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Institutionalization of party of cadets on Dona




Process of emergence of regional offices of Party of the constitutional democrats (People's Freedom Party) on Tsona is presented in article. The author states existence of two types of the party organizations of cadets of area of army of Tsonsky and analyzes specifics of this process.

This article deals with the foundation of the regional organizations of the party of constitutional democrats in Don region.

The author ascertains two types of party organizations and analyzes the specificity of the process.

political landscape, Cossacks, social structure of Party of the constitutional democrats; political structure, Cossacks, social structure of the party of constitutional democrats.

Tatyana Viktorovna PANKOVA-KOZOCHKINA — to. and. N, associate professor of the theory of the state and right and national history of the South Russian state technical university, Novocherkassk

Formation of regional offices of Party of the constitutional democrats (People's Freedom Party) reflected trends of political socialization of masses in the Russian Empire the beginning of the 20th century. It occurred against the background of events of global social opposition in the country and crisis of relationship of the center and regions of tsarist Russia. The research of these processes at the regional level allows not only to track continuity of historical events, but also to reveal top trends of development of political freedom and democracy in modern Russia.

Publication of the Manifesto played on October 17, 1905 a positive role in the course of creation of the organizations of the People's Freedom Party on places. Political mobilization promoted acceleration of process of institutionalization of various party organizations including cadet, in the Russian provinces, but this process had spontaneous character.

The called trends quite accurately were shown in the field of Donskoy's army. According to the party charter, for creation of the cadet organizations it was necessary to convene a provincial or regional congress. He, in turn, had to make the decision on the organization of city, district and region committees. However in the Novocherkassk, Rostov and Taganrog newspapers and also other available documents there is no mention of convocation or holding a similar congress. On the remained data, formation of party committees of national freedom took place in various cities of area at organizational meetings to which everyone was invited.

The Don cadets, as well as the all-Russian leaders of the constitutional democrats, in every possible way emphasized openness of the party for all comers. Even its name (People's Freedom Party), according to them, had to attract representatives of all population groups under banners of cadets. However at official aspiration to the conceptual bases of a meritocracy, the social composition of constitutional democratic party to Dona was not proportional. Its study helps to be representation

about the valid force of party of cadets, its mass character and arrangement of political forces in the field of Donskoy's army.

The party organizations of cadets of Don totaled all 2,555 people, including in Rostov-on-Don — 1,343, in Novocherkassk — 1,000, in Taganrog — 150, in the village of Konstantinovskaya — not less than 30, in the village Uryupinsk — not less 26th persons. In some villages, for example in Ust-Medveditskaya, though it is mentioned holding cadet meetings, there are no data on existence and number of the organizations. In one

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from letters to the central committee of the People's Freedom Party the cadets of Don wrote about 1,300 party members. Both the list of cadets, and the letter belong to 1906 1

The political landscape to Dona at the beginning of the 20th century was not uniform. It was formed by five diverse party organizations: Octobrists — 33.59%, the Union of the Russian people — 25.65%, cadets — 21.05%, RSDRP - 19.29%, Social Revolutionaries - 0.42%.

On the structure the party of cadets to Dona represented kind of a cut of social structure of the Russian society with features inherent in Don region. Presence of the Cossack estate in the ranks of the Don cadets was one of such features. Though the exact number of Cossacks to call difficult, data of personal character indicate that N.E. Paramonov, I.Ya. Kayalov from Rostov, all structure (19th persons) were Cossacks. Novocherkassk bureau. Also indirect data on Cossack cadets are known. For example, the Priazovsky Kray newspaper in one of articles wrote about the Cossack intellectuals who left the Cossack environment and did not tear communications with ney2. At meetings of the Central Committee it was repeatedly noted that with the cadet agrarian program, first of all, prosperous peasants and Cossacks are happy.

Studying the course and results of an election campaign also gives the chance to draw a conclusion on presence of Cossacks at cadet party. For example, from the village Uryupinsk in electors for elections of the candidate in

I The State Duma were elected two Cossack cadets. A considerable part of party of cadets can speak about Cossacks as to Dona. It allowed the Cossack intellectuals supporting cadets, later began to send to the Duma activity the representatives to the Duma and to advocate there the interests of such specific class ethnic group as the Cossacks.

Meetings were the main form of work of cadets with the population. For example, in Rostov they were carried out several days in a row from December 10 to December 13, 1905. The constitutional democrats of Rostov and Nakhchivan on these meetings carried on political propaganda, explained the program of cadets and carried out recruitment of new members. Similar events and in Novocherkassk were held. In this

1 GARF, t. 523, op. 1, 205, l. 7; GARF, t. 523, op. 2, 32, l. 10.
2 Azov region, on December 1906, 22.

process also stanitsa cadets joined. For example, at one of cadet meetings at the village Uryupinsk there were 2,000 people, mainly Cossacks and peasants. The meeting can be considered grandiose if to consider that all population of the village made 10,000 persons. Of course, not all being present at it were cadets, but the general atmosphere of a meeting, according to the eyewitness, was obviously the cadet-skoy3. Participants of a pro-cadet meeting in the village Lower Chirsky demanded convocation of the constituent assembly, urged to support revolutionary figures.

After defeat of a revolt in Rostov to court for participation in it it was brought not less 50th persons. On process they were protected by cadets lawyers A.I. Petrovsky (Novocherkassk), I.M. Zolotarev (Taganrog), A.Z. Gorodissky (Rostov), etc. To acquit defendants, protection proved that the workers' protest was the response to actions of the government and consequently, responsibility for the taken place events has to lie not on workers, and on the government. Close connection with revolutionaries was kept by the cadet N.E. Paramonov, the son of the famous Cossack merchant of the village Lower Chirsky E.T. Paramonov, the chairman of the Rostov exchange committee. On March 4, 1906 at the school created by N.E. Paramonov the party meeting was detained. Its participants — social democrats — showed resistance to police. The cadet Paramonov was a link between party of social democrats, Social Revolutionaries and cadets.

Being afraid of further scope of revolutionary movement, Don administration entered at the end of December, 1905 in the territory of the area martial law. "unreliable newspapers" were closed all, meetings of political parties are banned. Political activity of the party of cadets in these conditions considerably weakens. After imposition of the state of emergency and complication of a possibility of use of legal forms of work, the flow of correspondence from the Don cadets in the Central Committee is interrupted. In rare letters the local cadets complained to the central cadet magazines and newspapers that because of introduction of martial law the political life of party almost stood.

After introduction of martial law

3 GARF, t. 523, op. 2, 207, l. 1-2.
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the provision on extraordinary protection was distributed in the cities in the territory of the area. It granted administrations very big rights in fight against harmful, according to it, manifestations of social and political life. These rights consisted not only in an opportunity to ban meetings, to send from area of politically unreliable persons and to watch work of self-government institutions, but also to introduce higher penalties, to close periodicals, to narrow powers of city self-government and to remove officials from an office. In the field of Donskoy's army several cases of dismissal from a position for political views and beliefs are known.

Though repressions of the government also constrained

distribution of influence of cadets, they were not the only cause of decrease in radicalism of their requirements. In relation to cadets of repression were weaker, than to other, more radical parties. Cases when the local administration hesitated without direct permission of department of police to arrest and send representatives of cadets because of their large communications in the commercial world are known.

The commitment of cadets to a reformist way development of the country was the main cause of strengthening of moderation. They considered that it is possible to enter parliamentarism into life and without bloody revolution. Among the reasons which influenced decrease in level of radicalism in requirements of cadets there were also organizational difficulties. Already during blossoming of the konstitutsionnodemokratichesky organizations it became clear that attempts of cadets to create harmoniously functioning organizations were not crowned with success. A considerable part them worked only during the election campaign. Party pseudo-participation gained development.

The organizational difficulties arising against the background of negative attitude of administration to activity of cadets imposed a print and on social and political activity of party members national freedoms. With introduction of extraordinary protection carrying out any propaganda in the Cossack villages and country settlements became almost impossible. The local administration in every way tried to execute the ban on propaganda, protecting peasants and

Cossacks from any oppositional influence. Cadets did not recognize illegal forms of activity therefore the issue of further work in the changed conditions could be resolved positively only after transition of party to more moderate positions which could make possible legal work.

Organizational crisis of constitutional and democratic committees was shown is diverse: there was an outflow of temporary fellow travelers and also more and more seldom there took place meetings of party members. It weakened communications of cadets of Novocherkassk with representatives from villages. But would be a mistake to consider that the history of the cadet organizations came to the end with their complete collapse.

Crisis in ranks of cadets weakens to fall of 1906. They begin to adapt to new conditions, trying to carry out the work under the flag of nonpartisanship. The organizations with accurate structure, for example Growth and Nakhchivan, begin to work, like those committees which activity fell only on the period of State Duma elections. At cadets the political tolerance gradually develops.

Thus, during 1905 — 1907 to Dona the organizations of two types were created. Electoral committees — not numerous and unstable organizations without accurate structure, generally stanitsa departments treated the first (functional) type of the organizations. The second (institutional) type was represented by the large organizations with internal division of functions, rather wide external relations and a significant amount of members. These organizations were created at the end of 1905 — the middle of 1906. From the middle of 1906 on November, 1906 it is possible to speak about crisis which was endured by the cadet organizations. It was a consequence of cooling of masses to their activity and strengthenings of repressions after dissolution on July 8, 1906 of the I State Duma.

In general, in development of the Don organizations of cadets of the beginning of the 20th century the all-Russian regularities — concentration of the constitutional and democratic organizations in the cities and their organizational fragility were shown. The party mechanism of the People's Freedom Party was in a formation stage.

Charles Richard Steven
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