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Development of sportivnomassovy work in the Volga region in 1920e years





UDC 947084.6 (021)


© N. A. SHAROSHKIN *, So-called KUZMINA **

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky * department of national history,

** department of national history and technique of teaching history e-mail:

N.A. Sharoshkin, T.N. Kuzmina - Development of sports and mass work in the Volga region in the 1920th years//News of PGPU of V.G. Belinsky. 2010. No. 15 (19). Page 120-123. - This article is devoted to a problem of development of sports and mass work in the Volga region in the 1920th years. In article the condition of physical training in the region is characterized, its various forms are shown.

Sharoshkin N. A., Kuzmina T. N. - The development of mass athletic work in Povolzhie in 1920s//Izv. Penz. gos. pedagog. univ. im.i V. G. Belinskogo. 2010. No. 15 (19). River 120-123. - The article is dedicated to problem of mass athletic work development in Povolzhie in 1920s. In the article the condition of physical education in the region is characterized and its different forms are shown.

The physical education was always an important factor of strengthening of health and education of workers of masses. After the end of civil war and exile of interventionists the transition to recovery of the national economy began with the territory of our country. It was carried out in extraordinary difficult conditions. The drought of 1920 and 1921 extremely negatively affected development of national economy. Disaster captured nearly a half of the population of RSFSR. Hunger struck 28 provinces with the population over 36 million people [1]. The Volga region became its epicenter.

Also underwent activities of authorities and public organizations for development of physical training in the Volga region region in connection with natural disaster in difficult conditions. During hunger by the worker of the Volga region had no time for exercises. However, despite difficulties, authorities and public organizations sought to develop the sports movement. The improving work directed to mitigation of consequences of hunger in the region, preparation of masses for production work was the main direction of activity. The government commission of the help to starving took out from the Volga region to more safe regions of children, workers, created in the cities and at stations free public dining rooms, points of medical care.

Then much attention was paid to issues of work and education. This problem was discussed on

The IV congress of RKSM (September, 1921). The congress demanded from the Komsomol organizations more actively than a message work on labor protection of youth, on improvement of its life, training. In the 1920th years various forms of improving work became widespread: mass gymnastic exercises, skiing, excursions and campaigns, sports, Olympic Games. At the taken place V Penza provincial congress of Komsomol (September, 1921) the decision on creation by own efforts of sports grounds was made at local clubs, each Komsomol member was recommended to complete a military physical training course, to enter in members of sports club or a sports ground. Penza to sponges of Komsomol in 1922 carried out reorganization of the available sports grounds. Forces of Komsomol created sports societies, one of which was "Komsomol member" (Chembar) [2].

despite hunger, a considerable part of youth participated in the first provincial Olympic Games held then. The first results of sports work were summed up at the Olympic Games on summer sports which were held on August 28 - on September 4, 1920 in Saratov. Competitions took place on track and field athletics, soccer, gymnastics, fight, also the mass physical culture was shown. The Saratovskiye Izvestiya newspaper constantly informed on the Olympic Games course, called the first champions of the province: F. Breev (track and field athletics all-round), F. Gross (gymnastics), etc. From the beginning of mitigation of consequences

hunger sports and mass work began to improve: there are sports circles "Housing and Communal Services Worker", "Builder", Volgar. The big role in their creation was played by labor unions. activities for the organization of sports work allowed to hold in the fall of 1922 the second provincial sports competitions, and in 1923 to prepare and send the Saratov athletes to a sports contest of the Volga region (Kazan) [3].

Among the few provinces which held the Olympic Games was also Penza. Games took place on September 10-12, 1920 on a hippodrome of Penza. Young men and girls performed with gymnastic exercises. Competitions of athletes, weight-lifters, football players were held that contributed to activization and to the development of sports work. On May 21, 1922 in the Lower Lomov the first district sports festival was spent. Competed in relay race on 100, 400, 1200 m and long jumps. On August 18-30 the same year the Penza athletes participated in the first district Olympic Games of Central Volga area in Samara. Its program provided the sports (soccer and tennis) easy and heavy (a bar, boxing) athletics, gymnastics, fencing, chess, rowing and sailing. The pupil of the sports circle "Saturn" Bogdanov became the strongest in competitions in a bar in semi-lightweight. Gymnasts achieved high rates (the trainer and. V. Slab). As a part of national team of the Volga region the Penza athletes of O. Orlov, N. Andreyev left to Moscow on the first Russian track and field athletics competitions. M. Kvasnikova became the first champion of the Soviet republic in a diving [4].

Military physical training was developed also in the Samara province. The big role in it was played by the Volga Military District created by the decree of SNK on May 4, 1918. Military physical training took place according to the tasks defined in the order of Revolutionary Military Council of the republic of December 17, 1919 here: to develop physically young people, i.e. to make them healthy, strong, hardy and dexterous, capable it is easy to endure the hardships and deprivations of military and marching and active service; to train, i.e. to turn the results achieved concerning a physical education into skills, habitual for an organism. The positive role in development of physical education in the Samara province was played by the department of physical education created at the Samara university [5].

With mitigation of consequences of hunger the physical education in provinces of Central and Lower Volga area received broader scope. In the mid-twenties at schools and orphanages physical education classes began to be conducted, to be created sports circles. So, in Saratov at the end of 1925 the regular trainings by physical education captured more than 6 thousand children at 17 schools and 16 orphanages. In the second half of the 20th of a sport mug at trade-union clubs, at schools are forced out by sports sections in which preparation on certain sports was conducted [6].

To summer of 1924 circles on physical education at most labor unions Sa-began to work

sea province. In the spring of this year workers of many enterprises held community work days on construction of sports grounds. In 1925 in Samara the first stadium (nowadays Lokomotiv) was open [7]. In the annual report on activity among women of cloth factory Red October (Gorodishchensky County of the Penza province) for September, 1924 - September, 1925 it was reported that they took active part in work of sports circles: in September, 1924 42 girls, in a year - 100 [8] were engaged. Ranks of the sports movement and in the Saratov province spread. In 1926 it was involved in sports circles of 16126 people [9] here.

The positive role in development of physical education was played by the first volunteer sports society "Dynamo". In the fall of 1923 in Penza got to work of its section: track and field athletics, gymnastics, firing, fight, basketball, soccer, ski and skating. On city autumn superiority of 1923 10 teams acted. The soccer teams also arose in Krasnoslobodsk, Serdobsk, Chembare and other places. All of them were united in provincial football league [10] later. From the report of the Penza gubprofsovet from July, 1925 till July, 1926 it is visible that in Penza 26 circles which captured 1300 members of labor unions successfully worked. During this period the physical education holiday with participation of the young men and girls who are engaged in circles was spent.

On July 13, 1925 the resolution of the Central Committee of "Problems of Party in the field of Physical Education" party in which the purpose to give to the sports movement mass character was set was published. The resolution gave a negative assessment to the biases and "perversions" taking place in a physical education. The sports organizations were guided by carrying out as much as possible sports classes, competitions, creation of new platforms and stadiums. This resolution had positive impact on enhanced action of party and trade-union bodies, Komsomol and sports organizations for development of physical education.

From the report on work of the Penza gubprofsovet for the second half of 1925 it is visible that the leadership in sports and mass work of labor unions was reconstructed: at cultural departments the bureau on development of physical education which part representatives from the unions, district committees of Komsomol, GSDK were was created. Regional councils at district committees of RKSM and the City Councils were abolished. In September, 1925 in Penza there took place the city sports contest [11]. In Samara, intersyndical competitions on track and field athletics, swimming, rowing, soccer, basketball, cross-country skiing, etc. began to be held. Active preparation for the first All-Union sports contest was developed. At the enterprises and in institutions there took place demonstration performances of athletes. Finals of the first All-Union sports contest were preceded by selection. 25 strongest athletes of Samara were included in the structure of national team of the Volga district. On the All-Union sports contest in Moscow the Samara athletes

PGPU NEWS of V.G. Belinsky • Humanities • No. of 15 (19) 2010

acted successfully. The soccer team gained a victory over the national team of Turkmenistan (6:0) and the North Caucasus (3:2). N. Myasnikov won a rank of the champion of the USSR in sailing [12]. As a part of national team of the Volga region also the Saratov athletes entered: tennis players V. Bolman and V. Tomashaytis, weightlifter

N. Chernyshev, football player M. Kuzmichev, runner I. Voronova, etc. All of them achieved good results.

The sports movement in connection with preparation and holding a sports contest quickened also in Penza. In January, 1928 the winter sports contest on skates and skis with participation of national district teams, in March - a provincial winter holiday of physical education, in July - 8 provincial summer sports contest on track and field athletics, gymnastics, firing, swimming, etc. was held here. Representatives Ruzaevka, Saransk, Krasnoslobodsky Nizhne-Lomovs-kogo and Penza counties took part in it. After its termination the national team as a part of 10 people which participated in a regional sports contest in Samara was created, and then many of athletes were included in the national team of the Volga region for participation in the All-Union sports contest [13].


organized on August 5, 1928 a bicycle race along a route Penza-Moscow. The correspondent of the Trudovaya Pravda newspaper A. Shmyrev so describes this sporting event. The short meeting at which with welcoming speech the plant manager of Frunze Dmitriyev made a speech took place: "Only two months as are organized at the plant young and absolutely new production of bicycles. The result is available". On August 11 racers have to arrive in Moscow, and 12 - to speak at the All-Union sports contest. Bicycles after test carried over the supreme council of physical education as a gift from the Penza plant No. 50 [14].

On February 22, 1927 the condition of work on physical training discussed bureau of the Saratov gubkom of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). In the made decision the improvement of the organization of a physical education, activities of labor unions for involvement of youth in sportivnomassovy work was noted. At the same time, the weak coverage was noted by physical education of workers. The bureau charged to a gubpro-fsovet to improve material resources of sports societies for the purpose of involvement of workers in the sports movement [15].

Authorities, the trade-union and Komsomol organizations of the Stalingrad province paid to physical training much attention. In theses to the VI provincial congress of labor unions it was highlighted that the physical education has to be the focus of attention. The task of implementation of strict control of expenditure of the funds allocated by labor unions for sports grass-roots movement development was set. The emphasis on involvement in sports work not only young, but also adult workers, on fight against occupational diseases was placed [16].

Paid to development of physical education attention and the first congress of the Lower Volga regional council of labor unions (on October 5-11, 1928). The congress noted to -

a stizheniye in development of physical education, growth of network of sports grounds, stadiums, water stations, at the same time called a number of shortcomings, in particular, small the number of the held mass events, still low interest of the adult workers involved in sport. The congress highlighted need of coordination of sports work with common cultural, political and educational actions [17]. Issues of expansion of the sports movement were discussed on June 21, 1928 on bureau of the Saratov city town committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). Considering a question of carrying out "Week of Defense", the city town committee emphasized need of holding meetings of workers with discussion of sports and mass actions, works of circles of physical training [18].

Statement of a problem at meetings of party, trade-union bodies promoted enhanced action of primary party and trade-union organizations for development of mass sports, strengthening of material resources of the sports organizations. For August, 1928 - April, 1929 the union of workers of mechanical engineering of the Lower Volga region organized 8 sports circles with coverage of 546 people, held winter sports competitions. Similar competitions were organized by the union of workers-metalworkers of Average and Volzhsky region [19].

The Komsomol organizations continued to act as initiators of development of physical education and military and sports training of young men and girls. In 1926 in 92 Penza sports circles 4048 people were engaged; in Samara in 1928 - 5702. The held competitions had mass character. In the summer of 1928 on a physical education holiday 300 people, and on the Volga region sports festival - more than 600 participated in Samara [20]. In the Orenburg province in 1927 in various circles and sections of cells of volunteer societies more than 55 thousand people, including in the company of friends of children (ODD) - about 2300 people were engaged.

The condition of physical education of the Penza province was a subject of consideration of the gubsovet of physical education on March 19, 1928. Having noted expansion of physical training among youth of the city and rural areas, achievements in the field of shooting and skiing, improvement of supply with sports equipment, gubsovt set the task to continue work on involvement of youth in sports circles for the primary organizations. All district executive committees, city councils were offered to improve the leadership in sports and mass work, having paid special attention to allocation of necessary funds for further development of physical education. The City Council of Penza was offered to include in the estimate for 1928-1929 financing of holding sporting events and physical training of citizens [21].

On March 20, 1929 the presidium of the Average and Volga regional executive committee discussed an issue of a state and further development of sports work in the area. Having noted still insufficient coverage of workers physical training, the presidium recommended to district executive committees to pay attention to need of implementation of decisions of VTsIK and SNK of RSFSR on construction

in all district centers and industrial settlements of stadiums. It was at the same time offered to increase financial allocations for development of physical education.

In July, 1929 in Samara two matches with the Leningrad football players were held. Having won with the score 2:0 against youth team of railroad workers, guests lost with the same account to national team of Samara next day. In August of the same year the Samara football players won the team of the worker of club of France with the score 13:0. In a friendly atmosphere there took place the second international meeting with the Austrian football players [22].

In development of the sports movement the 8th congress of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (on May 5-16, 1928) which urged Workers' and Peasants' youth to develop more widely an initiative and amateur performance in the solution of specific objectives of sports and mass work had a positive role. The resolution of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of September 23, 1929 urged "to eliminate a disparate in sports work, to bring in it more organization and planned character, as much as possible to expand the general scale of sports work, having provided involvement in the sports movement of operating masses, having strengthened sports work in the village". For strengthening of the leadership in the sports movement the All-Union council of physical education was created and local councils were reorganized that promoted organizational strengthening of the sports movement [23].

Thus, in the 1920th years, despite difficulties, authorities and public organizations on development of the sports movement in the Volga region region were active. It was directed to involvement of young men and girls, operating masses in various sports circles. Athletes of the Volga region provinces took active part in the held Olympic Games, competitions in different types of sport. From year to year the sports material resources grew, organizational and mass work was improved. In the late twenties with creation of the uniform center of the management - All-Union council of physical education and reorganization of its local bodies the disparate in work of various sports associations was liquidated.


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