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The patriotic and military and sports organizations in social and political life of Russia the beginnings of the 20th century

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This article is one of the first attempts to consecrate activity of youth military and sports and patriotic societies in Russia of the beginning of the 20th century. No attention in the Soviet historiography was paid to work of data of the organizations, researches about activity of such societies appeared only in recent years. However these youth organizations were direct predecessors existing in Soviet period of youth military and sports societies.

In Russia the beginnings of the 20th century the accelerated rates there took place social and economic modernization of society. Modernization processes led to change of a way of life and way of considerable number of the population. It was expressed in growth of living standards, improvement of living conditions of a part of average city and rural layers that led to emergence of such concept as "leisure", at children of workers, petty bourgeoises, employees, peasants, etc. At the same time, similar positive changes had also negative consequences. Problems of children's crime became more and more relevant, took place and other negative phenomena. Some public circles questions of physical health of children and young men closely contacted questions moral and also growth of radical moods among youth. Negative trends caused also concern of the authorities. From year to year deterioration in physical health of young men was fixed. For example, in 1908 from 100 youth citizens only 40 - 45 were suitable for passing of military service, in 1910 - 23, and in 1912 only 14 - 18 chelovek1.

The public tried to react to current situation at the beginning of the 20th century. At that time there were many public sports organizations which were engaged in "spiritual and corporal" education of youth - "Athlete", "Lighthouse", etc. These organizations were mostly children's and junior sports clubs. Right after the revolution of 1905 - 1907 when the social movement got "peace" forms and the heat of political struggle decreased, there were very many cultural and educational, patriotic societies. Among them also the military and sports organizations which were engaged in patriotic education of youth were formed.

Sports and gymnastic society of Sokol was one of the most known. Actually, this organization first set as the purpose not only education of youth, but also carrying out sports and military-patriotic work. "Falcon" arose in the second half of the 19th century in the Slavic countries of Austria-Hungary as the Pan-Slavic youth organization. One of ideologists of the Czech nationalism professor of Charles University in Prague Miroslav Tyrsh acted as the founder and the ideological mastermind of "sokolstvo". In the Russian Empire the "polusokol-sky" sports societies appeared in the West Russian region at the end of the 19th century among the Polish population. In 1907 these societies began to be called Sokolskimi and became widespread in the territory of radical Russia.

1 Messenger of a scout. 1921. No. 6. Page 21.

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One of the first the famous right figure V.M. Purishkevich initiated formation of Sokol. In 1907 he petitioned for allocation of money to society from Akkermansky district zemstvo and as the deputy G of an osudarstvenny thought offered the bill "about introduction of sokolsky gymnastics and games for physical training of young men in all educational institutions of Russia" 2. In development of this undertaking, in 1908 - 1911, for the purpose of improvement of physical health of youth, in army, sports activities began to be given, and included teaching gymnastics in school programs. Many leaders of right took part in affairs of Sokol. For example, on July 15, 1908 on Sloviansk a congress in Prague where the "political" Pan-Slavist wing of Sokol figured, there were known right: N.A. Maklakov, the prominent statesman, G.V. Komarov, one of initiators of creation of the Right-wing conservative organization the Russian meeting, and the count V.A. Bobrinsky, the member of fraction of the Russian nationalists in III State dume3.

The right editions lit activity of Sokol. For example, Zemshchina in

1910 so spoke of activity of the organization: "Already several years our school releases on light of round-shouldered and bandy-legged intellectuals;... fairly put in communication with lack of physical development and ugly (ideological. - Century R.) baggage of Russian intelligentsia" 4. "Decline of a noble martial spirit" in the environment of educated classes was, according to right, "in close connection with decline of the nobility" which place was occupied by the raznochinny intellectuals. Therefore Sokol found support from right which considered that activity of the organization "develops love for a military situation" at molodezhi5. Right found communication between lack of physical training and radical trends at a considerable part of the Russian youth.

In 1909 - 1910 the "sokolsky" organizations appear in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkiv, Voronezh and other cities. In March, 1911 "falcons" held the First All-Russian congress where they adopted the program which main points was following: "I. To accept the Sokolsky idea of Slavic brothers as noble aspiration to corporal, moral and spiritual improvement and improvement of the personality and people. II.... Spayaniye of tribes of the Russian State together for the sake of the benefit and power of Russia as great Slavic State" 6. However "falcons" separated from direct participation in policy as they followed an example of the adherents in Austria-Hungary who within the non Slavic empire were able to defend the positions. In 1912 the Union of the Russian sokolstvo entered into Alliance of a Slavic sokolstvo, and against it Poles at a congress in Vienna" 7 voted only ". By 1914 there were already about 60 Sokolsky of societies and circles on all empire. The local organizations of Sokol were headed by retired military.

For example, the Voronezh society was headed by the retired colonel V.M. Sergeyev. In Voronezh Sokol in 1909 registered 300 chlenov8, regularly classes were attended by 60 people: pupils, seminarists, salesmen, lower ranks of army and politsii9. Classes were given three times a week in the gym of a gymnasium. In the management consisted, except the colonel V.M. Sergeyev, the major general M.P. Daragan, the lieutenant colonel A.P. Parkhomenko, only 16 people retired ofitserov10. Voronezh Sokol participated in the Vsesokolsky meeting in Prague in 1912 11 Organization not only managed

2 State Archive Russian Federations (SARF). T. 117. Op. 1. 157. L. 9.
3 See: N.V. Manokhin. Short history of Russian Sokolstva. Prague, 1924. Page 26.
4 Zemshchina. 1910. No. 300.
5 In the same place.
6 N.V. Manokhin. Decree. soch. Page 34.
7 In the same place. Page 38-39.
8 Living word. 1910. No. 2.
9 In the same place. No. 209.
10 State Archive of the Voronezh Region (SAVR). T. 6. It. 1. 1924. L. 10.
11 In the same place.

to attract some part of youth in the ranks, but also was engaged in her physical and patriotic training. In Voronezh the activity of society was widely covered in the right newspaper "Zhivoye Slovo", V.M. Sergeyev was a member of its editorial board and also took active part in activity of the Voronezh department All-Russian national soyuza12. Local authorities helped this movement since it evaded from direct participation in policy, though found a certain support from the right political forces. For example, in Voronezh Sokol was patronized by the vice governor count P.N. Apraksin. Besides the Russian meeting which member it consisted set as the purpose the organization and development of the "sokolsky" movement in Russia. Besides, "falcons" taught in a gymnasium of the Russian meeting in St. Petersburg physical podgotovku13.

During the war 1914 "falcons" did charity work, worked in various committees and the commissions on the state defense, many were called up for field army or left volunteers on the front. For this reason many organizations including Petrograd, totaling about one thousand members before war were closed. During the war the government was engaged in creation of similar societies. In 1915 "The provision on mobilization of sport" is issued. In its development in the whole country military and sports societies were formed. The purpose of education of recruits seemed not only in physical training, but also in "sense of duty before the Throne and the Fatherland" 14. Besides, in all graduation classes of gymnasiums entered preconscription training. Unlike sports and gymnastic societies of the beginning of the 20th century, in Sokol the physical training adjoined to spiritual and moral more and more.

The idea of the organization of education and leisure of youth "soared in air". As political parties (and society in general), and authorities undertook its implementation. Formation of "amusing regiments" can be an example of the "official" children's military-patriotic movement (by analogy with amusing regiments of Peter I). As a start of motion of "amusing" "The highest wish" of Nicholas II of January 8, 1908 served: "To start in villages training of children at schools in a system and gymnastics by substitute and retired corporals for a small payment" 15. Unlike many previous associations, the state and personally the emperor had direct relation to it and participated in activity of the movement. The tsar became "the Most august Chief" "amusing" subsequently. The inspector of national schools of the Bakhmutsky County of Ekatirinoslavskoy of lips was an initiator of creation of the movement "amusing". A.A. Lutskevich. In the spring of 1909 he organized a "amusing" company or "a class of a military system and gymnastics" from children aged from 8 up to 14 years at national school of Bakhmouth. Children, mainly from poor families, were accepted in a class free of charge. Training of children for passing of military service was the purpose of training.

This initiative was realized by

in many respects thanks to Lutskevich's support by the local governor A.M. Klingenberg. The fact is that patriotic activity of Lutskevich was not welcomed by figures of Bakhmutsky zemstvo and officials of department of national education. The reasons of this not goodwill were as political (the conflicts with liberals from the Ministry of national education), and probably personal (envy to progress of the colleague). Lutskevich was a figure of the right movement in 1906 - 1907 in Odessa where was an inspector on -

12 See: V.Yu. Rylov. The right movement in the Voronezh province. 1903 - 1917 Voronezh, 2002. Page 125-128.
13 V.Yu. Rylov. Activity of the Right-wing conservative organization the Russian Meeting (1900-1917) / / Conservatism in Russia and the world: the past and the present: Sb. nauch. tr. The issue 1 / Under the editorship of A.Yu. Minakov. Voronezh, 2001. Page 162.
14 State Archive of Social and Political History of the Voronezh Region (SASPHVR). T. 5. Op. 1. 160. L. 1-2.
15 Yu.V. Kudryashov. Russian scout movement. Arkhangelsk, 1997. Page 84.

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native schools of the Odessa gradonachalstvo. Being an inspector Lutskevich "became with the Odessa monarchists very intimate and led vigorous fight against in a revolutionary way promotion" in educational institutions goroda16. For these reasons, he had conflicts with the Odessa liberal officials, he was "accused" of "unsociability" and transferred by the order of the minister of national education to district Bakhmouth with obvious decrease.

However in Bakhmouth Lutskevich started realization of a royal wish. In 1909 the first muster was taken, Nicholas II paid attention to this initiative. Already on May 5, 1909 the emperor appropriated to a company name "The First National Class of a Military System and Gymnastics of Its Imperial Majesty Naslednika Tsesarevicha and Grand Duke Alexey Nikolaevich" 17. Then, through the Minister of War the tsar disposed to convey to the organizer of a class "The highest thanks": "I am sincerely grateful to Lutskevich for an excellent initiative and that understood and carried out my thought" 18. For the organization of the "amusing" movement of Lutskevich it was granted by a rank of the valid councilor of state. On "The highest review" in January, 1910 "amusing" met the tsar. Nicholas II bypassed a system, talked to children, was photographed. In May, 1910 the company participated in indicative parades in Tsarskoye Selo, St. Petersburg and Moscow. Children showed "sokolsky" gymnastics to the sound of music, went a system, sang military and patriotic songs.

Similar military-patriotic initiatives found support from the right public forces. In Yaroslavl "the amusing company" was transformed in 1910 from "The union of children of the Russian people" (which arose at the beginning of 1907), children's branch of local department of the Union of the Russian people. In a company about 100 children at the age of 10 - 15 let19 consisted. At the same time right also did not hide that these structures are formed not only for the purpose of the organization of education and leisure of younger generation, but also for derivation of youth from revolutionary influence.

Repeatedly right the issue of children's and youthful patriotic education was discussed. So, on October 1, 1911 at a solemn meeting of the Russian national union of Mikhail Arkhangel the member of the administrative board of this organization retired major general K.I. Druzhinin took the movement of "amusing" and suggested to lead systematic discussions at schools about nice dates of the Russian military history. At a significant forum right in May, 1912 - the Fifth All-Russian congress of the Russian people in St. Petersburg, the issue of development of the "amusing" movement was also discussed. In military-patriotic department of a congress the offer on transfer of amusing business to the Defense Ministry was developed. The report on this question was made by the retired lieutenant general P.N. Mitropolsky who suggested to deprive the Ministry of national education of control of the "amusing" movement and to transfer it to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence as liberals from department of education obviously torpedoed initiatives pravykh20. During the debate on issues of patriotic education, one of speakers major general K.I. Druzhinin, noted that "the military heroism" among draft youth should "be spread through family, school and amusing troops" 21.

It is interesting to note that extreme right were disturbed by a condition of the movement "amusing" from an unexpected side. So, at the constituent congress of the All-Russian Dubrovinsky Union of the Russian people which was taking place at the end of 1911, were zatro-

16 A.D. Stepanov. Amusing movement / / Sacred Russia. Big encyclopedia of the Russian people. M, 2003. Page 584.
17 Yu.V. Kudryashov. Decree. soch. Page 84.
18 Tsit. on: A.D. Stepanov. Amusing movement / / Sacred Russia... Page 584.
19 See: Razmolodin M.L. Chernosotennoye the movement in Yaroslavl and provinces of Upper Volga area in 1905 - 1915 Yaroslavl, 2001. Page 78-79.
20 A.D. Stepanov. Amusing movement / / Sacred Russia. Page 590.
21 Information of the Pryamoy Put magazine on the All-Russian congresses of SRN and Russian people//Right-wing parties. Sb. dock. and mat. In 2 TM, 1998. T. 2. Page 171.

nuta some questions of the movement of amusing. Right all support to the movement was expressed. However at a congress it was stated that the movement needs to be rescued from "Jewish domination" as "influx" of the Jewish children and young men in the movement, turns it into "school of debauchery". But the main thing right seemed in another. The Black Hundreds believed that it is dangerous "to accustom to weapon from the early childhood" Jews as the Jewish youth can join ranks of the fighting organizations of radical parties. Extreme right claimed that all aforesaid not "entered calculations of the Wise Organizer amusing (i.e. Nicholas II. - Century R.)" 22. The reasons of "influx" of the Jewish teenagers in the movement of "amusing" were, according to right that "zhidolyuba and cadets which there is a lot of among zemstvo, city self-government and officials. turn "amusing" into means of the Jewish equality" 23. The Black Hundreds, owing to the extreme anti-Semitic installations, refused to understand the aspiration of some part of the Jewish youth to be integrated into the Russian society, supporting some kind of segregation, refusing to see good points in this phenomenon.

Apparently, some offers of right were accepted by the government as subsequently the "amusing" movement was supervised also by the Defense Ministry. Right also suggested to consider participation in the "amusing" movement during the passing of military service, rewardings, encouragement, etc. and also to make "amusing" companies obligatory in all lowest and average educational institutions of the empire. It is obvious that full implementation of these offers positively would affect during the war 1914 when the serious lack of the prepared reserve was felt. Besides, and itself Lutskevich addressed right. In February, 1911 right after reception at the tsar of Lutskevich made the report before members of the Russian meeting on a subject: "Training at schools to a military system and gymnastics on the patriotic beginnings, as very important educational measure" 24. Activity of Lutskevich was highly appreciated in a right-wing press. The newspapers "Russkaya Rech", "Russkoye znamya", "Zemshchina", etc. highly appreciated its patriotic activity. One of the most influential newspapers of pre-revolutionary Russia conservative "Modern times", acting through the famous publicist M.O. Menshikov, also supported Lutskevicha25.

However patriotic initiatives of right did not find support from the liberal and radical circles. Against Lutskevich the persecution campaign in the liberal and left press was organized. Also rumors, about train wreck and death in it of the children carried on a review about assignment by Lutskevich of the funds allocated by the tsar on detey26 were floated. But the most important was, the fact that ill-wishers from the Ministry of national education and Bakhmutsky zemstvo organized check of its activity as a result of which Lutskevich was under investigation "for omissions in work". The fact that it free of charge distributed the brochures "About Tasks and the Purposes of Our Russian Elementary National School" published on its personal means and "The collection of patriotic articles, military stories was the cause of the beginning of the investigation. Examples of heroism, feats of self-sacrifice and corresponding poetic works". The fact is that it distributed these editions at public expense, without payment of the postage due. As a result Lutskevich it was accused of "embezzlement of public funds", having been tired of attacks and prosecutions he died in 1912 27

However in 1910 - 1911 through the whole country, by an example of a class in Bakhmouth, the large-scale organization of "amusing regiments" began. The most known of them were

22 Resolutions of the All-Russian congress of the Union of the Russian people and the monarchic organizations adjoining it on November 21 - on December 1, 1912 Moscow / / Right-wing parties. T. 2. Page 73.
23 In the same place.
24 See: A.A. Lutskevich. Training at schools to a military system and gymnastics on the patriotic beginnings, as very important educational measure//Messenger of the Russian Meeting. 1911. No. 10.
25 A.D. Stepanov. Amusing movement / / Sacred Russia. Page 590.
26 In the same place. Page 589.
27 In the same place. Page 590.

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the 148th Caspian regiment (Peterhof), Guards building (Tsarskoye Selo), the 42nd Siberian shooting regiment (Tomsk), the 11th Grenadierial Fanagoriysky regiment (Moscow), 1st Turkmen army building (Tashkent), Caspian flotilla (Baku), Putivl-sky regiment (Exactly), etc. The similar organizations arose also in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Penza and in other. Command of "amusing regiments" belonged to military and sea departments. Groups sometimes were specialized according to a profile of chiefs: sappers (Ust-Izhora), sailors (Kronstadt and Sevastopol), musicians (St. Petersburg), firefighters (Sablino), etc. According to a profile of groups there was also a form odezhdy28. Not only military, but also church responded to this initiative. For example, Troitse-Sergiyev's celibate priest of the monastery Pavel also organized in 1910 "amusing" classes for children in the area. Local officer society paid necessary expenses on production of white shirts and a shoulder strap of the Semenovsky regiment. In "an amusing company" about two hundred were regularly engaged detey29.

Generally in these organizations children and young men of average city layers aged from eight up to twenty years consisted. Frequency of classes was approximately identical - three times a week. For example, in fire group it was studied including initial military preparation and also gymnastic activity was given. However young firefighters were not directly involved in fire fighting, they sometimes stood in a cordon, brought water and protected property of fire victims. In Gatchina trained intelligence agents and army coherent. Children were learned to ride bicycles, to be guided by areas and to shoot at airplanes. During the classes, also filming was widely used photo. became p>

the Culmination of the movement

1911 -1912. Preparation for these actions was conducted quite serious. The general management of reviews was assigned to the Defense Ministry. Before the first review the tsar signed "The provision on out-of-school training of the Russian youth for military service" 30. Participation in "amusing" companies for children was voluntary and extracurricular. The purposes stated in the document consisted not only in education "servants I reign also to the fatherland", but also in strengthening of morality among youth, acquaintance with spirit of army and military discipline. Curricula of classes were approved by command of patronage division. Besides, with children and teenagers also moralizing discussions were led.

In the last pre-war years some recession of the "amusing" movement which was caused by a number of objective and subjective factors was outlined. Among these factors it is possible to call decrease of the activity of social movement in general and right in particular, Lutskevich's death and also activity of competitors acting through other nurseries and the junior military and sports organizations. However recession of the movement was caused, generally by refusal of many zemstvoes and city self-government to finance "amusing". Besides "amusing" was excessively state and often politized that pushed away some part of youth. However, despite a certain recession, a number of the "amusing" organizations continued to exist also in the years of war.

Almost along with "falcons" and "amusing" in Russia scouts appear. The scout movement in pre-war years pressed official and obviously monarchic children's and junior movement a little. The scout movement, arose at the beginning of the 20th century in Britain, it made use of experience children's and youth organi-

28 See: Yu.V. Kudryashov. Decree. soch. Page 88.
29 In the same place. Page 60.
30 V.Yu. Rylov. Activity of the sports and military-patriotic organizations in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century//War and peace in historical process (XVII-XX centuries): Sb. nauch. articles following the results of the International scientific conference devoted to the 60 anniversary of the Battle of Stalingrad. Volgograd, 2003. In 2 parts 1. Page 222.

zation, such as Sokol, YMCA, sports and gymnastic societies and clubs. The idea of scouting was formulated by the British general R. Baden Powell, the founder of a scout movement. The general believed that besides a good education of the child there has to be also a good education. It meant that the child has to be in a certain sphere of interest corresponding to outlook of parents with similar children and adults. Such sphere can be in the form of sports club, public organization. Very important aspect in scouting and then now patriotic education is; scouts solemnly promise "to do the duty before God and Rodina and to live under laws of scouts" 31. In 1907 Baden Powell stated the opinion in the book "Scouting for boys" which became the main book of a skauting - "the textbook of forest life, knightly acts, the description of fascinating adventures" 32. Around the world the book quickly became popular. In 1908. The academy of the General Staff of the Russian Empire published the Russian adapted version of the book Baden Powell "The young intelligence agent". Almost along with the European countries the scouting arose in Russia. The shtabs-captain O.I. Pantyukhov became the founder of the Russian scouting. In 1909 he organized group of scout intelligence agents (which was called patrol "Beaver") in Pavlovsk St. Petersburg gubernii33. In 1910 Baden Powell was in Russia, met Nicholas II and got approval of the deyatelnosti34.

In 1912 - 1914 the independent groups of scouts appeared in many cities of the Russian Empire (Saratov, Astrakhan, Batum, Perm, Stavropol, Odessa, Kiev, etc.), mainly at educational institutions. In August, 1914 in St. Petersburg there was the first All-Russian organization of scouts - "Society of assistance to boys intelligence agents" - "The Russian scout". Society was headed the vice admiral I.F. Bostr and Pantyukhov. By an example of the capital, in Moscow there was similar "Society of assistance of the organization "of young intelligence agents", accepted under protection of the grand duchess Elizaveta Fiodorovna. Active part in work of society was taken by the editor of the Vokrug Sveta magazine V.A. Popov - the leader Moscow skautov35. The organization of scouts in Kiev which arose in 1914 at the initiative of the athlete doctor A.K. Anokhin and with assistance of the trustee of the Kiev educational district was especially successful. In 1915 in Kiev there was a Russia's first group of young intelligence agents (girl scouts) which reached in the first year of number of 130 people. Classes were conducted in one of female gymnasiums according to the general program of scouting with some additions (child care, floriculture, a household). The similar organization of girls arose in Petrograd, with assistance of R.A. Fernberg of business, familiar with statement, in the homeland of scouting in Anglii36.

In 1915 "The first All-Russian congress of the instructors and persons who are interested in scouting" took place in Petrograd. The separate scout organizations united in the All-Russian union. At the end of 1916 - the beginning of 1917 in Petrograd there took place the second congress of scouts. Among different questions the use of the terms "intelligence agent" and "scout", "skauting" and "scouting" was discussed, it was considered to be them ravnoznachnymi37.

31 See: [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http: //
32 See: [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http: //
33 O.I. Pantyukhov. Russian scouts of 1909 — 1917 / / Scouts of Russia: Sb. east. essays of founders of a scout movement and participants of events. M, l998. Page 25.
34 See: [Electronic resource]. Access mode: http: //
35 See: [Electronic resource]. Access mode:

36 In the same place.
37 In the same place.

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In the years of Civil war the majority of scouts were at war on the party white, but there were also red scouts. Almost all scout organizations in the years of Civil war stopped existence. Scout groups the Soviet power apprehended the wars which revived later watchfully. The new power destroyed the independent scout organizations hands of the arising Komsomol, and then, and way repressiy38. A part of scout societies was forced to be engaged in the organization of groups of "new type" in which scout education was filled with "the class contents". It is natural that the speech about fidelity to God and the Fatherland in such organizations did not go any more. These scout groups became the ancestors of the pioneer organizations. Pioneers adopted symbolics and attributes at scouts: an appeal "Be ready!", a tie, etc., the term "pioneer" also has scout origin. Some time in the USSR underground work of scout groups was conducted, the samizdat was issued. By 1926 when the pioneer organization was formed, the last groups of scouts which remained faithful to a skauting stopped existence. Most of the scout heads who survived were forced to leave the country. Only in emigration the organization of the Russian scouts at the head of which there was Pantyukhov39 was recreated.

It should be noted that activity of scouts in pre-revolutionary Russia was quite successful in spite of the fact that began a bit later, than at analogich-

& lt;-> T ~ | & lt;->

ny organizations. Unlike other movements, the scouting got support not only right, but also at broad sections of the public and the power. Activity of scouts fell generally on years of World War I and it was demanded. However in general in the years of war owing to mobilization and deterioration in an economic situation of the population activity of many public organizations is curtailed, many stop the existence. After the February revolution when in March, 1917 the activity of the right organizations was banned, their youth societies stopped the existence. In the years of Civil war the activity of youth movements almost came to naught. After war there was some revival of the pre-revolutionary organizations, for example, of scout. However from the middle of the 1920th of activization of the youth noncommunistic movement were stopped trying.

Speaking about scales of the military-patriotic movement at the beginning of the 20th century, it should be noted its scope and mass character. Though researches about the numerical structure of societies were not conducted yet, one may say, that honor in each provincial city, and sometimes and in the small district cities and villages there were patriotic voyennosportivny organizations. Only in 1910 in Russia it is recorded about 80 All-Russian and local societies, various on numerical structure, which were engaged in physical and patriotic training molodezhi40.

Many achievements and methods of work, the mass military and sports and patriotic organizations, were in own way innovative. They were created by public members or the authorities, cooperated both with political parties, and with public authorities, worked at the place of residence and in labor collectives. It is very probable that experience of activity of pre-revolutionary societies was used in Soviet period during creation of mass nurseries and the youth organizations and movements: pioneers, "Summer lightning", "Eaglet", DOSAAF, etc.

38 See: [Electronic resource]. Access mode:

39 In the same place.
40 V.Yu. Rylov. Activity of the sports and military-patriotic organizations in Russia.

Page 223.


Voronezh State University e-mail:


This article is one of the first to throw light on the activities of the youth military/sports and patriotic societies in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The Soviet historiography paid no attention whatever to the work of those organizations; some research papers on the topic have lately come out. It should be pointed out that those organizations were the prototype of the Soviet youth military/sports societies.

Alice Riley
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