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The certain Caucasian building in the first half of xix of a century: features of material supplies



s. V. Gavrilov

The CERTAIN CAUCASIAN BUILDING IN the FIRST HALF of the 19th CENTURY: FEATURES of MATERIAL SUPPLIES

Work is presented by department of social sciences and military and humanitarian disciplines of Military academy of the back and transport of A.V. Hrulev.

Article is prepared on the basis of the archive material and various historical sources. The author for the first time made an attempt of the analysis of functioning of a system of material supplies of the Russian army in the Caucasian wars in the first half of the 19th century, the dependence of decisions of military authorities on opportunities for supply of troops in the conditions of Transcaucasia is shown.

S. Gavrilov

THE INDEPENDENT CAUCASIAN CORPS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19th CENTURY: FEATURES OF MATERIAL SUPPLY

The article is prepared on the basis of the archive material and different historical sources. For the first time the author undertakes an attempt to analyse the functioning of the Russian army&s material supply system in the Caucasian wars in the first half of the 19th century. The dependence of decisions of military management on military supply opportunities in Transcaucasia is shown.

In the footnotes the author gives brief characteristics of the Russian military leaders and the statesmen participating in those events.

Process of accession of the territory of the Caucasus to the Russian Empire was long and difficult. It still raises many questions, answers to which need to be looked for in objective historical assessment of the events which took place there.

Conditionally process of an approval of the Russian statehood in the Caucasus can be divided into three periods.

The first period - "resettlement" with the second to a half of the 16th century prior to the beginning of the 18th century. It is characterized by the aspiration to strengthen the southern boundaries of the state from attacks by settling of these territories by natives of the central Russia.

The second period - "liberating" covers practically all the 18th century. It is characterized by strengthening of the Russian military policy directed to release

the Transcaucasian people (Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan) from the Persian and Turkish domination. Russia initiated two Persian campaigns (in 1722-1723 and 1796) and was involved in four Russo-Turkish wars. At the same time resettlement of the Slavic people to the Caucasus continued.

The third period - "the Caucasian war" covers 19th century. Its main contents was the Caucasian war of 1817-1864. It is characterized by activization of military presence of Russia in this region and the solution of both internal political, and foreign policy problems generally military way [3].

In article the author made an attempt of the analysis of material supplies of troops of the Certain Caucasian building of the Russian army, at the same time special attention is paid to events

the third period, in particular Russian-Persian (1826-1827) and Russian-Turkish (1828-1829) to wars.

In the first and second periods the organization of material supplies of the troops located on the Caucasian line was organized at the expense of local resources. It was promoted by rather small number of connections (on different sources of all there were about 40 thousand people) and insignificant removal from the southern provinces of the Russian Empire. In the third period with accession of Georgia and formation of the Caucasian province * in 1802 the bigger number of military formations for safety of the increased borders of the empire and activity of local community was required. The Napoleonic wars of 1805-1815 and the Russo-Turkish war of 1806-1812 did not allow to concentrate at the beginning of the century the main attention on problems of the Caucasus.

Only from the end of war in Europe and appointment of the commander-in-chief in the Caucasus of the general from an infanteriya A.P. Yermolov in 1816, military operations became more active **. For this purpose in 1819. The certain Georgian building was strengthened up to 50 thousand people and renamed into the Certain Caucasian building *** [13, l. 135]. Also passed 40-thousand Black Sea Cossack army which settled down on the Caucasian line from the mouth of Kuban to the Laba River into the order of the commander-in-chief.

Increase in numerical structure of the case and intensive conducting military operations practically throughout the Caucasus imposed special requirements to the system of material supplies. The European experience of the Russian army in the first fifteenth anniversary of the 19th century was the basis for its organization. For ensuring military operations of the Certain Georgian building the proviantsky commission Of St. George and the Georgian komissariatstvo were founded (was located in Tiflis). These institutions were engaged in supply of the case according to a location. The commission of St. George provided the troops located on the Caucasian line or in the territory of the Kavkazky Province of (North Caucasus), and the Georgian komissariatstvo - howl -

ska, located in Georgia and on border with Turkey and Persia. For the maintenance in good repair of the important transport artery called "Georgian Military Road" according to the proposal of the commander-in-chief "the special pioneer company" was created. Position of committee of ministers "About formation of a special Pioneer company at the Georgian Military Road with the application of the State for it and sheets to mundirny and amunichny things" is approved by the emperor on March 23, 1816 [10, page 29]. The task of repair and maintenance of the road connecting Mozdok (North Caucasus) and Tiflis (Georgia) was assigned to this division. This road was, in fact, the only overland highway connecting the southern Russia and the territory of Transcaucasia.

In addition to measures for technical improvement and service of the Georgian Military Road at the initiative of the Caucasian commander-in-chief the connection intended for transportation of material supplies was created military transport. On October 22, 1819 the provision "About the Volovy and Horse Transports Established for Transportation of Provisions and Oats across the Georgian Military Road in the Proviantsky Shops Consisting on It" was approved [10, page 102]. This document enough in detail defined opportunities and requirements of this formation, calculation material and for ensuring its functioning is presented in cash.

These facts demonstrate that the commander-in-chief and quartermaster bodies of the Certain Caucasian building paid due attention to transport communications and took great pain them to develop.

Changes in work of a system of material supplies in the Caucasus happened after the decision of the emperor to change the system of the military of management of armed forces of Russia. According to the decree "About Management of Military Department" of December 12, 1815 [11, page 399-400]. Military management was divided into two parts. The first, internal part submitted to the Ministry of Defence, and the second, field - the commander-in-chief of armies and certain buildings. Sootvetstvu-

yushchy submission was received by quartermaster bodies of military management. In the territory of placement of the Certain Caucasian building the commissions and komissariatstvo subordinated to the Ministry of Defence were closed and depots are formed on their place (depot - the place (or a warehouse) intended for storage of various material supplies). It should be noted that to this innovation management of all activity of edge was performed by the commander-in-chief in the Caucasus which was granted the right to make decisions independently, informing the central governing bodies. In essence, it already at that time was guided by provisions "Institutions..." of 1812. Therefore process of reforming of a system of material supplies took place more smoothly here, than in other regions.

According to the new staff list in the Certain Caucasian building the general staff, in structure was created: chief of the case headquarters, chief of artillery, ober-quartermaster, person on duty headquarters officer, ober-proviantmeyster, ober-krigs-commissioner, ober-auditor, ober-gevaldiger, ober-vagenmeyster, headquarters doctor and senior aide-de-camps. In total in management of general staff of the case there were 14 people, and 3 thousand rubles by bank notes annually on were defined office expenses [10, page 56].

Field proviantsky management was headed by an ober-proviantmeyster, and field komissariatsky management - the ober-krigs-commissioner. In each division proviantsky and komissariatsky komissariatstvo were created.

Distinctive feature of military operations in the Caucasus was application not of regular connections and parts, creation on their basis of smaller groups operating in the basic is autonomous. They could carry out independent tasks on considerable removal from bases (warehouses) of supply that, in turn, affected timely and their full providing. It was authorized to troops to buy food and separate pieces of ware property independently for what to commanders of parts money was allocated by "direct appointment".

Preparation was conducted special, by elective "officer committees" from six people in each regiment. Contracts with suppliers were approved by chiefs (commanders) of divisions, food prices and fodder - the order of the commander of the case [4, page 141].

On the development the economy and agriculture in the territory of the North Caucasus and Transcaucasia were not capable to satisfy completely needs of the Russian troops located in this territory. The absence of small-arms and powder mills, undeveloped heavy and light industry, general backwardness of edge economically forced military authorities to take measures to completion of material supplies, using other regions of the Russian Empire.

the organization of preparations of food (torments, grain, meat) in the southern provinces Saratov, Simbirsk and Voronezh can be the Example. These stocks it was alloyed on the rivers (Volga and Don) to Astrakhan and Rostov-on-Don, from there by the sea it was delivered to various points to the coast of the Black and Caspian seas. The Redoubt Calais, Poti, Sukhum-Calais, Taman on the Black Sea and also Kizlyar, Salyan, Derbent, Baku on Caspian [15, page 110] were such points.

The comparative analysis of cost of a daily allowance of the lower ranks and front horses, according to the Ministry of Defence from 1818 for 1825 [15, page 489], allows to draw a conclusion that such way of preparation and delivery of material supplies was the most expedient for the troops located in the Caucasus. The adjusted work of a system of material supplies allowed to reduce by 1825 costs of a daily allowance of the lower ranks by 30%, and one front horse - for 50%. In comparison with other regions of Russia in the Certain Caucasian building there were lowest costs of ensuring horse structure.

War with Persia (Iran) of 1826-1827 became serious test for the system of material supplies of troops of the case. Without having embraced the Persian troops numbering 60 thousand people and 34 tools incited by Great Britain and Turkey, on July 16, 1826 -

the line of war intruded through border near Gumra in the Karabakh and Talysh khanates (The southern Transcaucasian lands bordering on Persia and Turkey) [1, page 166-167]. Uncertain in P.A. Yermolov, Nicholas I sends to Transcaucasia the authorized representative - the lieutenant general I.F. Paskevich, to order troops, and in case of need "to replace with himself the commander-in-chief". On August 20 he was already in Tiflis and started performance of duties. Having about 7 thousand soldiers and officers at 22 tools, Paskevich met Persians near Elizavetpol and broke their army consisting of 35 thousand people at 25 tools. The enemy was pursued by 12 versts. The winner got two camps, 4 banner, the gun and 1100 prisoners. Assignment to him the general's ranks from an infanteriya and rewarding with a sword, gold with diamonds, with the inscription "For Defeat of Persians at Elizavetpole" became an award to "the royal favourite". After defeat of the Persian troops under Eli-savetpolem the Russian troops were forced to stop on the Chereken River. Due to the lack of an opportunity to quickly deliver to group food from Tiflis the decision to organize preparation with use of local resources was made. At distance of 10 versts near the camp of army picked bread from fields. But when it ended, began to collect supplies violently in villages, sometimes for 50 versts from the camp. Inhabitants, having made sure that they from them will take away for nothing what they will not give voluntarily for money, began to offer the stocks for sale. All bread bought in grain was taken in Akh-Oglan where it was milled on several mills repaired by the Russian soldiers. Were provided with this bread of army until the end of October, and transports from Tiflis began to arrive by then [7, page 99-100]. After creation of a small stock the decision to move military operations to the territory of Persia was made. Parts of the Russian army passed Araks through the Marialansky ford and reached Shakharla. Having taken a significant amount of food at the enemy, they returned on November 2nd to the Chereken River where stopped on winter quarters.

We accept a way of providing troops with preparation in the southern Russian provinces for the peace period when in winter season of active fighting it was not undertaken. In the conditions of war to command of the case walked to find resources in the territory of Georgia and other Provinces of Transcaucasia, the following orders were for this purpose made:

"1. Military district to the chief of Muslim provinces, the colonel prince I.N. Abkhazov **** to get purchase of bread in provinces subordinated to it...

2. To turn all prepared bread immediately into crackers.
3. To employ supplies, for transportation behind troops of food supplies.
4. Collected provisions from Baku, Cuban and a part of the Shirvan province are decided to be alloyed in Zardob, up Kure, on the flotilla of flat-bottomed vessels created for these purposes, under the team of the lieutenant commander Golibichev.
5. In the Fence and also is higher on the Kure River in the settlement of Pirazakh it was ordered to guide crossings and to pave ways from Shushi in Giryusi that on it it was possible to follow though pack transports.
6. For transportation of bread from Astrakhan it was ordered to use all warships of the Caspian Sea which were at the island of Sara." [7, page 100-102].

For delivery of stocks from piers and collection points to warehouses of the war zone the mobile shop of the following structure was created [5, page 136]:

870 state vehicles with 3600 oxen;
400 civilian bullock carts with 1600 oxen;
400 civilians of pack oxen;
600 state pack oxen;
1200 camels.

According to calculation of quartermasters of the case these measures had to improve supply of troops significantly. However the lack of the required volume of material supplies forced the commander-in-chief to refuse a large-scale military campaign. The created special small groups under command of generals K.H. Benker-

peat ***** and V.G. Madatova ****** began fighting. Supply of these formations was planned at the expense of resources of local community of the Armenian provinces. The analysis of actions of group under command of the general K.H. Bekendorf near Echmiadzin showed that it is impossible to count on preparation in Armenia. Therefore both groups measures were stopped and taken for providing them from the bases for the case.

Big mobile proviantsky transport (shop) capable to lift a 30-days stock of food was created.

The mobile shop followed in two offices [7, page 105-106]:

In the first consisted:

Vehicles............................643

Oxen.............................4146

Torments, crackers............ 4246 quarters

Barley................... 410 quarters

Wine and to vinegar................ 1093 buckets

Povozochny mills, from which everyone

milled 4 quarters a day........ 10

Moreover portion cattle...2333 pieces

In the second consisted:

Vehicles............................568

Oxen.............................2901

Flour and crackers........... 3265 quarters

Barley............................. 388

Salts......................... 985 poods

Portion cattle............. 2160 pieces

Meat of army had (in the live cattle) for 15 days, and oats - a cavalry for 14 days.

These actions allowed to have stocks, necessary for actions of troops, by the beginning of approach that created a considerable reserve in material supplies of parts.

At the same time any stocks have property to decrease, for timely replenishment by their special order the general from an infanteriya I.F. Paskevich orders to troops "to reap bread from fields and to thresh it, and in encouragement to the lower ranks appointed for each quarter of prize money on one ruble". 2000 quarters of wheat and barley were in such a way prepared, the much-needed basic warehouse for providing the advanced parts of the building is organized [5, page 138].

Military operations were postponed for the territory of Persia that significantly increased distance of transportation of material supplies from basic bases. Having carried out investigation and work with an agency, "the commander-in-chief decided to come trudging food by force of arms" [7, page 107]. According to secret-service sources, in the settlement of Sardar-Abad there were about 10 thousand quarters of grain stocks. On October 14, 1827 the Russian troops began its siege, and in five days the garrison was given. 16 tools, a large number of various stocks were captured. It allowed the Russian troops to continue further approach and to begin a siege of fortress of Erivan which after a six-day siege was taken. The stocks of material supplies found there were capable to satisfy needs of the Russian troops within five months that turned further a war outcome in favor of Russia.

On February 10, 1828 the Turk-manchaysky peace treaty under which, except the Erivani broadcast and Nakhchivan, Persia granted to the Russian Empire the exclusive right of use of the Caspian Sea and paid 20 million rubles silver was signed.

Troops of the Certain Caucasian building at the organization of military operations in the territory of Asian Turkey in the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 faced similar problems. By the beginning of military operations it was prepared: torments and crackers of-12 thousand quarters, grain - 1 thousand quarters, barley - 4 thousand quarters, the cattle - 5 thousand heads and vodka - 5 thousand buckets [5, page 149]. From this almost third part was sent to the mobile shop of the acting troops consisting of "540 state, 530 civilian bullock carts and 2250 civilian load-packs" [7, page 127]. Existence of such large supply at army allowed to have "a 40-day portion of provisions" for the 12-thousand case.

In the subsequent providing troops was organized at the expense of the opponent's stocks. After battle at Kainla, Millie Nozzle, and then and at Gassan-Calais were taken

large grain supplies, 2 thousand beasts are beaten off. At occupation of Erzurum "rich shops with provisions" were also found [5, page 150].

According to the eyewitness of these events, the great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin, "Found a set of ancient weapon, helmets, armor, the sabers rusting probably since the time of Godfred in the Arzrumsky arsenal... In proviantsky shop the soldiers examined flour, corn, barrels with wine." [12, page 216-268].

Thus, material supplies of parts of the Certain Caucasian building during military operations were carried out in various ways. Preparation and delivery from the southern provinces of Russia, purchase at locals and use of trophy material supplies for needs of army.

Supply with regimentals and equipment was the second big problem for the Russian army in the Caucasus. In the first quarter of the 19th century regimentals of troops in the Caucasus officially differed in nothing from other troops which were in the territory of Russia. In fact the clothes of the Russian soldiers resembled authorized samples even in times of the emperor Pavel, strict to liberties, a little. The general A.P. Yermolov appealed to make changes to regimentals of troops to the Minister of War and the emperor, without having received the answer, the power allowed to wear papakhas, short fur coats, long boots and sugar bags instead of satchels [8, page 227]. His successor on a post of the commander-in-chief of the case suggested to legalize the changes in a dress code which already became usual for the Caucasian troops: to replace a shako with a cap of special breed, to enter bashlyk, instead of a uniform to carry white camisoles in the summer.

The first attempt of development of a special form it is possible to call the project of the major general Molostovov in 1838 which suggested to adapt regimentals of infantry for movement on the cross-country terrain and to give it protective coloring [14, l. 2-8].

However quite long time that the top military authorities of Russia finally reconciled was required

with a thought that the regimentals and equipment of the Caucasian troops should be changed according to local conditions.

Officers wore the established uniform only in official cases, and, preparing in a campaign, got to themselves an Asian checker, a felt cloak, a kanausovy shirt, an undertunic, chikchira, a long-haired papakha and a long-skirted frock coat without shoulder strap [8, page 228-229].

The real functional fighting Caucasians clothes were received only in 1848. The lower ranks were relied: the semi-caftan on length equaling to mountain clothes, wide trousers summer of a cloth, and winter of green cloth, black yuftevy boots and the cap similar to a cap of tersky Cossacks. It was allowed to wear a peak-cap with a long peak in the summer. Belts of equipment were black color.

Practical and convenient, it served as a sample for reform of regimentals of all Russian army undertaken in 1856

An important role in the Caucasian war was played by Cossacks. They the first began to imitate in clothes to the opponents - Chechens, Circassians and Kabardians (first in this "disguise" were Cossacks of the Black Sea army moved from the Crimea on coast of Kuban and Terek). Other Cossack troops which, unlike the Caucasian, began to call "stepovy" continued to wear a traditional uniform. Certain elements of the Caucasian fighting suit, for example gazyr are the cartridge belts sewed on a uniform breast, it was possible to meet also at regular cavalrymen - Nizhny Novgorod the dragoon, constantly being at war in the Caucasus.

In general, process of improvement of a military uniform is looked through quite well. To the middle of the century it was convenient and practical. Many elements of regimentals of the Russian army were borrowed from national clothes of the people of the Caucasus and most of all were suitable for troops.

Generalizing the material considered in article, it is necessary to notice that the Russian troops in the Caucasus had some difficulties with material supplies.

Insufficient opportunities of edge for providing with food, mountainous terrain

areas created additional difficulties in providing troops. At the same time delivery from the southern regions of the Russian Empire took with the water transport a lot of time. In some cases it was necessary to make replacement of traditional food - bread, grain, vegetables, meat diets that not always positively affected food of the military personnel who got used to bread and porridge.

Considerable distances from the centers of preparation of food, the undeveloped network of roads, need to contain huge wagon trains and at the same time need to develop agriculture and trade on the place considerably influenced providing

material supplies of troops of the Certain Caucasian building.

The accruing contradiction between process of optimization of the dress code intended for difficult conditions of military operations in the Caucasus and aspiration to keep unique identity of regimentals of the Russian soldier became in the subsequent a powerful incentive factor to simplification of military regimentals in army.

Experience of the organization of material supplies of the Russian army in the Caucasus in the first half of the 19th century is relevant now. Its account will help to reduce expenses and with higher quality to provide troops in relation to local conditions.

APPLICATIONS

* 5 counties were a part of the Caucasian province: Kizlyar, Mozdok, Georgiyevsky, Aleksandrovsky and Stavropol. The provincial city - Georgiyevsk (the modern village Of St. George).

** According to the report of the general A.P. Yermolov of October, 1816 the structure of the case was the following: the 19th and 20th infantry division - 30,336 lower ranks, reserve crew and three grenadierial regiments - 7024, garrison regiments and battalions - 5920, the Nizhny Novgorod dragoon regiment - 711, linear Cossack troops - 5302, the Cossack regiments of army of Donskoy - 5237, troops of the Astrakhan Cossacks in three regiments - 1634, artillery: the battery 48 tools easy - 60, konnokazachy - 24.

*** 19.04.1819. The decree on strengthening of the Certain Georgian Building is signed. According to which, ten regiments (Apsheron, Kurinsky, Mingrelian, Navaginsky, Tenginsky and Shirvan infantry and the 41, 42, 43, 45 Egerskiye) are directed to the Caucasus where had to replace the regiments consisting in the 19th and 20th infantry divisions (excepting Kabardian and Tiflissky). It was actually supposed to pour in the most part of staff of the leaving regiments in the arriving regiments, having sent to the Central Russia only the shots of the last (including the headquarters, office, banners, etc.). Thus, the shelves which made according to the new schedule 19th and 20 a division received the number of staff about 4000 people everyone. And the general Yermolov was allowed to leave at discretion in corps of all those officers, "which the service and experience will be recognized... useful in Georgia and on the Line".

**** Ivan Nikolaevich (1764-1832) ABKHAZOV is a prince, the major general, the hero of the Caucasian war. Began service the aide-de-camp of the general Kotlyarovsky. In December, 1812 the major ordered battalion at storm of fortress Lankaran. In the lieutenant colonel's rank on May 22, 1820 headed the 44th egersky regiment. In 1821 - the colonel, the commander of the Georgian grenadierial regiment, in 1826-27 - the chief of staff of the 20th division of the general N.P. Pankratyev, then the military and district chief of the Russian Transcaucasian provinces. Since February, 1829 - the major general. Died on October 5, 1831 on the way to the kingdom Polish where it was caused on service by the prince I.F. Paskevichem-Erivansky.

***** BEKENDORF Konstantin Hristoforovich (1783-1828), lieutenant general (1826), general aide-de-camp (1826). Since 1798 the chamberlain served on department of foreign affairs, since 1812. Participant of Patriotic war of 1812 and foreign campaigns of 1813-1814. For difference in "The battle of the people" of Leipzig it is made in colonels, and for capture of Paris in October, 1814 - in major generals and in 1815 it is appointed the commander of the 2nd crew of the 4th dragoon division. In 1816 it was due to illness fired from army. In 1820-26 the plenipotentiary envoy in Wurtemberg and Baden. In 1826 joined field army again. At the beginning of 1826 the vanguard under its management was included into the Erivansky region, passed Mountains Akzibiyuk and Bezobdal and occupied Echmiadzin. Pursuing the opponent, by swimming forced Arak and Abiran, attacked and crushed the large cavalry group Gassan-hana threatening to the Russian backs. During Dzhevan-Bulaksky battle beat off the furious attacks of the opponent. In the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-29 at the head of easy group left to the army back

opponent. Operating on communications of the opponent, destroyed grocery stores and wagon trains with ammunition, in August, 1828 died in the town of Pravody in Dobrudja.

****** Valerian (Rustam ili Rostom) Grigoryevich MADATOV (1782 1829) Armenian prince, lieutenant general. Serve in the forces since 1797. Active participant of the Russo-Turkish war of 1803-1812, Patriotic war of 1812 and foreign campaigns of the Russian army of 1813-1815. In 1817 - the military district chief in Shchekinsky, Shirvan and Karabakh khanates and at once stopped attacks on the areas of the Caucasian Tatars, Persians, Turks operated by him. In the Russian-Persian war of 1826-1827 ordered group which broke the Persian troops five times surpassing it forces - 10,000 Persians against 2000 Russians. In decisive battle near Elisavetpol ordered the first line of troops and took out on itself all weight of fight, and then pursued the broken enemy who left artillery and wagon trains and looking for rescue in flight for Araks. For this victory which turned a war outcome it is made in lieutenant generals and awarded with the second gold saber decorated with diamonds with the inscription "For Bravery". But the relations with the new commander-in-chief Paz-kevichem did not develop. It was appointed an ober-proviantmeyster. Without having sustained such offense, submitted the application on a holiday and went to St. Petersburg. To nice, but the last affairs of his life the new war with Turkey called. In the Russo-Turkish war of 1828-1829 - the chief of the 3rd hussar division, was at war with big art and courage, having gained a number of victories. On September 4, 1829 died from a throat tuberculosis. He was only 47 years old.

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