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Category: History

The number and the ethnic structure of the population of the Northern region of Kazakhstan during the Post-Soviet period


VI. Nemchina, PhD in Sociology, Associate Professor of the Department Theoretical and Applied Regionalis-tics of the Institute for Retraining and Improvement of Teachers& Proficiency in Humanities and Social Sciences of Southern Federal University

In the article the proceeding of designing and management of social communications in multicultural space of contemporary Russian society in terms of the South-Russian region has been analyzed.

UDC 316.346 "19"


And. M. Zharkenova, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of history of Kazakhstan of the Eurasian national university of JI.H. Gumileva

In article the number and ethnic structure of Northern Kazakhstan during the Post-Soviet period is analyzed. It is noted that from 1993 to 1999 population it was reduced by 2 million people, but after 2004 the balance of external migration from negative passed into positive, in demographic development trends of growth of number city and decrease in number of country people remained, at the same time Russians and Ukrainians still make most of the population of the area.

The first population census of 1999 of independent Kazakhstan recorded reduction of population in 1989-1999 for 7.7%. But after the census the trend of some growth (for 0.8% in 1999-2005) numbers of inhabitants was outlined. At the beginning of XXI

century as a result of growth of birth rate and on -

lozhitelny balance of migration the population of Kazakhstan began to grow again, and by January 1, 2005 the population of the country reached 15,074,200 people, having increased only in a year by 123 thousand (or for 0.8%). The population of the country for January 1, 2008 was 15,565.6 thousand people, including 8,230.3 thousand

(52.9%) city, 7,335.3 thousand people (47.1%) of rural. In comparison with January 1, 2007 it increased by 168.8 thousand people, or for 1.1%. For the beginning of 2010 the population of RK increased to 15,813.8 thousand people, including 8,432.4 thousand city and 7,381.4 rural [1].

The prevalence of demographic losses of Kazakhstan can be measured, comparing the following data. From 1979 to 1992 inclusive (in 14 years) the pure gain of the population of Kazakhstan was more than 2.3 million people. In only 6 years (from 1993 to 1999) the population was reduced by 2 million people. The situation radically changed at the beginning of the 21st century. So, in 2004 the positive balance of population shift in general across Kazakhstan was 3,381 persons. The number of immigrants in comparison of 2003 increased on 3,858 people, or by 5.9%, from them on 2,028 people, or for 3.3%, at the expense of the CIS countries. The number of emigrants was reduced by 477 people, or for 11.5%. From 65,785 emigrants 47,117, or 71.6%, left to the CIS countries. The greatest outflow of the population was observed from the East Kazakhstan, Kostanay, North Kazakhstan and Karaganda regions: 8,884, 8,519, 7,664 and 6,868 people respectively. From interstate migration communications by the closest there are communications with Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. From these countries to the republic drove 60,973 people, or 97.4% of total number immigrating from the CIS countries to these countries left Kazakhstan 45,382 people, or 96.3% of total number emigrating in stra-

ny the CIS (in 2003 - 58,681, or 96.9% of immigrants, and 47,337, or 95.3%, respectively).

Specific weight of persons of working-age (men of 16-62 years, women

>- 16-57 years) among immigrants made 73.4%, among emigrants - 71.8% (in 2003 - 74.2 and 71.7% respectively), immigrants and emigrants are younger than 16 years

>- 20.3 and 15.4% (in the 2003rd - 19% and 16.1%). In it is intact m according to p she 1,074 immigrants of the same age (in 2003 - 909) were the share of 1,000 emigrants of working-age [2].

In the comprehensive analysis of mechanical motion of the population of Kazakhstan after 2004 the balance of external migration from negative passes into positive. In January-December, 2007 the positive balance of population shift was 10,878 (in 2003 - 33,472) the people, of them with the CIS countries - 2,989 (in 2003 - 26,778). The number arrived in the republic made 53,309 (in 2003-67,386) the people, and left out of its limits-42,431 (in 2003 - 33,914) the people [3].

So, the modern situation is characterized by increase in number of the multinational population of the Republic of Kazakhstan mainly due to natural increase, but trends in balance of migration which for the first time in decades becomes positive appeared and become stronger.

We will consider dynamics of population in Northern Kazakhstan. Data in tab. 1 are provided in a section of areas for date of the last census and also for 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2008 [4].

Table 1.

The population of Northern Kazakhstan in 1999-2008, thousand people

Regions 25.02.1999 01.01.2003 01.01.2004 01.01.2005 2008

Kazakhstan 14953.1 14862.5 14951.2 15074.2 15571506

Akmola 836.3 748.2 748.9 747.6 747447

Kostanay 1017.7 919.1 913.4 907: 3 894192

Pavlodar 807.0 748.7 745.3 743.9 746454

North Kazakhstan 726.0 682.1 674.5 665.8 653921

Astana 319.3 502.0 510.5 529.4 602684

In 2005 in comparison with results of a census of 1999 the greatest falling of population (for 6-11%) happened in Akmola, Kostanay, Pavlodar, North

Kazakhstan areas - everywhere a share of Russians, according to a census of 1999 was the greatest and exceeded average over the country for 9-20%. The population of Astana grew by 66%: this growth happened generally at the expense of Kazakhs (their share in the population of Astana in 1999 was lower than average over the country for 11%, and now exceeds average over the country).

We will note that regional differentiation of dynamics of population remained, but at the beginning of the 21st century it is expressed much more weakly. Zones of a migration attraction (Astana, Almaty) are more clearly allocated.

In demographic development trends of growth of number city and decrease in number of country people remained. By 2001 the number of urban population of the republic was 8.3 million (55.8%), rural -

6.5 million people (44.2%). High specific weight of urban population was shown also Pavlodar (63.7%) by area. But in absolute figures the number of urban population is small here -
494.5 one thousand people respectively.

The greatest reduction of the population

occurred mainly in Russian-speaking areas: North Kazakhstan

>- on 3,500 (only 678,600), Kostanay

>- on 3,400 (only 915,700), Pavlodar

>- on 2,000 (only 746,700).

Thus, in 1999-2005, in comparison with the period of 1989-1999, there were changes in dynamics of number of urban and country people. If in the 1990th the urban population was reduced more intensively, than rural, then in 1999-2005 the number of city dwellers increased, and rural - was reduced. In general the number of urban population since the beginning of 2004 increased by 56,700 people, and rural - on 3,300 [5]. In 2007 the population of the republic was 15,556.8 thousand

the people, including city - 8,221.0 thousand (52.8%>), rural - 7,335.8 thousand people (47.2%) [6].

Population for December 1, 2007 in all regions, except Akmola, Kostanay and North

Kazakhstan areas, increased. As for the population of regions in 2008, total population in comparison with 2005 increased a little, at the same time the greatest gain was shown by the West and the South (respectively 105 and 104%). A little the population in the North and the East (99.2 and 98.3%) decreased. Still the greatest gain of number Astana showed-113.8%.

Ethnodemographic processes in Northern Kazakhstan differed first of all in the fact that in the region there was quite unique ethnostructure which is characterized by prevalence of the Russian-speaking population. The main sources of formation of the Russian-speaking population of Kazakhstan were at first Cossack, then country Russian-Ukrainian colonization in pre-revolutionary time and large movements of the population mainly from Russia during the Soviet period. These last migrations strongly differed on degree of organization and voluntariness: here both kulaks' exile, and violent deportation of the whole people, and evacuation of military years, and mass resettlements during the virgin epic which scales were strongly affected by the promotional campaign organized by the state, and the quiet migration which was determined by purely economic reasons and the closest by type to voluntary labor migration.

The ethnostructure of the population of the region which developed as a result of large migration motions did not remain invariable. So, in 1959-1989 in the republic slowly, but the specific weight of Kazakhs constantly grew: from 30 to 39.7%. However in the northern areas of Kazakhstan this indicator significantly differed from an average republican. So, even in 1989

the specific weight of Kazakhs in the population remained low and was: in the North Kazakhstan area of 18.6%, in Tselinograd - 22.4, Kustanay - 22.9, Pavlodar - 28.5, and in the Kokchetav-28.9%. Thus, northern areas could not even reach by 1989 a national average indicator of thirty-year prescription when the specific weight of Kazakhs in the total number of Kazakhstan citizens was catastrophically low owing to powerful migration flows.

Some improvement of this indicator by 1989 happened most likely at the expense of the internal potential of the Kazakh population and intra republican migration from the South on the North after the events of December, 1986. However rates of gain of the Kazakh population in 30 years in all areas of Northern Kazakhstan, except for Pavlodar, were higher than national average. If rates of gain of the Kazakh population in 30 years were approximately equal in the Kustanay region republican (18%), then in Kokchetav, North Kazakhstan and Tselinograd - is twice higher than republican. Obviously, it was connected with more intensive development of industrial productions in the first two areas when against the background of big migration waves because of borders of the republic from where there arrived personnel, even high natural increase of Kazakhs could not have significant effect on change of national structure of the population.

Migration outflow of the population last decade 20th century and also ethnic differences in birth rate led to noticeable changes of ethnic structure of the population of Northern Kazakhstan. The greatest reductions were observed in areas where the population prevailed Russian (in general European). Here in 1999 in comparison with 1989 the inhabitants became 17.3% less. At the same time in these regions the intensity of losses of the Russian population is much lower, than in areas where the Kazakh ethnos prevails. This distinction was most noticeable in the first half 1990-

x, then outflow of Russians was intensified also in Northeast Kazakhstan. But the trend of the first half of the 1990th had decisive impact on the result recorded by a census of 1999

The fact that today for oralman the knowledge of native Kazakh is insufficient normally to adapt in northern and east regions of Kazakhstan was a negative consequence of ethnopopulation policy of the Soviet state. Cultural expansion in these territories of Kazakhstan affected national culture in the form of deep and inclusive crisis as it was imposed on the zhuzovy stratification of Kazakhs which rather well remained owing to low mobility of the Kazakh population in respect of migration.

It should be noted that modern problems of ethnodemographic development in Northern Kazakhstan were closely connected and strictly determined by internal political realities of the Soviet state during the studied period. So, sharp increase in a share of the Slavic population owing to activization of migration flows to the region during the Soviet period became result of purposeful policy of allied control center and logical continuation of policy of tsarist Russia which in the long term of development of the attached territories was guided by practice of settling of these territories by the "excess" population of the central part of Russia. It is obvious that when carrying out such policy problems of development of new lands, problems of removal of permanently arising tension in a social and economic situation in Non-Black Earth Region of Russia and other depressive regions of the USSR were solved. Possibly, development and conquest of extensive spaces, the purpose - to stake out this new Klondike, to occupy immigrants, to make the territory as the earth - the main richness of the state, and the earth without people - is ownerless was the political background of a virgin soil.

Today in Kazakhstan the population is numerous Russian (38%), lives Ukrainians (5%) much. Specific weight of Ukrainians is high in Kustanay (15%),

Akmola (9%>), Pavlodar (9%),

Kokchetav (8%) and Karaganda (8%) areas. In them there are small areas where Ukrainians make the majority.

Table 2.

The national structure of the population of the North Kazakhstan area for 2008,

Nationalities Thousand people %

Kazakhs 216.4 33.1

Russian 319.1 48.8

Ukrainians 37.6 5.8

Germans 24.2 3.7

Poles 15.9 2.4

Tatars 14.7 2.2

Other nationalities 26.0 4.0

Population of the North Kazakhstan area for December 1, 2008

made 649.0 thousand people, or 4.1% of the general population of the republic. The number of urban population is 229.9 thousand people, or 35.4%, rural-419.1 one thousand people, or 64.6%) [7, page 12]. The national structure is presented in tab. 2.

As it appears from the provided data, Russians and Ukrainians still make most of the population of the area (54.6%). And the Kazakh population hardly reaches a third of total number. In general on area the Ukrainians make 5.8%, but there are areas in which their share exceeds 12%.

Most of the Kazakh population is concentrated in Ualikhanovsky and Joint stock company-zharsky districts of the North Kazakhstan area. Most of all Russians live in Petropavlovsk and Kyzylzharsky district. The greatest number of Ukrainians is recorded in the area of Musrepov and Tayynshinsk (12.51 and 12.67%), and the smallest in Esilskom and Ualikhanovsky

areas (2.95 and 2.06%). Migration exchange with Ukraine has small values and shows tendencies to positive balance. So, in 2004 the migration balance was-47, in 2005-22, in 2006 & #43;29, in 2008 & #43;1.

The population in the Akmola region in 2009 was 741.9 thousand, in Kostanay - 889.4 thousand and in Pavlodar - 748, 8 thousand persons. The balance of migration on the village in all areas of Northern Kazakhstan has negative characteristics, and on the city the small positive gain takes place in the Kostanay and Pavlodar regions. High values of positive migration balance are shown by Astana.


1. About the specified population of the Republic of Kazakhstan for the beginning of 2010 see: TZH:
2. TZH:
3. URL:
4. Made on materials of a census of 1999, data of the Agency statistically for 2000-2005, 2008
5. URL:
6. A demographic situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan for January-December, 2007
7. The explanatory note to the social and economic passport of the North Kazakhstan area. Petropavlovsk, 2009.


A.M. Zharkenova, PhD in History, Associate Professor of Eurasian National University named after

L.N Gumilev, Kazakhstan, Astana

The article analyses the population size and ethnic structure of Northern Kazakhstan during the post-Soviet period. It is noticed that just during the 6-year period of 1993 - 1999 the population reduced to 2 million people, but after 2004 the balance of external migration passes from negative to positive. The following conclusions are drawn: demographic development possessed the tendencies of urban population increase and decrease of rural population; as it appears from the resulted data, Russians and Ukrainians still make the majority of the population of the region.

UDC 159.923


B. V. Torgonsky, the graduate student Slavic - on - Kuban of the state Pedagogical Institute

Process of formation of the personality by means of socialization, education and training is analyzed. The author's point of view on development of integrative qualities of the personality is presented. An assessment of pedagogical approaches to interpretation of identity and individualization is given. The nature of origin and formation of a moral and social position of the personality, relationship of the personality and collective is considered.

Gyles Ethan
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