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Professor Nikolay Aleksandrovich Mislavsky



ISTORIYA MEDITSINA

PROFESSOR NIKOLAY ALEKSANDROVICH MISLAVSKY

On April 30 of this year. The Kazan University celebrated the veteran of work, professor of physiology Nikolay Aleksandrovich Mislavsky, on the occasion of executed the 70 anniversaries from the date of its birth and the 48 anniversary of scientific and teaching activity. So rare anniversary of the venerable scientist who got to himself popularity far outside our homeland connected this day in uniform family a scientific world, public forces and also pupils of the hero of the anniversary.

N.A. was born on April 17/30, 1854 in the Turin Mines (in the Urals). His father was one of the most popular doctors in the Urals; the doctor humanist whose name was known far outside his hometown of Yekaterinburg for the outstanding merits before science and society it was awarded with the Kazan University of high ranks — doctors of medicine of honoris causa and the honorary member of the University. Thus N. The ampere-second of the early childhood was brought up on the basis of the broad humanity and love for science which are the best jewelry of all its activity.

Upon termination of a course in the Ekaterinburg gymnasium of N.A. arrived on medical faculty of the Kazan University from which in 1876 it was released with a rank of the doctor and district doctor. At the same time already from the II course of N.A. devoted himself to service to pure science, working in physiological laboratory under the leadership of one of the most talented Russian physiologists, the late Nikolay Osipovich Kowalewski. Here it made the first scientific work — about blood circulation in lungs at various phases of breath, awarded a gold medal. Being still a student, N.A. acted also as the permanent research associate of laboratory, taking part in all experiments, demonstrations and a practical training with students.

From the moment of the termination of a course medical

faculty for N.A. already his main road in a scientific and teaching field quite is clearly planned: this year (1876) it is defined by the supernumerary assistant at department of physiology in which position from 1878 to 1885 works in the field of neuromuscular physiology, and then on a question of the respiratory center. Persistent research in this direction was crowned with full success; and in 1885 N.A. informed a scientific world on the center of breath opened for them. This work served it as the doctoral dissertation which is brilliantly protected by it on November 2, 1885

The same year N.A. holds the anatomist's position, and in the following is approved as the privatdozent on department of physiology with a reading assignment at first of a course of physiology of craniocereberal nerves, and then a course of the general and private nervous physiology.

In 1886 N.A. was in a year foreign business trip. His teachers abroad were the famous physiologist £ and with! w of 1% (in Leipzig) whose school was then during the period of the greatest blossoming, and Since e and p (in Paris) with which soon N.A. acted already as the equal employee.

In 1891 N.A. was elected professor of the same department at which he constantly worked from a student's bench.

In the real short essay there is no opportunity to give a total characteristic of all works of N.A. in various fields of physiology. We will be limited only to their fluent review on groups, having noted that the common characteristic feature of works of N.A., in the area they not @-which would be made, depth of approach to a question and great skills of the experimenter is.

On the first place among N.A. works it is necessary to put his researches devoted to physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system. Here we have to refer first of all its work concerning development of the theory of a neuron. N.A. the first precisely defined a physiological role of dendrites which was confirmed by a number of outstanding physiologists and morphologists subsequently. Here it is possible to refer works of N.A. and his pupil Levin with cross sewing together of a nerve which results were confirmed further with works of LangIeu'ya.

N.A. worked during an era when studying peripheral nervous system and its communications with the central nervous system was in a stage of intensive development. Among the researchers who devoted the works of this area, N.A. is high on the list. Its researches gave him the chance in details to develop the doctrine about the centers of the movement of a bladder, about contact of the central nervous system with nervous devices of salivary glands, glands of a stomach, a vagina, rgov1a1aye and a pupil. Thus connection between the central nervous system and autonomous was established, and the thin mechanism of an autonomous system and its peripheral devices in guts, vessels, a stomach, etc. which is is opened

Kazan medical magazine, 2004, volume 85, N 6.

a cornerstone of all modern doctrine about autonomous nervous system.

Here it is necessary to notice that N.A. never thought to himself of physiological research without firm basis of a morphological research. Works of the prof. K.A. Arnstein and his school which were conducted in the next laboratory and put the first milestones in the doctrine about morphology of autonomous nervous system, were in this regard for N.A. the important help which allowed it to find confirmation of the experiments under a microscope.

In close connection with the listed above researches there are also many works of N.A. on studying a muscle and its nervous device. Here first of all the researches in the field of the motive and braking innervation of smooth muscles which became classical for works in these the direction have to be carried. Working with muscles, N.A. gradually approached a question of the electric phenomena in a muscle. Having used the most sensitive devices (galvanometers of Einthoven'a and a capillary galvanometer), it gave a number of thin researches with action currents in a muscle at its different vital states — the researches which were a powerful incitement for further researches.

The third main group of works of N.A. is made by its researches devoted to external and internal secretion of glands. It was already mentioned above that it one of the first gave exact justifications to the doctrine about communication of nervous system with some glands of external secretion. The classical work performed together with Smirnov over salivary glands he resolved the most difficult question of the nervous device and its influence on external secretion. Here it is possible to refer also its works on a prostate which were an incitement for the known work of professor D.A. Timofeev.

In the eyes N.A. grew up all modern doctrine about internal secretion, and area young still he managed to enclose very valuable material in this also. Under its management of the prof. Cheboksa-rov the sekretorny nerve of adrenal glands — n. splanchnicus major was finalized, and with its next participation the sekretorny influence of the upper guttural nerve on a thyroid gland is opened. Now N.A. and his school continue to work strongly in the field of experimental studying internal secretion, exactly, in the most difficult department of this area — correlation of endocrine glands, having given already valuable number of outstanding observations here.

N.A. belongs not to one Russia for a long time. Having correctly estimated enormous value of the international scientific relations, he always was in close communication and even friendship with outstanding scientists of Western Europe. Being invited, thanks to the works, to all Western European physiological congresses, he gave a large number of reports, both on these congresses, and in numerous scientific societies.

Election as his member of the International Commission for the control of graphic methods of a research, Societe de Biologie, Society of Doctors in Vienna, Association de I ’Institut Ma^u — eloquently demonstrates how the scientific world of Western Europe highly appreciates our dear hero of the anniversary. The Russian scientific world also highly appreciated N.A. merits, having made it the honorary member of Society of Doctors at the Kazan University, Societies of Neuropathologists at the same University, the Ural Society of Fans of Natural sciences, Ural Is general stvo of Doctors and the Irkutsk Society of Doctors and also the honorary member of the Kazan University.

For completeness of the real essay we had to - to depict N.A. activity as teacher and as head of school of sciences which pupils are scattered across all Russia, but the lack of the place forces us to be limited to just told and to finish our fluent sketch with a wish to dear hero of the anniversary a lot more years to be well on advantage of domestic science.

("Kazan medical zh. — 1924.— N 6. — Page 563-566. The spelling, a punctuation and style of statement are kept according to the original of article).

There passed 150 years since the birth of Nikolay Aleksandrovich Mislavsky. It is a lot of or a little? It is a lot of - if to proceed from those fundamental achievements which happened within these years in the field of medicine, and in particular physiology. A number of the scientific directions of experimental character which only began to be developed by Nikolay Aleksandrovich in the subsequent were continued by his pupils, the largest physiologists — academicians of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences K.M. Bykov, I.P. Razenkov, A.V. Vishnevsky, member mi-correspondents of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences A.V. Kibyakov, M.V. Sergiyevsky, professors N.V. Puchkov, S.S. Zimnitsky, A.G. Teregulov, etc. — and had great practical value. It is not enough - in the context of historical development of science, including medicine when counting of time is conducted in scales of centuries. But even in this case results of scientific activity of the prof. Mislavsky are entered by gold letters in the history of development of medical science.

For scientific merits in 1926 and in commemoration of the 50 anniversary of scientific and public work to the prof. N.A. Mislavsky the rank of the honored worker of science of RSFSR was given. From same year he is the first honorary professor of the Kazan institute of NOTES. In 1927 he was elected the member correspondent of Academy of Sciences of the USSR. According to his colleague prof. K. Viktorov, "Nikolay Aleksandrovich belonged to that group of researchers which long since won a place of honor for the Russian physiology in the environment of the European sciences. We have the right to put his name near Sechenov, Vvve-densky, Danilevsky, Bekhterev, Pavlov's names". Time which passed from those years only passionlessly confirmed so appreciation given it by his contemporaries.

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Michael Hanson
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