The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Islamic factor in the personnel and propaganda policy of the party and Soviet structures of Karachaya in the 1920-30th.

3. I. Adzhiyeva


Work is presented by department of history of Russia of the Karachay-Cherkess state university.

The research supervisor - the doctor of historical sciences, professor R.M. Begeulov

In article which is based mainly on archive materials the religious (Islamic) factor in the personnel and propaganda policy of party and Soviet authorities in the Karachay national autonomy in the 1920-30th is considered

The religious (Islamic) factor in personnel and propaganda policy of party and Soviet authorities in the Karachai national autonomy in the 1920-30 is considered in the article, which is based mainly on archive materials.

From the very first days the existence vavshy in confessional space

the Bolshevist mode carried out inside- pre-revolutionary Russia, but also showing -

the political policy hostile to all reli- sya a support of the overthrown monarchy.

to gays. But, as a rule, it for the present kasa- A little in a different way in the beginning it was conducted

an elk generally clergy of the Russian pra- policy in the Muslim South of the country.

voslavny church, not only domination- On November 22 (on December 5), 1917 Soviet pra-

1 4

the vitelstvo published the address "To all working Muslims of Russia and the East" in which it assured adherents of Islam: "From now on your beliefs and customs, your national and cultural institutions appear free and inviolable. Arrange the national life freely and freely. You have the right for it. Know that your rights, as well as the rights of all people of Russia, are protected by all power of revolution and its bodies, Councils of working, soldier's and country deputies" 1. In the letter from

21 February, 1920 ("To work among the people of the East") the Central Committee of RCP(b) strictly reminded that "the religion borrows east people... it is much more than place, than at the people which were economically more developed" 2.

On the one hand, it was explained by an internal task to anticipate emergence of centrifugal trends, and with another - it was necessary to consider a neighbourhood factor with the Muslim countries (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan) with which the Soviet Russia at once established friendship what you will not tell about her European neighbors. Declaration Mountain in November, 1920 met by the ASSR a benevolent response from the government of the Republic of Turkey with which RSFSR of togas - yes concluded the military-political alliance.

18 December of the same year the marshal Moustapha Kemal pasha (who received later an epithet Ataturk - "The father of Turks") on behalf of the leading country of the Islamic world sent a telegram to V.I. Lenin. "There are no doubts in

volume, - the Turkish leader wrote, - that this happy decision will have fine influence on rapprochement between the Bolshevist and Muslim world. I thank you for forward-looking policy which on your initiative is conducted in the east by the Russian Soviet republic" 3.

Bolshevist leaders initially realized it and in the first years of the is right - the line tried to carry out whenever possible tactful confessional policy in Muslim regions of the country. Ana -

liziruya a situation in Karachaye and Circassia in 1918, the Soviet military functionary of that time G.E. Ponomarenko wrote that in policy "a fine edge was Sharia and the Quran" because of what Councils "had to conduct. exclusively thin policy and tactics" 4.

In December, 1920 the local Communist Party organizations in connection with formation of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (MASSR) were recommended "to spend by the letter of Tersky regional committee of party the Soviet beginnings in relation to all features of the mountain people, language, customs, customs, religion and so forth" 5.

The order of executive committee of Tersky will bark - a leg of Council for No. 351 of December 29, 1920 it was established that in the field of the Soviet justice national and sharia courts as uniform national court will be organized. In GASSR along with the all-Soviet system of legal proceedings there was also religious. So, according to the resolution of the 1st (Constituent) congress of Councils of GASSR of April 21, 1921, "where Muslim workers will wish" it was allowed to found sharia courts (only for Muslims). In a narcomat of justice Mountain the ASSR created two departments - department of national courts and department of sharia vessels (experts on the sharia right - fiqh entered it). At the level of districts in district bureaus of justice sharia departments with submission to the relevant department in a narcomat yus - republic tition were created. It is curious that sharia courts were entered when Article 65 of the Constitution of RSFSR deprived of electoral rights of "monks and spiritual attendants of churches and religious cults" including a Muslim cult. For this reason the 1st congress of Councils Mountain the ASSR established that electoral rights could be granted only to those mullahs, "which proved to be active revolutionaries and defenders of workers of masses". At the same time personal granting suffrage osushche-

stvlyalos the decision of district executive committees which then had to be approved by the CEC GASSR. Besides, in the resolution of the same congress it was indicated on the need of creation of East institute for studying sharia law in Arabic and creations at it preparatory schools for pupils from the mountain people respubliki6.

Unlike party structures at a position of employees in days of the New Economic Policy rather freely took believers in the Soviet bodies, and their religious feelings were respected. It concerned not only Muslims. So, in April, 1921 it was specified in one of decisions of the authorities of the Karachay district: "in view of approach current month of the Jewish holiday of Easter" everything the manager of sections of the Karachay district executive committee Sovetov was offered to exempt from execution of official duties of employees of district structures from among Jewish people (Kogan, Margolis, Davidson, Polyak, Fabrikant, Zisselman, Fuchs, Kiffer) 7.

The Marxist-Leninist Party by definition was atheistic therefore membership of the believing people in it was strictly forbidden. Nevertheless ambitious, ambitious young people from among mountaineers who in ranks of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) were attracted by the prospects of growth of status positions tried not to tear whenever possible publicly with national traditions. At a meeting of a regional asset of the party of district and rural links in February, 1928 the manager of regional land management M. Chasanoff directly pointed that even in the procedure of making recommendations about inclusion in party "family relations" 8 play a large role. The neglect was almost not allowed by the main national customs, otherwise intra family contentions, the conflicts with parents, etc. what the average villager always tried to avoid were inevitable. Disrespect for parents involved not just condemnation, but also rigid moral San

ktion. Guilty of such offense had practically no chances to equip marriage of the daughter or son with representatives of "normal families", it was not invited to actions of local "decent society", etc.

Therefore young communists it is old - foxes owing to the opportunities to carry out traditional norms of ceremonial life. Quite often about it there were denunciations of "well-wishers" to party instances for acceptance of the appropriate measures.

It is enough to see the content of cases of communists which were considered in only one January, 1928 at a meeting of "party tribunal" - a so-called partkollegiya of regional Control commission of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). So, the 36-year-old inhabitant was expelled from party and. Hasnut (The small-Karachay district) Sh.T. Kurtayev who was accused of "execution of religious practices". In particular, he "repeatedly called from a minaret of citizens on execution of religious practices" and, moreover, "in indications does not deny execution of religious practices" 9. Also "for execution of religion - ozny ceremonies" the resident of the same aul 27-year-old was expelled from party by the decision of district organizational bureau of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) A-to. M. Shamanov. The similar decision and with the same formulation was accepted concerning the communist from the aul of Uchkeken of the same district P.A. of Bostanova10. The strict reprimand was issued in October of the same year to 26-year L. A-and. To Dodtayev. It was noted that he "comes from spiritual family", it was also convicted "of execution of religious practices", but had softening obstoyatelstva11. Party business of the communist from the Humarinsky district K.A. Tokov was characteristic. He was accused of the following: "Goes to the mosque, said prayers before the Council building on purpose that his prayer was heard by the population". Moreover, he said that "the party to all the members allows to pray and bear religious practices and if Party members do not carry out" them, "that is just not done because of laziness". Besides, "not -

long ago during a marriage of the son made all religious practices, somehow: giving bridewealth, etc." 12.

Not only ordinary communists, but also large nomenklaturshchik were exposed to party collectings. For example, in February, 1928 the strict reprimand was issued to the deputy prosecutor Karachay by the joint-stock company to 30-year-old A.I. Batchayev whose fault, in addition, was that it "ordered in printing house of Kislovodsk a cover with the inscription "Quran" with initials and a surname for a book cover under the same name" 13. In May of the same year before a partkollegiya the trade-union leader (chairman of the board of the Union of agricultural working KAO) 30-year-old Ya.O. Kipkeev appeared. He was accused that he also "carried out religious practices", namely - gave for the wife a bridewealth "and on customs held her indoors the whole month" 14.

The antireligious course became tougher with end of the New Economic Policy when party bodies, declaring measures against religion, made the decisions which were oppressing attendants of a cult and sharply limiting religious life of society. It caused fierce resistance. Sorting the causes of an anti-Soviet revolt of 1930 in Karachaye15, the party leaders of area pointed to existence "excesses and perversions of the line of party" which also elements of religious policy ("taxation of mosques a tax", closing of mosques and madrasah in 1929 were recognized, "as were used by clergy" in Kart-Dzhur-te, to Hurzuka, Theresa, etc.) 16.

In the decision of bureau of March 27, 1930 to party cells was "categorically" recommended "to lead resolute fight against any attempts in the administrative way to carry out antireligious work, that is to close mosques, to move it is groundless attendants of a cult, not to allow any taxation of mosques, and it is equal also attendants of a cult taxes that causes lawful discontent of believers" 17. On the same day to regional executive committee was

it is entrusted "to reconsider a question of taxation of an efenda and mosques" 18.

During a Muslim post (a shouting - for) in 1931 the bureau of regional committee adopted the resolution in which ordered to party cells and district committees "to develop massovorazjyasnitelny work" in the village, where "to pay special attention (for work) among women, on the material damage, physiological harm caused urazy and also on the ideological background of an oraza". But at the same time it was also recommended "not to allow administrative methods" 19.

In fact such methods continued to be used. In 1935 a part of priests together with "the dispossessed families" from among Karachays, Circassians, Abazins, Ossetians was banished to Bayaut (Uzbekistan) 20. And in the next years the course towards gradual, but steady restriction of the religious rights of citizens proceeded though in the ideological plan it failed. Even by 1934 it was noted that "antireligious literature in the Karachay language is absent", and so-called the Union of Militant Atheists (UMA) two years not funktsioniruyet21. The resolution of bureau of regional committee of September 25, 1934 which and in a year remained outstanding was about it accepted. In the decision of bureau made in June, 1935 it was indicated "counterrevolutionary work" of the religious organizations in this connection "the role of Muslim clergy in the period of collectivization and revolts in Karachaye in 1920 and 1930" and also "a role of monasteries of orthodox and sectarian attendants of cults" 22 was noted. But willows of 1938 the party management complained that "in the area there is no antireligious literature in the Karachay language", and structures of SVB "even have no room" 23.

In general it is possible to believe, probably, that fight against religion during the considered period was not beyond introduction of atheistic ideology through a system of education and retaliations in cult life.

1 Tsit. on: K.T. Laypanov. A victory of the Great October revolution and establishment of the Soviet power in Karachaye and Circassia (March, 1917 - June, 1918)//Essays of history of Karachay-Cherkessia. Cherkessk, 1972. T. 2. Page 22.
2 Tsit. on: E.Sh. Idrisov, R.R. Almukhanova. An image of Muslim clergy in the regional press and documents of the Soviet power of the 1917-1920th years//Islam in the south of Russia. Astrakhan, 2007. Page 17.
3 Tsit. on: S.E. Ebzeeva. Formation of the Soviet national statehood of the people of the North Caucasus. M, 1976. Page 99.
4 Karachay-Cherkess historical and cultural and natural memorial estate (KChMZ). T. 2. 1. Unit hr. 11.
5 Documents on the history of fight for the Soviet power and formation of the autonomy of Kabardino-Balkaria (1917-1922) / Otv. edition B.M. Zumakulov. Nalchik, 1983. Page 621.
6 R.S. Tebuyev, R.T. Hatuyev. Essays of the history Karachaevo Balkars. M.; Stavropol, 2002. Page 144.
7 State archive of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic (HECTARE of the Karachay-Cherkess republic). T. 316. 7. L. 68.
8 Archive of the Karachay research institute (KNII Archive). T. 3. Op. 2. 2. L. 1ob.
9 Center of documentation of social movements and parties of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic (TSDODP of the Karachay-Cherkess republic). F. p-45. Op. 1. 20. L. 1.
10 In the same place. L. 1, 5.
11 In the same place. L. 27.
12 In the same place. L. 5.
13 In the same place. L. 10.
14 In the same place. L. 19.
15 Sh. Tekeev. The last revolt in Karachaye//Day of the Republic. 2008. February 12.
16 TSDODP Karachay-Cherkess republic. F. p-45. Op. 1. 32. L. 95ob.
17 In the same place. L. 96.
18 In the same place. L. 93.
19 In the same place. 41. L. 19.
20 M. Bayramkulov of X. Kulak echelon. Stavropol, 2004. Page 11-32.
21 TSDODP of the Karachay-Cherkess republic. T. p-45. Op. 1. 62. L. 57-58.
22 In the same place. 67. L. 175.
23 In the same place. 78. L. 104.
Adam Ford
Other scientific works: