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Features of imperial judicial system in Western Siberia in the first half of the 19th century.

UDK 343.1 © V.A. Voropanov, 2010

Features of imperial judicial system in Western Siberia in the first half of the 19th century

V.A. Voropanov *

In the first half of the 19th century the judicial system of Russia in the territory of Western Siberia considered geographical and ethnocultural features, asynchrony of demographic and social and economic development of provinces. Activity of bodies of official justice promoted consecutive integration of the Areas of Siberia into the system of the state.

At a boundary of HUSh-H1H of centuries of the organizations of regional justice systems of Russia the uniformity amplified. After 1802 the standard local judicial system included bodies of general jurisdiction of two instances. At the provincial level work of chambers of criminal and civil court was continued. The first instance district courts and policemen represented magistrates or town halls. On number of counties in the territory of Western Siberia (Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces) states of 17 district courts 1 were financed. Under special decrees in the provincial centers the auxiliary activity of conscientious courts, for the benefit of city "societies" — verbal 2, abolished by Paul I was resumed. Bodies of the general hell -

the ministrativny justice had the lower territorial courts in counties and deanery justices in the cities meanwhile unifikatsionny processes in the state and legal sphere objectively restrained a complex of factors of regional development Social and economic, geographical, demographic, class, cultural and language, religious features required individual attention at the approval of the staff list of bodies, institutions and positions. Completing of management personnel and court in Siberia was made without participation of bodies of noble self-government of Noble representatives in provincial courts replaced asessor, in district — assessors from a crown

* In our magazine it is published for the first time.

Members of police administration in Siberia were replaced by private commissioners — from 2 to 6 with the county. The monarch agreed with weak influence of the state justice in everyday life of the Siberians needing "simple police surveillance" 3. Commissioners were responsible for public order and welfare of the volosts entrusted to them and also represented "in analysis of unimportant lawsuits and disputes assistance of territorial court" 4.

The structure and territorial competence of the courts of city estates was optimized on the basis of social and office and business statistics Value of the cities as economic and cultural centers reduced the large areas of counties, limitation of commercial relations, absent-mindedness of inhabitants Regular increase in gildeysky qualification entailed sharp reduction of merchants beyond the Urals 5. In the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces the magistrates on the state of February 26, 1804 remained in Biysk, Yeniseisk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuznetsk, Tara, Tobolsk, Tomsk, Turinsk and Tyumen In other cities "on the trifle of it" the maintenance of town halls 6 was allowed.

Development of the Siberian provinces was stimulated with the military-political and fiscal interests of autocracy. In 1819 the emperor charged to the auditor M.M. Speransky to study sore problems of public administration by Siberia, to prepare suggestions for improvement of activity of bureaucratic structures, to satisfy mass complaints and claims, to make personnel movements Since 1822. Western and Eastern Siberia arrived under the management of two Councils of the general provincial management. Activity of public institutions approached real needs of areas for management and implementation of justice

Since 1822 the functions of trial chambers and conscientious courts in Western Siberia executed provincial courts in Tobolsk and Tomsk as a part of the chairman and 4 advisers and also the Omsk regional court (1823-1838) from 4 officials. The merchants voluntarily refrained from representation in the second instance 7. The list of the district cities of Western Siberia changed with transfer of Yeniseisk and Krasnoyarsk to the East Siberian Governorate-General, return to number of the administrative centers of Barnaul and the translation for the State of Naryma. According to the new schedule 19 district courts worked in 2 provinces and the area. In 5 districts (Ishim, Kainsky, Tarsky, Tomsk, Tyumen) referred to category populous the number of judicial officials increased to the 4th Reform restored unity of district police: the territorial commissioners who were independently communicating with provincial administration were replaced by assessors of territorial vessels — from 3rd to 5 Special assessors were sent to the county for rabo-

you with the population in offices of a number of districts: Kondin-sky, Obdorsky, Surgut, Denshchikovsky, Pelym-sky, Togursky, Bukhtarminskoye and Charyshskoye Vybora of rural assessors in the lower territorial and district courts in the territory of Siberia 8 stopped. Reorganization in the system of district institutions submitted to administrative-territorial changes 9. Unsatisfactory financing of department forced the Ministry of Justice to find ways of optimum redistribution of regular material resources, however in Siberia the small loading could not cause closing of institution 10. The structure of judicial presence of the first instance was guided by demographic indicators. In 1857 in 7 of 15 courts of Western Siberia there were about 3 assessors, in 8 — on 2 11.

Since 1822 in Western Siberia 10 policemen of vessels functioned: The Tobolsk, Tomsk and Tyumen magistrates, the Barnaul, Kainsky, Kuznetsk, Narymsky, Semipalatinsk, Tarsky and Turin town halls of Board of judges were reduced to 3 members 12. Reform exempted merchants and petty bourgeoises from submission of administration of the Office e and in 13 At policemen vessels formation of standard orphan and verbal vessels was allowed. In poorly populated settlements, heads and verbal judges 14 were elected.

Despite dynamic development of city estates in the second quarter of the 19th century, the role of merchants and the narrow-mindedness which were not exceeding 2.5-3% of inhabitants in economic and cultural recovery of Western Siberia remained insufficiently active 15 V of 1830. The Siberian committee, reacting to requests of city society, abolished a town hall in Narym, having assigned "economic board" to verbal court and the head, having transferred analysis of other affairs to the Tomsk district court 16 Nevertheless estates highly appreciated value of electoral institutions. In 1837 merchants and petty bourgeoises of the Tobolsk province, collectively responding to the requests of capital administration, "resolutely refused accession of the affairs to district courts", without trusting officials 17. Only in 1859 the leadership of Western Siberia as an administrative experiment abolished Ka-insky and Omsk town halls, having included city deputies in boards of district courts the Verbal judges "in the form of experience" were reallotted to district courts In the sparsely populated cities of a duty of verbal judges it was still allowed to assign to heads 18. In 1864 only functioning of magistrates in Tobolsk, Tomsk and Tyumen, town halls in Barnaul, Kuznetsk, Tara and Turinsk 19 stopped

In the 19th century the legislative and practical inclusion in the state system of traditional forms of justice continued, it was unified

the organization of rural, volost, patrimonial, Islamic courts, was regulated their competence, the general rules of investment with the power, an order of approach of legal responsibility for offenses for authorized persons In the 1780th were established Western Siberia was used by supreme authority as the pilot territory for introduction of the unified system of bodies of volost management in the form of "volost vessels". At the end of the 18th century "courts" replaced "boards". Reform of 1838-1841 in the sphere of management of the state imushchestvo For the peasants who came to maintaining chambers of the state imushchestvo was followed by development of official wordly justice, as the lowest instances the punishments which received the regulated competence 20 Beyond the Urals of an action for reorganization of country self-government were entered had insignificant consequences the Siberian leaders successfully advocated the departmental interests, sabotaging efforts of the Ministry of the state imushchestvo. By 1853, "model" management worked only in 26 volosts of Western Siberia, by 1858 — in the 43rd (17% of total number) at the same time in the territory of Siberia the rights and the duties of village assemblies and punishments were appropriated to volost descents and punishments 21.

Thus, in hands of the Siberian volost administration wide powers In particular traditionally concentrated, volost boards were involved in investigative and sudebnoispolnitelny activity of district police, keeping special documentation 22. Information on receipt of decrees and performance of adjudications was introduced in special "books" the Reporting of police officers depended on diligence of officials of country self-government 23. At taking office the members of volost administration undertook to observe a subscription the established competence Independent investigation and the decision of criminal cases was not a rarity for the volost administration 24. For offenses of the exiled who are not ranked as country estate, volost boards determined punishments to 100 blows by birches and took into custody about one month in a "executive" order 25. By the right granted in 1822 to wordly societies 26, boards sorted claims of employers and workers, exempting people from obligations, considered family cases 27.

Nevertheless peasants preferred to end the personal conflicts and receivership proceeding at village assemblies by means of old men and neighbors on the basis of common law 28. The weakness of control of the wordly organization of activity of the volost administration aroused objective mistrust of peasants

to the volost court which was quite often called Shemyakin and "court on waxed legs" However according to N.A. Minenko's remark, to the middle of the 19th century growth of number of the cases submitted to higher instances connected with easing of patriarchal traditions 29 was outlined

Status position of the natives who are not included in the system of the all-Russian social and economic and legal communications was defined by the Charter about management of foreigners. Since 1822 the autochthonic population of Siberia was differentiated by the nature of economic activity and extent of civil development on settled, nomadic and vagrant "foreigners" — independent categories of citizens in relation to estates 30

The right of indigenous people to understand "all unimportant affairs" on customs the monarch confirmed in the instruction to the governor general of 1803 31 However decisions on the civil suits and criminal cases coming to public authorities were based on laws, without satisfying persons involved, bringing an outcome of the conflicts into a contradiction with the culture of common law, traditional ideas of justice 32 Charter of 1822 provided 3 extents of "verbal punishment": patrimonial management, a foreign justice and territorial court Belonging to different managements attracted the appeal of persons involved to higher body By means of written complaints claim affairs were transferred to district court, but behind the parties the right to invite intermediaries admitted and after work of verbal punishments of all degrees of the Decision of intermediaries were final 33. The legal base for activity of self-government institutions and public institutions planned the set of the "steppe laws" compiling obychnopravovy norms and published in languages of the Siberian people 34

To number of the criminal offenses judged under laws of the empire, the charter referred "indignation" — a performance against the established law and order, premeditated murder, robbery and violence, production of counterfeit money, plunder of state and public property Theft was not qualified as a criminal offense of Offence, made in the cities and settlements, attracted generally established responsibility 35.

In the 1820th the provincial administration identified patrimonial management with volosts of nomadic and vagrant societies, having handed powers to heads, foremen, to hereditary knyazets of nomadic Khanty, Mansi, Selkups, vagrant Khanty and Nenets of Foreign justices with conducting written office-work 36 were not formed. In the 1830-1840th the administration of Western Siberia gave the rights

and the status of foreign justices of foremen (heads, knyaz-ts) of settled, nomadic and vagrant foreigners, excepting leaders of yasachny volosts of the Surgut office the Settled foreigners kept kulturnokhozyaystvenny and administrative independence from Russians 37.

Traditional courts remained the most attractive form of administration of justice for the autochtons evading from the power of the knyazts and foremen inclined to requisitions, an arbitrariness and almost irresponsible for results of law-enforcement activity 38 Position of the Siberian committee approved on June 4, 1853 inaugurated new restrictions for nomination of candidates it was allowed to elect persons 21 years which had own economy "and not only not discredited by court and not announced in bad behavior, but also not standing under trial" 39 are more senior.

Sistema courts of law in the territory of Western Siberia was supplemented by departmental institutions of the Office e and in and bodies of the Cossack department. In 1822-1824 autonomy of the kabinetsky district in Altai was broken by transfer of administrative, police and judicial powers to provincial offices of Action of investigators, district and provincial judges were controlled by the "deputies" for assigned peasants authorized by the mountain administration 40. In staff of mountain administration the judgment office as a part of two "tables" 41 functioned

Acting through 4 advisers definitions and representations of warships came to presence of mountain board, reports of the general offices and officials Unlike the other resolutions of board introduced in magazines, judgments were made out in protocols. The civil governor was final instance for the military and judgment commissions about the crimes referred to category heavy: robberies, robberies, murders, arsons and extortion the Office e and in had rights of audit of sentences of mountain board about an exception from service, deprivation of ranks and class dignity of cool and not organic officials from noblemen, the headquarters and ober-officer children and also about punishment of groups over 9 people About the sentences depriving of "honour" of cool officials, the Office reported to the monarch 42 Mountain administration remained responsible for execution by means of territorial managers of decisions of the courts 43

8 factory (mountain) offices remained the main link of district level of a departmental control system. The general presence of office besides the solution of special questions considered cases of minor offenses of workmen, working people and urochnik for the amount of damage up to 20 rubles,

disobedience of the administration, the first escape without aggravating circumstances 44. The managers who headed volost offices submitted to district police, fulfilling duties of certain assessors of territorial vessels, in particular, conducting preliminary investigation on criminal cases 45 and analyzing unimportant intra communal disputes on lands and grounds 46 Structure of rural and volost administration of assigned peasants were regulated by the district and provincial administration the Instruction recommended to the management of the district to seek for influence "on volostnyya boards directly", laying off whenever possible number of territorial managers 47.

The Siberian linear Cossack army settled on space of 2400 versts received the staff list in 1808 of 48 V of 1822 the Biysk, Ishim, Kurgan and Omsk district courts included deputies from the Cossack army as organized estate 49. In competence of the general vessels there were also Cossacks of policemen of parts. Having been tired of July 22, 1822 considered the social differentiation which developed in parts of the policeman of the Cossacks: cases of ordinary Cossacks and village constables came to district courts, about officers — in provincial with common law of the subsequent appeal 50.

based on the practice of the Cossack management which settled in the 1840-1850th in the European part of Russia, by 1861 the Siberian administration prepared the draft of the new Provision adopted as the temporary document regulating civil and military life of Cossacks before carrying out the general modernization of the legislation 51. The territory of army was divided into 12 districts the Role of the lowest justice the verbal, arbitration and stanitsa courts played District Cossack boards Appeal applications in property claims to Cossacks played a role of the first instance of class court, materials of cases of crimes of women of army came to a judicial and civil expedition of army board 52. The Cossack bodies coordinated business management with the general courts and the Kazakh district orders 53. The decision on criminal case which is not supported by the nakazny ataman was transferred to Head department of Western Siberia by the Highest authority the Senate 54 was

At last, the efficiency of legal proceedings in cases of the crimes threatening to the state interests and public safety was reached by means of work of constants and the temporary military and judgment commissions, first of all, in areas with the militarized device. In the 1840-1850th, crimes of employees and retired ranks of all Cossack formations of Asian Russia, excepting policemen 55 Military and judgment questions on the Siberian kaza-were subject to trial in warships

to whose army entered duties of the 3rd table of army watch 56.

The repressive nature of criminal proceedings remained in department of the Office e and in in Altai Providing efficiency of the entrusted metallurgical enterprises, the administration controlled everyday life of inhabitants of the mountain district 57 tightly Claiming sentences, Mountain office "by a territorial part" could reduce a measure, change a type of punishment 58. In 1819 the number of the military and judgment commissions of the mountain district was increased to the 3rd 59 Military court all persons indulged for commission of criminal offenses, "whatever rank and a state were", the Workmen occupied with performance of duties at the plants recruited in the rekrutsky way "assimilated" to the military personnel and were subject to military court for the crimes committed before transfer to the plants, retired employees — for the crimes committed before resignation 60.

In the 1830-1850th the trend of expansion of jurisdiction of warships had steady character 61. Jurisdiction of special affairs or civilians, the mixed list of defendants assumed joint trial of affairs by military, mountain officers and judicial officials 62

So, since the beginning of the 19th century the standard judicial system in the territory of Western Siberia considered complex action of regional factors, since 1822 had individual character Provincial instances had the vsesoslovny competence Legislator allocated "civil" assessors of trial chambers with the equal rights with judicial officials, however in 1822 the merchants of Tobolsk and Tomsk voluntarily gave way powers to public servants Sistema of vessels of the first degree corresponded to administrativnoterritorialny division of areas, satisfying not only to requirements of written office-work, but also availability of the state instances to inhabitants of remote areas For optimization of departmental expenses or efficiency of judicial function the government flexibly regulated the regular list of local judicial and office officials.

Public servants in Siberia objectively kept primary value in the sphere of implementation of official justice the Release in 1822 of the Siberian peasants from obligations of judicial representation was explained by the unsatisfactory density and dissociation of residents of the region Criminal jurisdiction of the native population received legal restrictions, allowing the government to bring together consistently the principles of common law and the imperial legislation In appeal cases of natives before -

the appeal to local and local legal traditions was seen Compilation of common law had no logical conclusion, and analysis of property claims of autochtons depended on qualification and conscientiousness of officials the Lowest state justice was represented by the bodies of district (district) police created taking into account geographical, demographic and ethnocultural features of territories

Duration of written office-work forced the legislator to delegate limited judicial competences to both district administration, and bodies of public management, to authorize preliminary verbal trials and conciliatory procedures the systemacity was progressively brought In a steady variety of rural legal life, activity of wordly justice was coordinated with work of public institutions. The inhabitants who were not wishing to trust affairs to vessels and also the lowest electoral administration in Siberia, as a rule, deprived of effective control of community used services of intermediaries or appealed to the authority of a wordly descent the Provincial management promoted gradual rapprochement of self-government of natives with country, protecting social stability Responsibility for real formation of public management the crown administration divided with the population

Sistema policemen of vessels reflecting dynamics of social and economic development of commerce and industry estates remained invariable in Siberia. The list of judges after 1822 corresponded to the state of presence of a town hall, facilitating local merchants and narrow-mindedness execution of an elective duty under the authority of limited number of magistrates and town halls there were verbal courts and heads of other policemen of the societies Trend of Establishment of Vsesoslovny Competence of the Courts of the First Instance by merging of judicial representation of the leading estates restrained, first of all, unwillingness of policemen of societies to concede competence of corporate institutions in favor of bureaucracy

The isolation of the estates occupied with services of the state value demanded from the legislator of improvement of special administrative justice At the same time the Office e and in in 1822 conceded jurisdiction over the nonindustrial population — assigned peasants and also merchants and petty bourgeoises of department to provincial courts. Legal procedures for affairs of assigned peasants were controlled by specialized office of mountain board Inhabitants of the Altai mountain district did not lose the right to satisfy personal

claims in the traditional way, addressing arbitration persons from socially homogeneous environment

The regulation of services and life of the Cossacks was followed by transfer of not employees of persons and policemen of parts to competence of provincial institutions Taking into account developed legal the practician and a geographical location of army the Siberian Cossacks received special class representation in courts of law Administrative isolation at the beginning of the 1860th. The Siberian Cossack army Mixture of judicial and executive powers in bodies of the Cossack department entailed investment with limited judicial function of army offices the legislator compensated by allocation of the specialized bureaucratic departments supervising questions of law enforcement and judicial office-work.

Speed and severity of punishment by military court of civilians were aimed at effective providing law and order In the mountain district naturally there was a system of the constant voyennosudny commissions. Participation in work of warships for civilians of judicial officials corresponded to the key principle of prereform procedural law at mixture of jurisdiction — class

Distribution of innovations in the judicial system to Siberia was the longest task on execution. In the second half of the 19th century district and verbal courts of the old Development type worked in the region the system of foreign justices received Implementation of Judicial charters in the Areas of Siberia the supreme authority authorized the decree of May 13, 1896

1 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire. A meeting the first (further — PSZ RI. I). T. XXVII, No. 20890; t. XXVIII, No. 21183.
2 In the same place. T. XXVII, No. 20143. Item 4.
3 Tsit. on: A.V. Remnev. Autocracy and Siberia. Administrative policy in the first half of the 19th century Omsk, 1995. Page 50.
4 Tsit. on: A.Yu. Konev. Indigenous people of Northwest Siberia in a management system of the Russian Empire (XVSh-XX of centuries). M, 1995. Page 68.
5 A.R. Ivonin. The West Siberian city of the last quarter of XVIII — the 60th of the 19th century. (Experience of an istorikodemografichesky research). Barnaul, 2000. Page 154; V.P. Klyueva. City estates of the Tobolsk province in XVIII — the first third of the 19th century. Tyumen, 2000. Page 11.
6 PSZ RI. I. T. XXVIII, No. 21183; t. XXIX, No. 22217; t. XLIII, No. 24985; N.F. Yemelyanov. City of Kurgan. 1782-1917. Social and economic history. To the 50 anniversary of the Kurgan region. Kurgan, 1992. Page 206-207; D.Ya. Rezun. About the number and the structure of merchants of the city of Beryozovo at the end of XVIII — the first quarter of the 19th centuries//Cities of Siberia XVIII — the beginnings of the 20th centuries Barnaul, 2001 C 3-9
7 The state archive of the Omsk region (further — GAOO). T. 3. Op. 1. 85. L. 22-22 about., 26-26 about.; Gosudarstven-

ny archive of the Tomsk region (further — GATO) F 51 Op of 1 400. L.68-70.

8 PSZ RI. I. T. XXXVIII, No. 28892.
9 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 1624. L. 37-90, 267-270, 309, 338.
10 In the same place. Op. 3. 3410. L. 1-21 about.
11 V.V. Rabtsevich. Public institutions of prereform Siberia (The last quarter of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century): reference book. Chelyabinsk, 1998. Page 151, 159.
12 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 2. 1623. L. 9 about.; GAGO. T. 3. Op. 18. 197. L. 177 about.-178; T. 22. Op. 1. 138. L. 3 about.; The center of storage of archival fund of Altai Krai (further — CHAF of joint stock company) F 1 Op of 2 D 2161 L 13 about
13 Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire the Meeting the second (further — PSZ RI. II). T. III, No. 1960, § 201; G.N. Soboleva, V.N. Dispersal. Essays of history of Kabinetsky economy in Altai (the second half of XVIII — the first half of the 19th century). Barnaul, 1997. Page 55-56.
14 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 1047. L. 1-9 about.
15 See in more detail: A.R. Ivonin. Decree. soch. Page 155-161; V.V. Rabtsevich. The country town in regional government of Russia of modern times//the Messenger Chelyab. un-that Gosud Sulfurs and munitsa management 1998 No. 1 C 15-16; M.G. Rutts. Some aspects of economic development of the cities of the mixed functional type in the first half of the 19th century//Topical issues of history of Siberia. Barnaul, 2002 C 182-185
16 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 901. L. 1-32 about.
17 Gobolsky branch of the State archive of the Tyumen region (further — TF GATO). T. 3. Op. 1. 1623. L. 1-9 about.
18 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 3. 4400. L. 1-3; GAGO. T. 3. Op. 2. D 566 L 65-66
19 PSZ RI. II. T of XL, No. 41098.
20 In the same place. T of XIV, No. 12166; The Code of laws of the Russian Empire (further — SZ RI). T of II, Part 1, Articles 4965-4966, 5404-5409.
21 A.V Remnev Autocracy and Siberia Administrative policy of the second half of XIX — the beginning of the 20th centuries. Omsk, 1997 C 151
22 The state archive of the Novosibirsk region (further — GANO). F. D-78. Op. 1. 106. L. 9-9 about., 39, 139-140, 155-162, 289-294, 336, 383
23 In the same place. 100. L. 6-15, 51-56.
24 N.A. Minenko. The Russian country community in Western Siberia. 18-19th century Novosibirsk, 1991. Page 130-131.
25 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 3. 4403. L. 2-5 about.
26 PSZ RI. I. T of XXXVIII, No. 29134.
27 GANO. F. D-78. Op. 1. 71 (sheets without numbering).
28 The cm is more detailed: I.A. Yakimova. Judicial function of country community in the Altai mountain district in the second half of the 19th century//the Siberian village: history, current state, prospects of development. Omsk, 1998. Page 149-151.
29 N.A. Minenko. Decree. soch. Page 134-140, 162.
30 PSZ RI. I. T of XXXVIII, No. 29126, Articles 5-6, 81-87, 94-121, 147, 150, 155.
31 In the same place. T of XXVII, No. 20771. Item 9.
32 Review of the main foundations of local administration of Siberia. SPb., 1841. Page 27.
33 PSZ RI. I. T of XXXVIII, No. 29126, Articles 122-132, 223-235, 257-259, 261
34 In the same place, St of St 68-72
35 In the same place, St of St 36-38, 256
36 A.Yu. Konev. Decree soch C 94-97
37 In the same place C 103
38 V.A. Zibarev. Justice at small peoples of the North (17-19th centuries). Tomsk, 1990. Page 57-62.
39 The class and legal and administrative device of indigenous people of Northwest Siberia (the end of XVI — the beginning of the 20th century): the collection of legal acts and documents / edition - sost. A.Yu. Konev. Tyumen, 1999. Page 134.
40 GAGO. T. 3. Op. 11. 459. L. 1; G.N. Soboleva. Management of assigned peasants of the Altai mountain district in the 20-50th of the 19th century//Economic development of Siberia. History, historiography, source study. Tomsk, 1991. Issue 1. Page 33.
41 PSZ RI. II. T. III, No. 1960, § 15, 27-29; CHAF of joint stock company. T. 2. Op 1 D 1 L 4-6 about
42 PSZ RI. II. T. III, No. 1960, § 40, 46-48, 84-85.
43 CHAF of joint stock company. T. 1. Op. 2. 1814. L. 503-504 about., 529; 1. L. 130-131, 138-138 about., 221-221 about., 596-597 about.
44 PSZ RI. II. T. III, No. 1960, § 61, 66; G.N. Soboleva, V.N. Dispersal. Decree. soch. Page 42-43.
45 G.N. Soboleva, V.N. Dispersal. Decree. soch. Page 57.
46 CHAF of joint stock company. T. 2. Op. 1. 1. L. 7-8; Op. 2. 441. L. 289-290.
47 PSZ RI. II. T. III, No. 1960, § 8.
48 CHAF of joint stock company. T. 1. Op. 2. 74. L. 5-12.
49 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 1624. L. 47 about.
50 PSZ RI. I. T. XXXVIII, No. 29131, Articles 124, 126, 127; GAGO. T. 1. Op. 1. 811. L. 10 about.
51 S.M. Andreyev & Cancelled project: "Provision on the Siberian Cossack army" of 1863//Asian Russia: people and structures of the empire: sb nauch St to the 50 anniversary from day

the births of professor A V Remnev / under red N G Suvorova. Omsk, 2005. Page 525-526; History of the Cossacks of Asian Russia. Yekaterinburg, 1995. T. 2 / otv. edition V.F. Mamonov. From 24-25

52 GAOO. T. 3. Op. 3. 4451. L. 54 about.-55, 72 about.-74, 78 about., 102 about.-104, 107-108, 115 about., 119 about., 139 about.-142.
53 In the same place. 3410. L. 88 about.; T. 67. Op. 1. 925. L. 7.
54 In the same place D 4451 L 109
55 SZ RI. T. XV, prince 2, Article 1145.
56 PSZ RI. II. T. XV, No. 14041, Articles 105-125; t. XXI, No. 20671, Article 140; GAOO. T. 3. Op. 3. 4451. L. 64 about.-70.
57 CHAF of joint stock company. T. 1. Op. 2. 1814. L. 495; 1932. L. 63.
58 In the same place D 1814 L 559-559 about, 605-605 about; D 1932 L. 71-71 about.
59 In the same place D 2161 L 12-13 about
60 PSZ RI. II. T. III, No. 1960, § 208-214; CHAF of joint stock company. T. 2. Op. 1. 1. L. 14-14 about.; Op. 2. 26. L. 100, 125-125 about.
61 PSZ RI. II. T. VII, No. 5083; t. VIII, No. 6515; t. XI, No. 9275; t. XII, No. 10384; t. XXIII, No. 22373; GAOO. T. 3. Op. 1. 1659. L. 1-2 about.; Op. 3. 3395. L. 1-34; 4364. L. 20; N.A. Petukhov. History of military courts. M, 2003. Page 109; V.S. Avdonkin. Jurisdiction of criminal cases to warships of Russia: avtoref yew.... edging. yurid. sciences. M, 2001. Page 87.
62 PSZ RI. II. T. I, No. 515; t. XXXIII, No. 35206; GAOO. T. 3. Op. 4. 5888. L. 1-8; 6564. L. 1-3; GAGO. T. 50. Op. 1. 1029. L. 1; Central state archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan F 1 Op of 1 D 2896 L 438
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