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Big Bakalskoye ancient settlement



BOLSHOYE BAKALSKOYE ANCIENT SETTLEMENT

T.M. Potemkina, N.P. Matveeva

This publication is devoted to the eponimic memorial of bakalsky archaeological culture of west-siberian forest-steppe studied by T.M. Potemkina in 1962. This is a triangle-like site of ancient town of the cape type and it is situated on the right bank of the Iset river three kilometers to the south from Shadrinsk, Kurgan oblast. There are fixed the remains of land wooden dwellings with clay daub, complicated fortification consisting of two defense lines: bank and ditch. A logged wall made of cages and additionally faced lengthwise with wood served a base for the internal bank. The cultural layer is week and there are not many findings, among them ceramics prevail. Due to the character of living this site of ancient town may be considered a shelter. It is dated IX-XI centuries A. D.

Big Bakalskoye ancient settlement is an eponimny monument of bakalsky archaeological culture of the Tobolo-Ishimsky forest-steppe, one of the few medieval fortresses investigated by a significant area. Excavation on it was conducted in 1962 by one of groups of the Ural archaeological expedition under the leadership of T.M. Potemkina, it made the preliminary message [1964], but completely materials were not published. In view of great value of data on bakalsky culture for consideration of development of the medieval population in the south of Western Siberia, ethnogenesis of its indigenous people and also, in particular, processes of the beginning of a tyur-kization in Tobolo-Ishimye low-investigated in this regard we considered it necessary to introduce for scientific use materials of the specified monument as one of the major sources.

The ancient settlement was examined A.A. Spitsyn at the beginning of the century [Spitsyn, 1906] and K.V. Salnikov in 1940, making a shurfovka, the UAE reconnaissance group — in 1961. During this time its appearance very much changed, the relief smoothed out, the most part of the area was destroyed.

The monument is on the right coast of the Iset River at the village of Bakalda, in Z km to the south of Shadrinsk of the Kurgan region. It is located on the cape of subtriangular shape with quite steep slopes 10 m high from the bottom extended from north to south. From North side the cape deeply presses in the floodplain of Iset. The platform of the ancient settlement has a surface (fig. 1), slightly inclined to the North.

Fig. 1. The plan of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement with arrangement of excavations.

From floor side of the ancient settlement two lines of strengthenings are recorded, everyone consists of a shaft and a ditch. Height of an internal shaft from outer side of 2.5 m, width is 14 m. The internal ditch has depth of 16 m, width of 10 m. Height of an external shaft is 0.4 — 0.6 m, width is 7.5 — 8 m. Depth of an external ditch is 0.4 — 0.6 m, width is 2 m. The distance between an internal ditch and an external shaft makes 30 m. Both couples of ditches and shafts are slightly curved in the floor party.

Entrance on the platform is not found. In in a waste half of an internal ditch there is a small col, it is possible from a walking path.

A.A. Spitsyn who for the first time gave the description of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement saw it as triangular strengthening with a length of parties of 100 m, in bulk long 115 and 70 m internal wave high 3.5 m, external — 1 m [page 219]. According to these data the internal platform of the ancient settlement had to make about 3000 sq.m. K.V. Salnikov's data on the amount of strengthenings already differ from A.A. Spitsyn's data and almost coincide with results of measurements of 1962; the area protected by an internal shaft by 1940 was reduced to 1500 sq.m.

The necessity of carrying out excavation was caused by the fact that locals began to destroy northeast side of the platform of the ancient settlement by a pit on extraction of clay for construction of a dam on the Iset River and destroyed almost half. The remained area of a citadel with a zadernovanny surface contained 750 sq.m. Besides, approximately for some economic purposes removed the turf together with a part of a cultural layer on thickness of 25 — 35 cm from the third part of the remained square. At the right time on Chala of excavation she already managed to zadernovatsya thin, in 5 — 8 cm by a layer again. The second (external) platform of the ancient settlement remained better and made about 3000 sq.m.

Fig. 2. The plan and a section of an excavation on the internal platform of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement.

At the western region of the ancient settlement at distance of 12 m from a shaft and 4 m from break the rest on-luobvalivsheysya zapadina or an old excavation of 4х6 m in size, up to 40 cm in depth was visible. The survived part of a zapadina was in the square with the razed turf therefore its supplementary examination seemed inexpedient. On other surface of the internal platform any zapadin it is not revealed. exposure northeast and the northwest ache parts of a pit in 1961 well were allocated outlines, apparently, the remains of trees them dwellings with the steep walls deepened in clay soil on 20 cm 2.5 and 2 m long, but by the beginning of excavation they already fell off.

Considering observations of intelligence agents and the fact that K.V. Salnikov noted existence of hardly noticeable hollows at inspection of the ancient settlement in 1940, it is possible to assume concentration of dwellings on the very brink of the cape, but to carry them by the time of existence there is no medieval fortress the bases.

The excavation was put on the internal platform of the ancient settlement from a shaft before break in the form of a rectangular triangle. One party of a triangle passed along a shaft, another perpendicular to it across the western region of the ancient settlement. The explored square made 396 sq.m — the most part of the internal platform of the ancient settlement.

Opening was made by the horizons 15 — 20 cm thick with cleaning after removal of each horizon and fixing of the revealed outlines. The stratigraphy is quite simple. At once under a cespitose layer thickness in the untouched square of the ancient settlement of 12 — 18 cm, the cultural layer — chernozem soil lies. Power is it only 20 — 40 cm and gradually increases in the direction from a pit to a shaft, reaching at an afterbirth it 50 cm. The layer is sated with ceramics and bones of animals. The spreading layer — dense yellow clay (fig. 2).

The maximum saturation finds is characteristic of depths of 30 — 40 cm, the horizon at a depth of 40 — 60 cm is extremely poor in the cultural remains. Crocks and bones of animals met very seldom and mainly on the sites located along a shaft.

On the platform of the ancient settlement no constructions are revealed. On uch., D/4 — 6 and Z, with I/11 opened traces of old holes and holes. The remains connected with dwelling time for the ancient settlement are inexpressive.

In a southwest corner uch. I/10 when cleaning at a depth of 40 cm is revealed a spot of a puncture of 1.5х0.5 m in size. Thickness did not exceed it 10 cm. The small trace of a campfire in the form of the calcinated clay is noted also on uch. d14 (see fig. 2).

When cleaning the second horizon on uch. I/10 — 11 was well allocated a hole of irregular shape Z m long and 60 cm in depth, filled with the clay meshanny with the chernozem and also with impregnations of pieces of coal. In a northwest part of a hole there was a congestion of bones of animals, and in southern on uch. I/11 — a layer of the calcinated clay. About puff with bones of animals had rounded shape in the plan, diameter to 60 cm and thickness of 15 cm. On border uch. I/4, 5 recorded the hole of 130х80 cm in size profound in the spreading soil on 20 cm filled with the chernozem.

Fig. 3. Cuts internal (1) and external (2) lines of defensive works.

1 — the turf; 2 — dark gray sandy loam; Z — clay, emission; 4 — the buried soil; 5 — clay with chernozem impregnations and coal; 6 — loam with lime impregnations; 7 — a hole;
8 — brown sandy loam; 9 — a puncture; 10 — a meshany layer; 11 — black sandy loam; 12 — a tree;
13 — gumusirovanny savings.

Thus, on the internal platform of the ancient settlement some large holes which, in our opinion, are the remains of a profound priochazhny part of land constructions are revealed.

For studying nature of a cultural layer and possible constructions on the external platform of the ancient settlement and also for a reconnaissance survey of a system of strengthenings the trench 72 m long was put, breadth ache 4 m, focused on an ancient settlement axis from the North on the South.

A stratigraphy on the external platform same, as well as on internal. the cespitose layer 12 — 15 cm thick blocks the 15 — 20 cm cultural layer which here, unlike the internal platform, is much poorer in finds. No remains of constructions are revealed (uch. 10—19), but at a research of cuts of shafts and ditches interesting results (fig. 3) are received. It was succeeded to restore the initial sizes and the device of this line of strengthenings.

Internal fortification line of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement (uch. 2—9) with costs from an embankment of a shaft about 2 m high, 12 m wide (uch. 2—5) and ditch of the same width, more than 1.5 m in depth (uch. 6—9). Structure of a shaft difficult. Under its embankment on uch. Z and 4 the layer of the buried soil about 50 cm thick remained. From the inside of a shaft on border uch. 2 and Z on the buried soil the burned logs, poles and mass of carbonaceous congestions are found in a large number. The soil under these remains is strongly calcinated, places till red and brick color. These observations allow to assume that directly on its surface it was constructed a tree - an earth defensive wall.

In a trench several interesting details of the device of this wall (fig. 4) are recorded. On buried soil in North side uch. 3 along a shaft are found laid at each other three

Fig. 4. A fragment of the remains of a wooden defensive wall on the internal line

massive logs with a diameter more than 30 cm, across them from above remained pieces of a tree. At the western edge of these logs over them so massive log under which remained much worse another lay. Rather well only its face part which had as well as the first, the semicircular cut-down groove which clasped one of longitudinal logs was recorded. length of the remained part of a cross log was nearly 2 m, it lay towards the internal platform of the ancient settlement. On uch. 2 over this log and perpendicular to it there were remains not less than six also massive longitudinal logs, from above and under them poles were fixed. The remains of these logs and poles formed a cage.

South of the described cage the remains of a massive log and several poles with a diameter up to 15 cm connected by faces in a cover with logs also lay. In the southern end of noted log on uch. Z two not big wooden wedges near which there was a congestion of the charred branches of a birch and needles were hammered. In 60 cm west of poles in the same direction large pieces of massive poles, in a middle part across them and under them — the remains of one more log remained.

Logs and poles on uch. 2 are the remains of the wall which fell towards the internal platform of the ancient settlement. Other remained details — the remains of the lowermost tier of strengthenings.

Reconstruction of this part of a shaft is presented to us in the following form. The internal wall of a shaft was revetted with longitudinally laid wood which had at the basis a sheaf from three logs. Between them faces of cross logs with the cut-down dredging were clamped. They supported a laying of a timbered wall from logs from outer side, and with internal it was pressed by small poles and at shaft embankment clay, sypanny to them.

The role of poles on uch is insufficiently clear. 3, maybe, they also made an internal design and collapsed from the top part of a shaft.

The internal wall of a shaft at columns was connected structurally with the small wall going to depth of an earth embankment. This wall consisted in the lower part of a massive log and from above of thick poles. wooden facing of an embankment of a shaft from the outer side at a ditch in an excavation was not traced.

Shaft width ranging from the remains of the basis of a wooden wall from the inside to a slope to a ditch — 4.5 m. The shaft embankment put from loam has in for the standing time height of 1.88 m. The shaft talus representing a powerful layer of loam with chernozem impregnations is in a small amount on inside, and generally fills a ditch before shaft.

A ditch which depth about Z m from the level of the buried soil, has almost steep walls and a flat bottom with the ledge increasing by 1 m from a shaft. Filling of a ditch consists of loam from insignificant at a chernozem mesye, being a shaft talus. The rest of a ditch was filled with gumusirovanny savings. The bottom and walls it managed to be tracked in a profile quite easily, filling stood out against the background of the dense spreading yellow clay clearly.

An external shaft less powerful is also more destroyed therefore its initial form is restored hardly. The embankment with costs also from loam and has height about 0.8 m from a modern surface to the level of the buried soil. On both sides from an embankment there are heats, on structure of the soil from personal from it, is a chernozem with impurity of coal, lime and yellow clay (see fig. 3). It is possible to assume that the top and lower parts of an embankment consisted of different soil.

Under an embankment of an external shaft, unlike internal, the buried soil lies unevenly. In the center the layer reaches it 15 — 20 cm, at the edges of the basis of a shaft forms two deepenings. One of them, from the inside of a shaft — almost square shape, cuts the spreading soil on 70 cm and behind polneno chernozem. Under the center of an embankment in a profile outlines of other pole which is narrowed from top to bottom, diameter in the top part of 25 cm deepened in the spreading loam on 45 cm are well allocated. Perhaps, it is holes from the large columns driven at a wall in the form of a paling or a framework of shooting gallery (?).

More authentically the device of strengthenings can be installed as a result of further excavation.

The external ditch has depth only 1 m from the level of the buried soil and width of 4 m a ditch bottom flat: the southern wall is inclined at an angle 45 °, and outlines of northern, I adjoin Russian cabbage soup a shaft, accurately it was not succeeded to track. Filling of a ditch consists of chernozem soil with the small layer which put from a shaft from the chernozem, lime, burned clay and coal. In the very bottom the ditch was filled with the black viscous weight in which coals and fragments of ceramics met.

Thus, width of the basis of an internal shaft reached in the ancient time 4 m, its height about 5 m, depth of an internal ditch — Z m, width — 15 m. Height of an external shaft did not exceed 2 m, its width — 2 — Z m. The external ditch had depth of 1 m, width of 4 m

The aspiration of inhabitants of the settlement to protect it with powerful strengthenings what the internal shaft was, demonstrates unstable situation of time, constant military collisions on the eve of the Mongolian invasion during this period.

The ware material received as a result of excavation of the ancient settlement rather small. It makes only 1586 units. Almost as much collected bones of animals. On the basis of field observations it is possible to consider prevailing bones of pets: horses, sheep, pigs.

Among finds the ceramics dominates. Its insignificant part belongs to an era of early iron (fig. 5, 3), very small part — by the early Middle Ages (fig. 5, 1, 2, 6), other makes the main, so-called bakalskiya, a complex. All collection is presented by fragments of 325 vessels (on necks). In sample there was no flat bottom, but on one restored vessel and several fragments of others it is possible to assume that all ceramics on the ancient settlement round-bottomed.

Fig. 5. Ceramics of the early Iron Age (Z), early Middle Ages (1, 2, 6) and yudinsky.

The main complex (first group) with holds 270 vessels (fig. 6 — 9). About a half of fragments have in the clay test impurity of sand, more than a quarter — chamotte, about 10% — sand with chamotte and absolutely insignificant part (11 fragments) — organic chemistry. An outer surface of 80% of vessels smooth, possibly smoothed down by a rag, skin or hands. From the inside the surface of a half of copies is smoothed down by a chip from what small shaped strips remained.

Color of ceramics — dark gray, fragments of yellow and red color only occasionally meet. Roasting good, a crock strong, hardly giving in to a break.

Fig. 6. Main complex of ceramics.

Diameter of necks varies from 8 to 38 cm. More than two thirds (212) vessels had diameter from 18 to 30 cm, at the same time diameter of 24 — 30 cm prevails. Small vessels, from a d in neck meter up to 10 cm it is, a little, as well as large, with a diameter of 32 — 38 cm. Wall thickness is from 4 to 10 mm, more than at a half (140) vessels — 4 — 6 mm.

A nimbus most often flat (99) and the district ly (64), at 41 copies reinforced.

In forms the ware of the main complex is divided into three types, each of which is presented by three versions.

Type 1 — round-bottomed vessels with accurately expressed low neck and poorly time an exaggerated trunk (see fig. 6, 6; 9, 1, 2). The difference between diameter of a neck and a middle part of a trunk is insignificant. Vessels of this type make 31% of all ceramics of the main complex (92 copies), at the same time all of them, except two, are ornamented. On profiling of necks the vessels of the first type are subdivided into three views: 1a — with the neck unbent outside, 1b with a direct neck, 1v — with a neck inclined inside. At the same time look vessels 1a make a half of total number of vessels of type 1.

Type 2 — poorly pro-thinned out vessels with the short, hardly planned neck (see fig. 7, 2, 5; 9, 5). This type the smallest — 73 vessels. In it three types of vessels are also allocated (the principle of division the same, as for vessels of type 1): 2a — with from bent a neck, 2b — from a straight line, 2v — with a neck, inclined inside.

Type Z — open bowls — is most numerous (105 vessels). On depth and on a clone of the top part of walls in it it is possible to allocate the following three views: For — not deep saucer-shaped (see fig. 7, 4; 9, 6), 3b — deep with direct walls (see fig. 6, 4; 8, 3, 4, 6; 9, 4), 3v — deep closed (see fig. 6, 2; 7, 3; 8, 1).

In the main complex there are only 32 vessels without ornament, their half belongs to type Z.

Figuration is quite various. The prevailing element — a pole, is noted on 192 vessels. However only 50 of them have a patching ornament in pure form, at the same time 30 — vessels like Z and only four — type 1. More than 52% of vessels are decorated with poles in combination with other elements, mainly with carved lines, it is less with an edge stamp, is single with

shnurovy slips. In other cases (20 copies) pole combinations with grebenchato carved, edge shnurovym, shnurovy and carved or carved meet tucks.

The patching ornament was put with the end of a roundish subject. All poles round, only on one fragment oblong. As a rule, they are located in one row on a neck. On two vessels of a pole are grouped on three in the form of a corbel of triangles, at the same time they usually form бугорки-" жемчужины" on the opposite side of a surface (on 94 copies from within, on eight — outside).

On several vessels the manual tucks located in one row (in two cases — in two ranks) and supplementing a carved, edge or yamochno-carved ornament are available.

The widespread group of elements of an ornament following considerably — carved (are noted for 63% of vessels of the main complex). The small number of vessels is decorated only with them, the majority — in combination with a pole, tucks and is single — in combination with a comb, a cord. Patterns from carved lines are various: these are slanting notches, mainly in one row, in four cases in 3 — 5 parallel rows (at the same time notches with an inclination alternate to the right and to the left), a horizontal fir-tree and a lattice, on several fragments there are horizontal shaped notches. The carved ornament is put with generally long strokes of an ivolistny form, only in two cases of a notch have an appearance of the flat vertical parallel short lines located two horizontal rows.

Only the edge stamp decorated only seven vessels, in most cases (20 copies) it is combined with a pole and is single with tucks or a carved and shnurovy ornament. In total the edge stamp ornamented more than 15% of vessels. Simple patterns: parallel lines in one or several rows, horizontal parallel lines (sometimes in seven rows), horizontal zigzags in one and more ranks, a fir-tree and a lattice. On one vessel the vertical pair lines which are going down on a coat hanger are noted.

0 0 0 0

about OOO () Mr. Foss)

Fig. 7. Main complex of ceramics.

At last, only on 16 vessels there is shnurovy an ornament, from them on two in pure form. In other cases it is complemented with poles, a carved stamp. Shnurovy prints form usually a corbel of 5 — 10 horizontal rows. It is interesting to note that various combinations of a carved ornament to a comb and a cord are characteristic only for from vessels of 1 type. Only a pole or only on -

sechka and also their combinations to a horizontal fir-tree and a lattice are the prevailing types of an ornament on vessels of type 3.

Nimbuses of a third of vessels are ornamented mainly with a carved pattern. Most often the ornament consists of a braid of notches with an inclination mainly to the right on the outer edge. On 17 vessels of a notch are located from above a nimbus, on five — from its internal party. In five cases the top of a nimbus is decorated with a carved lattice. On some vessels of a notch to it is free rough therefore the nimbus has a wavy uneven edge. Decoration of nimbuses an edge stamp is single (14 copies).

Thus, the ceramics of the first group making the main complex of the Big Bakal-sky ancient settlement is characterized by a kruglodonnost, impurity of sand and chamotte in the test, arrangement of ornamental zones on a neck and a coat hanger, prevalence of patching and carved figuration.

In general it is close to ware of monuments of sylvensky culture: the similarity of forms, prevalence of bowls, carved and patching ornaments, their combination to a comb and a cord is observed — that allowed B.B. Ovchinnikova to include this complex in the structure of the trans-Ural group of sylnensky community. However it is necessary to consider the previous allocation by K.V. Salnikov of independent bakalsky culture, certain specifics of figuration of ware of monuments Priisetya and Tobolo-Ishimya at last which is strongly approved in literature of the term "bakalsky monuments".

The second group of ceramics on the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement is presented by 30 fragments from 10 vessels with the low neck unbent outside and smooth transition from a neck to a trunk, from a straight line and an inclined plane in - inside necks and also cup-shaped. In tes those impurity of chamotte and sand. These vessels differ in more careful processing of a surface. Diameter of necks is from 18 to 28 cm, wall thickness same, as at bakalsky.

Fig. 8. Main complex of ceramics.

On figuration the ware of this group differs from vessels of the main complex. The decor covers not only a neck, but also a coat hanger. The ornaments put gear, glazchaty, semi-lunar with stamps and a small comb are noted. Gear forms the horizontal strips consisting of vertical or inclined prints. There are also other motives: wide gorizon-

the talny strips and triangles executed by a rhombic glazchaty or semi-lunar stamp. The small edge stamp put vertical, inclined lines and a lattice, at the same time the print of a small comb reminds in most cases a print of a small struychaty stamp (fig. 5, 4, 5, 7; 10).

An obligatory element of an ornament are the deep round poles located in one row and forming vypuklina on inside of vessels. There are also carved patterns in the form of slanting notches, fir-trees and lattices.

In a form and figuration the ceramics of the second group is close to vessels of Anonymous and Molchanov-sky ancient settlements which belong to yudinsky culture, and reflects communication with the northern forest population. Judging by small number of this ware, it is not connected with any separate period of existence of the ancient settlement, and is rather synchronous to the main complex and documents foreign culture (inoetnichny?) a component of the population which left it.

The third group of ceramics differing from the main complex also markedly includes 32 fragments. Made of well otmuchenny clay with impurity of fine sand, color of a surface red-orange. Vessels of mainly small sizes, diameter of necks of 8 — 12 cm (at one — 20 cm), the wall thickness of 4 — 6 mm, are made carefully. Some zaloshchena, a part — even from the inside. These are high narrow-necked vessels with strongly inflated trunk. Necks direct or are slightly unbent outside. Transition from a neck to a trunk sharp. Thin patterns, from carved, edge, shnurovy prints and also prints of a smooth thin stamp. The carved ornament is used for division of the field into the zones covered with other pattern: inclined short lines, lattice, thin cord. The comb usually put several parallel rows of inclined lines (see fig. 5, 1, 2, 6). There is one fragment with an ear and a hole in it.

Fig. 9. Main complex of ceramics.

The described ceramics on technology of production and ornaments is close kushnarenkovsky the early Middle Ages, widespread in Bashkiria and also presented separated keramiche-

sky complexes in Western Siberia [Kazakov, 1981; Mazhitov, 1977; Pogodin, 1993; Chindina, 1990].

The stock of a monument is poor. Only two metal subjects are found: an iron tip of an arrow with uch. N / 4 at a shaft — a diamond-shaped form with the flat section and a reinforced ustupchik upon transition to a scape, a feather 8.4 cm long, with a greatest width of 3.8 cm; a bronze pendant (a part rustling with pendant Russian cabbage soup) with uch. for 5 at a depth of 35 cm — a bottle form, with the direct core twirled before an ear.

Similar tips of arrows occurred at the Yenisei Kyrgyz in the X century [1948, fig. 118], were a part of kochevnichesky arms of the East European steppe [1958, fig. 3, 10].

The pendant is dated on finds in burial grounds on Oka US — X of centuries [Spitsyn, 1906, the tab. XX of HHU!, HHUS, XX! X; Smirnov, 1952, tab. of HHSh-4].

The grinding bars found on the ancient settlement are made of pieces of dense slate of 8.5х6 cm and 10х2.5 cm in size, dark gray with a greenish shade. Only about two planes are worked.

Excavation of the Big Bakalsky ancient settlement cleared up a question of dating and cultural accessory of a monument. K.V. Salnikov referred it to culture of the same name and yes tirovat the IV—V centuries, based on analogy of ceramics from investigations to lomovatovsky ware [Sealing glands, 1961, page 47]. Material, on luchenny as a result of almost full opening of the remained square of the ancient settlement and studying strengthenings, allows to remove date by IX—XI centuries

When comparing with the kapoks investigated races and recognostsirovochno pritobolsky monuments: The Krasnogorsk, Kolovsky, Small Bakalsky and also later priishimsky and the Barabinsk ancient settlements and settlements of the Siberian Tatars [Molodin, Sobolev, Solovyov, 1990, page 100 — 115] — can be claimed by Kuchum-Goroy [Goldin, 1969] that dwellings of all monuments of bakal-sky culture — land. The equipment — srubny or pletnevy weaving with a plastering clay and, perhaps, whitewashing (residues of lime on shafts?). Lack of the remains of the constructions deepened in soil and seen in a relief on the periphery of monuments of this type — not a rarity, perhaps, on

this area shelters for the cattle were constructed and it contained here during military collisions. Analogies are ancient settlements the Resident of Tyumen, Chinyaikh, Malkovo, Novozorino in Barab, Chimgi-Tura, etc.

As it was mentioned, the ceramics of the main complex is close sylvensky, covering the period with! X till the X centuries. Also the systems of strengthenings on sylvensky and given monuments are similar. The territory of sylvensky culture is a foothill part of the western Cisural area [Bader, Oborin, 1958; Gening, 1959]. Researches of Big and Small Bakalsky ancient settlements allowed B.B. Ovchinnikova to draw a conclusion that the area of sylvensky community included also the territory on an average current of the Iset River and further [1987]. V.A. Mogilnikov found it possible to consider bakalsky culture as the independent, representing special group of the population and widespread on all forest-steppe Tobolo-Ishimya, having included the Pakhomovsky burial ground [Burial grounds, 1987] in a circle of monuments of this culture. Arguments against sylvensky community are not adduced by it, but to assume resettlement in so extensive territory — from Prikamye to Priishimya — the same population for this era difficult.

The ethnic origin of inhabitants of Bakalsky ancient settlements remains still obscure, but there is an opinion that the population of sylvensky culture, perhaps, was Ugrian — in our opinion, to the undergone already initial processes of a tyurkization.

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Harvey Horace
Other scientific works: