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The Egyptian question in the Anglo-French relations of the end of the XIX beginning of the 20th century



e. V. Morozov

The EGYPTIAN QUESTION IN the ANGLO-FRENCH RELATIONS of the END of XIX - the BEGINNINGS of the 20th CENTURY

Work is presented by department of the theory and history of the international relations of St. Petersburg State University.

The research supervisor - the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor A.Yu. Pavlov

In article the role of the Egyptian question in the Anglo-French relations of the end of XIX - the beginnings of the 20th centuries is considered; the interrelation of a makhdistsky revolt in Sudan and the italo-Ethiopian war of 1895-1896 with the Anglo-French rivalry in Northeast Africa is shown 1881-1898; dynamics of colonial settlement in the region, its role in the course of formation of the Entente is studied.

The article is about the role of Egyptian question in the Anglo-French relations from the end of XIX to the beginning of XX centuries; it is shown the connection of the Mahdi rebellion in Sudan 1881-1898 and the Italian-Ethiopian War 1895-1896 with the Anglo-French rivalry in North-Eastern Africa; procedure of colonial adjusting and its role in Entente formation are studied.

The end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century were marked by growth of Anglo-French of colony - alny rivalry. Egypt which was since 1876 under the international financial control became one of stumbling blocks. In June, 1882 England occupied this country, but most of members of the French Chamber of Deputies opposed participation in invasion into Egypt, believing that retraction in this adventure will cause easing French east granitsy1. Besides France was dissatisfied that its interests were frankly ignored. Rivalry with England obostrilos2. The French government stated that the Egyptian question remains open and it keeps freedom of action on the future.

During this period England itself did not know whether circumstances will allow it and whether it is worth in general to continue unlimited time holding Egypt in the hand. The financial position of this country was extremely bad, in London believed that the British consul general E. Bering (lord Krommer) will not be able to improve it.

In 1883 the British government promised to take steps concerning prospects of withdrawal of occupational troops from Egypt, "as soon as situation in the country will allow" and reforms will be completed, but even estimated date was not nazvana3.

England undertook economic reforms in Egypt, and in the next one and a half years the financial position of this country improved. Lord Krommer informed on considerable progress, but added that work only began also its continuation "depends on preservation of the prevailing British influence that depends at present on stay of the British troops in Egypt" 4. In 1887 England suggested to sign the convention according to which the British troops had to be withdrawn from Egypt after three-year term from the date of the conclusion of the relevant agreement, but in case of internal or external danger the British troops had the right to remain in Egypt. Besides, if in the future there were any disorders after evacuation or occurred what -

or violation of the international obligations of Egypt, the Turkish and British governments were granted the right again to occupy the country by troops, and in case of refusal of Turkey to work in common this right was granted to one British pravitelstvu5.

In France were revolted with the paragraph of the convention which authorized the British domination in Egypt for ever. The French ambassador said to the sultan that if he refuses ratification of the convention, then the French government guarantees that "its majesty it will be protected and guaranteed against any consequences which can arise because of refusal to give ratification" 6. Anyway, but the sultan refused to sign the convention. Thus, achievement of the arrangement was broken. In 1888 England, France, Italy, Turkey, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain signed the convention on the Suez Canal which provided that the Suez Canal will be always as in peace time, and during the war, it is free for pass of military and merchant ships without distinction of a flag. In case of danger the Egyptian government had to take measures to providing conditions of the convention or resort to the help another signed it derzhav7.

In 1881 in the Sudan, neighboring to Egypt, the powerful makhdistsky revolt began, by 1885 the British army got beaten. Parts of the Anglo-Egyptian army took positions on border of Sudan and Egypt and passed to long oborone8.

In 1893 the French engineer on the Egyptian service Victor Pro developed the special report on hydrography of Egypt in which he proved a possibility of construction of dams and dams on the Top Nile by means of which it was possible to deprive Egypt of water supply or in case of need to cause a flood in this country. Pro's report rendered noticeable

influence on formation of the French and British policy in Africa. France seriously thought of again to raise the Egyptian question in front of England and to achieve withdrawal of British troops from this strany9. In 1895 the French captain Zh. - B. Marchand wrote that "the question of evacuation of Egypt is in fact connected with a problem of the Egyptian Sudan" 10.

In 1896 the Italian army got beaten by Ethiopians at Adua. The British press began to write that Italians can appear under blows of Sudanese makhdist now and why England to come to the rescue of Italy, having struck dervishes from the North. Thus, London will have an opportunity to win Sudan. In the British government this project met sochuvstviye11. The parliament agreed to occupation of a northern part of Sudan - Dongola. Russia and France in common opposed use by the British government of means of Cash desk of the Egyptian debt for this expedition. It was the same year organized the Frenchman - Skye an expedition under the leadership of the captain Zh. - B. Marchand which landed on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and, gradually moving the northeast, had to be fixed on Neil near Fasho-da. France hoped that occupation of this point will help with the organization of the international conference on the Egyptian question on which the leading positions of England in regione12 will be shaken.

10 July, 1898 Marchand arrived in Fashoda and began to wait for the French reinforcements from Efiopii13.
2 September makhdist were beaten by the Anglo-Egyptian troops. Meeting Zh. - B. Marchand and G.G. Kitchener caused the Anglo-French crisis. In a domestic historiography the Anglo-French negotiations on an occasion of settlement of Fashodsky of a kra - zisa14 are rather well described. France withdrew Marchand's group.

The British government sought to secure Sudan as soon as possible. Under English-Egyptian agreement signed on January 19, 1899 in Cairo, Sudan was proclaimed joint possession (condominium) of England and Egipta15. France had to refuse claims for the region of Bakhr-el-Gazel and an exit to Neil. In February, 1899 the English French negotiations on differentiation of territories in Africa began. On March 21 the convention according to which the line between possession of two states was drawn between basins of the lake Chad and Congo River from one side and the basin of Nile with another was signed. To White Nile France received a part of Sudan west of Darfur for refusal of an exit that allowed to connect in a whole all French possession in Western and Central Afrike16. In the convention the rights which are already acquired by England were not mentioned in Egypt, the question remained open for revision in the future.

During the Boer war of 18991902 the French diplomacy, wishing to weaken the British occupational regime in Egypt, tried to win round Abbas Hilmi-pashu's hediv. It caused counteraction of the English diplomacy. Convincing a hediv to remain faithful to the union with England, lord Krommer said that in this case the British government after the end of war in South Africa will provide it more independence in country government affairs. The aspiration of France to weaken positions of England in Egypt appeared bezrezultatnym17.

Attempts of the British minister of colonies J. Chamberlain in 1898-1901 to agree with Germany and to use it against France and Russia failed. Serious strengthening of Berlin began to disturb London, and in Paris intended to subordinate to Morocco. By this moment in France understood that all further attempts to increase the territory kolonial-

ache empires will be blocked by London therefore in 1903 agreed to negotiations on settlement of colonial disagreements.

The French Minister of Foreign Affairs T. Delkasse hoped that under the influence of future acquisition of Morocco the French public opinion will gradually forget about Egypt therefore offered that advance of France to this country was made along with refusal of its rights in Egypt, however the British government did not go on eto18.

The mechanism of boundaries - dunarodny control was an obstacle for the plans of financial reorganization of Egypt realized by lord Krommer still. At that time influence of France in the country was still rather strong. The French prevailed in Administration on excavation and the Egyptian museums, the French institute of east archeology, Law school. The French banks, especially Lyons credit, managed mostly Egyptian financial market, the French part of the Egyptian debt made about 500 million francs (62.5% and 1/15 all French capitals abroad). 60 French advisers still worked in various Egyptian ministries, and in the mixed courts the French judges were in bolshinstve19.

Existence in the organization of creditors - Cash desk of the Egyptian debt - Spare fund seemed to England absurd, but France insisted on its preservation as means of this fund could not be used without its consent. Besides, in 1905 the next term of work of the mixed vessels expired, and by then Egypt could probably pay a large part of a debt that would lead to decrease in French economic vliyaniya20.

Lord Krommer wished that France recognized the British occupation of Egypt, agreed to free use of profit from a new interest rate of a debt, elimination of the general Spare fund and

dual control of the Egyptian budget. Soon England had to renounce the attempt of complete elimination of the Egyptian debt. It was decided to leave in Kass Spare fund of 1800 thousand pounds in size and working capital in 500 thousand, and these means were in case of need supposed to be used for payment of the Egyptian debt. T. Delkasse did not go for public recognition of the English occupation of Egypt by France as did not wish that the Egyptian and Moroccan questions were connected in public opinion. The minister only said that he any more will never bring up a question of evacuation of Egipta21 in front of England.

8 April, 1904 the agreement known as the Anglo-French Entente was concluded. Controversial issues concerning Newfoundland, Africa were settled and

Siam. In a confidential part of the agreement it was defined that if England decides to enter changes into the system of capitulations or the judicial organization of Egypt, then France will give on this consent. If France decides to undertake reforms in Morocco, then England will not be it in it prepyatstvovat22. Actually France refused claims for Egypt in exchange for obtaining freedom of action in Morocco. According to the British historian A.J. P. Taylor, both the English, and French public considered that France paid more expensively, "The Entente was necessary for France, - is only favorable to England. But the French paid cash, and British a promise" 23.

In 1907 Russia joined the Entente. The military-political block which was involved in World War I was gradually formed.

1 Darmshteter P. Istoriya partition of Africa (1870-1919). M.; L., 1925. Page 33.
2 Ramm A. Great Britain and France in Egypt. 1876 - 1882 / / France and Britain in Africa. Imperial

Rivalry and Colonial Rule. New Haven; London, 1971. P. 73-119.

3 G.A. Nersesov. The diplomatic history of the Egyptian crisis of 1881-1882 (in the light of the Russian archive materials). M, 1979. Page 228-229.
4 Tsit. on: F.A. Rotstein. Capture and enslavement of Egypt. M, 1959. Page 275.
5 In the same place.
6 In the same place. Page 276.
7 Convention between Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Spain and others respecting the free navigation of the Suez maritime Canal. Constantinople, 1888. London, 1938.
8 Smirnov of C.P. Istoriya of Sudan (1821-1956). M, 1968. Page 72.
9 Prompt V. Le Sudan Nilotique//Bulletin de l’Institut Ëgyptien. Series III. N 4. P. 71-116.
10 Documents Diplomatiques Fran3aise (1871-1914). 1 srn. T. XII. N 192. P. 280.
11 F.A. Rotstein. The international relations at the end of the 19th century. M.; L., 1960. S. 353-354.
12 Sanderson G. N. The Origins and Significance of the Anglo-French Confrontation at Fashoda, 1898

>//France and Britain in Africa. Imperial Rivalry and Colonial Rule. New Haven; London, 1971. P. 285.

13 V.M. Hvostov Istoriya diplomacy. M, 1963. T of II. Page 421.
14 V.A. Subbotin. The Anglo-French collision in Fashoda in 1898//the African collecting - a nickname. Istoriya. I. M, 1963. Page 143-169; V.M. Hvostov. Decree. soch. Page 421-441.
15 Abd el-Fattah el-Sayed Baddour. Sudanese-Egyptian Relations. Hague, 1960. P. 251-252.
16 lanes Russian abbr. see: International policy of the latest time in contracts, notes and declarations. Part 1. No. 281. M, 1925. Page 291.
17 I.A. Nikitin. Occupation of the Boer republics England (1899-1902). M, 1970. Page 152.
18 A.Dzh. Taylor. P. Fight for domination in Europe. 1848-1918. M, 1958. Page 423.
19 Guillen P. The Entente of 1904 as a Colonial Settlement//France and Britain in Africa. Imperial

Rivalry and Colonial Rule. New Haven; London, 1971. P. 345-346.

20 Ibid. P. 350.
21 Ibid. P. 358-362.
22 British and Foreign State Papers. V. 97. London, s. d. P. 31-56.
23 Tsit. on: A.J.P. Taylor. Decree. soch. Page 425.
John Edward Jeffrey
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