between irritation and excitement at a tetanus. - Half-N of SOBR. soch. T.2. L., 1951. Page 300.
2. Potters, V.I.K to a question of validity of the techniques using reproduction of amplitudes of movements [Text] / V.I. Goncharov. - Materials of the interregional academic and research conference devoted to the 50 anniversary of faculty of physical education of HGPU. - Khabarovsk, 1998.
3. Talyshev, F.M. Issledovaniye of the physiological mechanism of accuracy of reproduction of spatial and power characteristics of movements: Avtoref. yew.... edging. sciences. M, 1964. Page 19.

RESEARCH of PEDAGOGICAL OPPORTUNITIES of INFORMATION IMPROVEMENT of SPECIALISTS of DEPARTMENTS of PHYSICAL TRAINING of HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

O.A. Dmitrenko

The organization of carrying out a pedagogical experiment consisted of two parts.

The main objective of the first part of an experiment consisted in increase in professional competence of various professional categories of departments of physical training of higher education institutions on the basis of obtaining knowledge of information support of educational process by them.

For this purpose on the basis of an interuniversity educational and methodical complex of information training the cycle of theoretical and methodical classes within the permanent seminar on developing the skills of workers of the sphere of physical culture and sport was carried out.

Selection of necessary educational and methodical material, development of contents, forms and methods of training it was carried out by the qualified professionals having vast experience of teaching in higher educational institutions.

The training program was calculated for 80 hours, from them: 30 - under the leadership of teachers and 50 - in the form of independent work.

Feature of the program was that were included in it concrete lecture and seminar classes which content disclosed essence and various activities of functioning of departments of physical training of higher education institutions. On examples from practice of work of specialists of departments of physical training specific psychology and pedagogical situations on information support of educational process were considered. During training, conditions for self-improvement of specialists of departments were created. The individual help in a type of consultations on subject of the experimental program was it, educational and methodical developments on information and telecommunication technologies and literature were offered.

the Sequence of passing of the program assumed stage-by-stage development of educational and methodical material. At the first stage the lecture course of information contents directed to formation and assimilation of theoretical knowledge of problematic issues of physical training of higher education institutions was conducted. During further studying program material the emphasis was placed on feature of professional activity of specialists of departments and problem and activity forms of their training (business games, trainings, seminars on the "round table" type, etc.). A result of training was preparation and protection of the paper on the set subject.

Realization and check of efficiency of the mastered knowledge, skills on information support of educational process in practical activities of specialists of departments made the second part of a pedagogical experiment. On

Daniel Wells
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