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Archaic society and roots of the early Greek historiography



AKTUALNYE of the PROBLEM of GENERAL HISTORY

UDC 94 (38). 02

ARCHAIC SOCIETY AND ROOTS of the EARLY GREEK HISTORIOGRAPHY

Nizhny Novgorod state linguistic university

V.M. STROGETSKY

In work sources of origin of the early Greek historical thought are considered. The author sees historiography roots in the social structure of archaic Greek society (VI11-VI of centuries BC). Formation of the policy, on the one hand, and the individualism birth, on the other hand, was led to emergence of public need for perpetuation of the memory of important events, but the historical thought at once accepted accurately expressed individual traits. Texts of the first historians logographs are in close interrelation with the epos and lyrics and reflect also social processes in the early policy.

e-mail:strogetsk@lunn.ru

The Greek historiography as the narration as art of the story about the past and, at last, as the far predecessor of a modern historical thought had the social and economic, political and psychological roots consisting in those events and the phenomena which occurred almost in all areas of Greece in archaic time. The following was the most important processes of this period.

At!!! - At! centuries BC differed in expansion of contacts with East Egeida and distribution of oriyentaliziruyushchy style in iskusstve1. Interpenetration of cultures took place. It contributed to the development of trade, craft, monetary circulation, strengthening of a private property. Already to Alkey, poet of V!! century from the island of Lesbos, the saying "the hrltsat, хРЛ^ах Outsr is known ("Zhizneotnosheniye, 64(360) - "money & #43; money = person" 2.

1 K.S. Gorbunova. Culture and art of Ancient Greece. L., 1959; B.R. Vipper. Art of Ancient Greece. M, 1972; G.I. Falcons. Art of Ancient Greece. M, 1980; Field V.G. Art of Greece. M, 1984; V.G. Borukhovich. Eternal art of Hellas. St. Petersburg, 2002; Burkert W. The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Cambr., 1992.
2 The release of the first correct metallic currency belongs to the 7th century BC. At first it occurred in the cities of Ionia, and from sulfurs. 7th century stamping of coins began to extend also in the Balkan Greece: on Aegina, Euboea, in Corinth and Athens: E.D. Frolov. "Birth of the Greek policy". L., 1988. Page 95-96, comment 10. The critical relation to E.D. Frolov's judgments, T.V. Blavatskaya (see her work: Lines of history of statehood of Hellas. The 12-7th centuries BC of SPb.,
2003), etc. recently I.E. Surikov stated: Archaic and classical Greece. M, 2007. Settlement page 186 I.E. Surikov in the spirit of the statements of representatives of the latest skeptical direction, claims that introduction of stamping of coins in the Greek policies was caused not so much by economic factors, how many political motives, meaning political conflicts and aspirations of representatives of the aristocracy under these motives.

At this time contradictions both in the aristocracy, and between the nobility and the formed people began to amplify. Fight between these social groups concerned, first of all, the power and redistribution bogatstva3. The investigation of these conflicts and contradictions, development of the commodity-money relations the Greek colonization which led to distribution of the Greek city sheet culture across all Mediterranean and also beyond its limits was, in particular in Black Sea Coast.4 the record emergence zakonov5 was Result of the mentioned conflicts also.

During fight both in the aristocracy, and between the nobility and the people formed, still insufficiently strengthened, were established tyrannical rezhimy6 (in Corinth, Miletus, Sikione, Megarakh, Samosy, Athens). Tyrants, aspiring at -

3 This subject gained sharpness of judgments and critical remarks recently especially in domestic literature. E.D. Frolov gave the thorough analysis of compositions of the western researchers of the latest skeptical direction in the works (The birth of the Greek policy... Settlement page 18; it: Paradoxes of history are antiquity paradoxes. SPb., 2004. Settlement page 128. Modern adherents of the latest skeptical direction in domestic literature to some extent can be considered I.E. Surikova (Archaic and classical Greece: problems of history and source study. Settlement page 40); H. Tumansa (The birth Athens — the Athenian way to democracy: from Homer to Pericles (8-5th centuries BC). SPb., 2002) (see critical judgment of this work of E.D. Frolov in the decree. prince: Paradoxes of history are antiquity paradoxes. Settlement page 182).
4 About Ancient Greek colonization see: E.D. Frolov. Birth of the Greek policy. Page 141; in the same place see the extensive bibliography on this subject (Page 141, a comment 1); V.P. Yaylenko. Greek colonization of the 7-3rd centuries BC: according to epigraphic sources. M, 1982; L.A. Paltseva. From the history of archaic Greece. Megara and megarsky colonies. SPb., 1999. I.E. Surikov, considering a problem of Great Greek colonization (settlement Page 70) in the mentioned book "Archaic and Classical Greece", perfectly points that at identification of the reasons of removal of colonies it is important to pay due attention and to political factor. However it is impossible to agree with the author that in all cases of removal of colonies aristocrats — natives of the most ancient childbirth were oykist and for this reason to claim that foundation of colonies most often was result of race for power between certain representatives of aristocratic families. I.E. Surikov does not object against the Greek colonization was connected with growth of the population caused by a population explosion. Nevertheless, his statement supported with judgment of the American researcher D. Tandy (Tandy D.W. Warriors into Traders: The Power of the Market in Early Greece. Berkel, 1997. P. 19-58) that the population explosion was result of transition to intensive agriculture in the 8-7th centuries BC from the extensive cattle breeding characteristic of the homeric period absolutely contradicts data of homeric poems where, first, about agriculture it is told more often than about cattle breeding, secondly, land tenure during the homeric period reached such level when along with mnogoklerny owners much and besklerny appeared.
5 Transition from norms of common law to record of laws in Ancient Greece was connected the 8-7th centuries BC with growth of individualism, individual creativity and aggravation of social contradictions in society. In such situation there was also a need of improvement of social legal relations. This problem in domestic literature is studied by E.D. Frolov in his work "The birth of the Greek policy" most in detail (settlement Page 120, see in the same place instructions on modern foreign and domestic literature). "Archaic and classical Greece" and I.E. Surikov concerns this problem in the recent work. He subjected to sharp criticism of work of E.D. Frolov, I.A. Shishova (The early legislation and formation of slavery in antique Greece. L., 1991) and G.E. Zalyubovina (Archaic Greece: features of outlook and ideology. M, 1992). I.E. Surikov believes that laws were entered in Ancient Greece in the 8-7th centuries BC "rather for settlement of the relations in the group of the aristocracy and for prevention of interstine fight (stasis) between notable leaders (Page 74). This look very much distorts the real situation which developed in the Greek society during the considered period. The concept "stasis" which is widely used by antique authors is treated quite definitely as a distemper in civil collective of the policy, but not just fight between aristocratic leaders.
6 Despite undertaken by esimnetami-intermediary between the aristocracy and bulk of citizens — preventive measures, irreconcilable contradictions between the formed people and the aristocracy and rivalry between aristocratic leaders constantly excited socio-political fermentation or a distemper in the Greek communities. In this situa-

to give to the board gloss, surrounded themselves with the magnificent yard, built rich constructions, patronized sciences and arts.

In such situation the process of secular ideology which was outlined during the homeric period and was a consequence of promotion from group of the individual personality went deep. The individualism as characteristic feature of psychology of the personality was approved in economy and policy, promoted emergence of the individualized creativity in art and craft. All this together created favorable circumstances for emergence of new literary genres (various forms of poetic creativity), and for development of the Greek philosophy and various sciences including stories).

All listed processes of VII! - V! centuries provided formation of the Greek nationality and the opposition of Greeks to so-called barbarians connected with it, first of all to Persians, but also and those people who lived in the neighbourhood with ellinami7. Self-identification process, i.e. understanding of by the uniform Greek people, and the geographical space occupied by Greeks as uniform name Hellas, also had important value for development of the Greek historiography.

So, the Greek istoriopisaniye was creation of the Greek city sheet culture, and Greeks or ellinizirovanny representatives of the people living in the neighbourhood with them were his creators. Their inquisitive interests were turned to the past, and in the spatial relation to the countries which became object of the Greek colonization. At Greeks not the historian chose the subject of the description, and the subject — the politized world — looked for the historian (J. Collingwood).

The processes noted above happening in V!!! - V! centuries, were characteristic both of the Balkan Greece, and of other areas, but especially they distinctly and brightly were found in M. of Azii8. Here the intellectual outlook of people was wider. It was the region of the increased sociability. Miletus and the Hilt — the homeland of philosophers (Thales,

tion as the bulk of citizens was not capable to achieve realization of the majority of the requirements yet, and the aristocracy did not want to renounce the traditional privileges in favor of the people therefore on a political proscenium influential political leaders, as a rule, from among the nobility who, having seized individual power, became tyrants began to appear. At the same time it is important to note that archaic tyranny was established, first of all, in the areas developed economically where the sharpness of internal social contradictions reached special force. The main feature of the senior or archaic tyranny was the fact that she, on the one hand, sought to weaken influence and domination of the aristocracy, with another — not to allow excessive strengthening of the people. At the same time it is important to mean that at all costs of individual board, for ensuring the popularity they undertook administrative reforms, measures for improvement of the cities, strengthened and enriched the policy. But thus, they, perhaps, without wishing that, promoted final formation of people as grave-digger. Most in details E.D. Frolov investigated a tyranny problem, both senior, and younger, in domestic literature (see his works: Greek tyrants of V! century BC. L., 1972; Birth of the Greek policy... Settlement page 158. In the same place see references to modern literature). The problem of archaic tyranny is considered in already mentioned work by "Archaic and classical Greece" as well. E. Surikov. However he very critically estimates the concept of archaic tyranny which developed in domestic science and after H. Berva and other western researchers considers archaic or senior tyranny as "an aristocratic phenomenon". It is impossible to agree also with I.E. Surikov's opinion that "the people just at the heart of the was satisfied with activity of tyrants: arranged it more when above it there was one governor". As the throne in the majority of the Greek policies disappeared to V!! century BC, the relation of bulk of citizens to tyranny was rather tolerant, than voluntarily accepted.

7 About process of national consolidation of Greeks and their opposition to barbarians see Frolov of E.D. Rozhdeniye of the Greek policy of Page 136 of settlement
8 About Ionia as the ancient center of the Greek culture see E.N. Mikhaylov, A.N. Chanyshev. Ionic philosophy. M, 1966; N.N. Zalessky. Essays of history of ancient philosophy. L., 1975. Issue 1; Frolov E.D. Fakel Prometeya. Essays of antique social thought. L., 1991. Settlement page 60; V.D. Zhigunin. Essays of antique natural history from Homer to Anaksagor and his followers//Muts^a. The collection of scientific works devoted to memory of professor V.D. Zhshunin. Kazan, 2002. - Settlement page 45

Anaksimandr, Heraclitus). Here the relations with various countries and the people, sometimes very remote developed — with the people of Pontus (Black Sea), Egypt, the far West. It induced the most sharp-witted and inquisitive citizens to comparison of cultures. Emergence of the term "History" also was connected with the Ionic physiophilosophical school (& yutor1a — a research, investigation, the historical narration, the story about last events; the term comes from a verb & a yutoryoa) 9. There were also first historical compositions written by prose. These historians who were preceding Herodotus, and partly and being his contemporaries, it is accepted to call logographs (from two Greek words Hduod — the story; urafsh - I write). For the first time this term meets at Thucydides (!.21.1). This word is introduced by F for scientific use. Kreytserom10.

The German researcher, leaning on literature of X! X century, considered homeric society as the period of "wildness". Therefore, characterizing stages of development of social thought of Greeks, allocated the mythological period (Homer, Hesiod); period of logographs (Gekatya, Gellanik); beginning of a historiography (Herodotus, Thucydides). Domestic historians M.S. Kutorga, S.Ya. Lurye and A.I. Nemirovsky objected to such schematic, rectilinear deleniya11. They considered the term "logograph" wrong, emphasizing that this term at the Greek historians had scornful value. So, Herodotus in relation to these authors used the term "Houoloyu1" (from "Houolo1Sh"), i.e. those who invented invented tales, and Thucydides, using the term "Houduraf01", meant the predecessors, including also Herodotus whom considered no more than "story-tellers of fables" (Thucydides!.21.1).

In the Western European science O. Spengler said that Greeks had no historicism and called these people aistorichny therefore he did not consider Greece the homeland istoriografii12. U. Vilamovitts-Mellendorf, objecting Spengler, considered that Herodotus and Thucydides can be called founders of history because all modern historiography is based on the beginnings put by Greeks. As for the East, it considered that Semites and other drevnevostochny people had a historical narration, but the historical science was not created and was not Real

rik.13

the German historian V. Shadevaldt spoke in this respect even more definitely: "the ability of Greeks to think historically and to write history is put in an essence of these ingenious people. To Greeks the people only went and did a story, but they did not write historical treatises because what they made, they did not understand as history" 14. Approximately in the same spirit also Strasburger spoke, believing that already Homer was the true historian.

Of course, it is necessary to be exempted from extreme judgments. Undoubtedly, it is necessary to consider an originality of the Hellenic mentality and potency which is initially put at them. But at the same time it is necessary to consider also quite objective factor, in particular the fact that the Greek historiography was issued to V! century BC. Therefore even if the term "Houduraf01" is not absolutely exact, in it it is impossible to see only negative sense. Already in V! there was a difference between concepts aiurafgid and Houdurafod century.

9 About the term lompia see A.A. Takho-Godi. The Ionic and attic understanding of the term "history" and related with it//Questions of classical philology. M, 1969. Issue 2. Page 115; see also A.I. Nemirovsky. At sources of a historical thought. Voronezh, 1979. Page 19; its Birth of Clio: At sources of a historical thought. Voronezh, 1986. Settlement page 28
10 Creuzer F. Die historische Kunst der Grichen in ihrer Entstehung und Fortbildung. Leipzig, 1845. See. To this Momigliano F. Friedrich Creuzer and Greek Historiography//Journal of the Warburg and Courtault Institutes. 1964. IX. P. 152.
11 M.S. Kutorga. About different types of chronicles at ancient Greeks//SOBR. soch. T. II. SPb., 1896. Settlement page 25; S.Ya. Lurye. Essays on stories of historical science. M.-L., 1947. Settlement page 51; A.I. Nemirovsky. At sources of a historical thought. Page 8.
12 Schpengler O. Untergang des Abenlandes. Munch, 1920. Bd. I.
13 Wilamowitz-Moellendorf U. On Greek Historical Writing. Reden und Vortrage, 1926 P. 4 ff.
14 Schadewaldt W. Die Anfange der Geschichtsschreibung bei den Griechen//Die Antike. 1934.

S. 144 ff.

If the first term designated the prose writer's writer in general, then the second — the writer telling about past events. The data which remained about logographs at Strabo and Dionysius Galikarnassky do not allow to characterize them only in negative sense. Strabo (I. 2.6) as follows writes about logographs:

"The speech (at logographs — V.S.) prosaic, at least, processed, is imitation of poetic. First of all, there was in the world a poetic statement and gained glory; then, imitating it, not resorting to the verse, but, keeping other poetic features, Kadm, Ferekid, Gekatya wrote the works. Then the latest writers, constantly taking away something from poetic properties, reduced the speech to its real look, kind from some sublime pedestal".

Dionysius Galikarnassky gave more developed description of creativity of logographs (De Thuc. 5): "There is a lot of ancient historians, and they were in many places before the Peloponnese war. Are among them: Evgeon Samossky, Deyokh Prokonnessky, Evdy Parian, Demokl Figeleysky, Gekatya Miletsky, Akusilay Argos, Charon Lampsaksky, Melesagor Halkedonsky, and those which are a little younger i.e. lived shortly before the Peloponnese war and lived until Thucydides - it is Gellanik Lesbossky, Damast Sigeysky, Ksenomed Hiossky, Xanthos Lydian, etc. In the choice of a subject they were guided by almost identical point of view and abilities the little differed from each other. Some wrote the Hellenic stories, others — barbaric, and these stories they did not connect among themselves, but divided on the cities and the people and stated them independently of each other, pursuing one and grieve the purpose: to publish for general data of the legend, the remained at locals among the different people and the cities, written documents stored both in temples, and in secular archives; to publish these monuments in the form they received them, to them without adding anything and without diminishing. Among it there were also some myths which were trusted since old time, and some extraordinary events which are presented to our contemporaries improbable. The way of expression was used by them mostly identical — all those which wrote on the same adverb, had language clear, usual, clean, short, corresponding to the described events, not representing any artistry. However some beauty and charm, in some to a large extent, in others in smaller thanks to which their compositions still remain to this vremeni15 is inherent in their works".

15 Jacoby F. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker. Bd I. Berl., 1923-1930; Die Fragmente der alteren Geschichtsschreiber mit Kommentar bei F. Jacoby Die Fragmente der Griechischer Historiker. Bd. I. Neudruck mit Zusatzen. Leiden, 1957; Fritz K. von Die Griechische Geschichtss-chreibung. Bd. I. (2 Teile). Berl., 1967; Rearson L. Erly Ionian Historians. Oxf., 1939; Latte K. Die An-fange der griechischen Geschichtsschreibung//Histoire et Historiens dans l’antiquite//Entretiens sur l’antiquite classique, t.4. Vandoeuvres-Geneve, 1956; Bury J.B. Ancient Greek Historians. London, 1958; Bernagozzi G. La storiographia graeca dai Logographi ad Erodoto. Bologna, 1961; Schade-waldt W. Die Aufange des Geschichtsschreibung bei den Griechen. Frankfurt am Mein, 1990; W. Schäffer. Essays of an antique historiography. Issue 1. Logographs; Xanthos, Gekatya, Akusilay, Charon and Ferekid. Kiev, 1884; F.F. Zelinsky. From life of the ideas: in 2 vol. T. 1. M, 1995 (repr.); Antique historical thought and historiography. A workshop — the anthology. Authors-originators A.V. Makhlayuk, I.E. Surikov. M, 2008. Page 9-33. Quite recently I.E. Surikov [L0G0GRAF01 in Thucydides's work published the article about logographs (I. 21.1) and Herodotus (About one poorly studied source of the early Greek istoriopisaniye)//VDI. 2008. No. 2. Page 25-37]. The author draws a conclusion that Thucydides in the mentioned plot meant Herodotus, including it the logograph, putting value of the author of speeches of the general sense in this term. The author relies on opinion of U.R. Connor considering logographs authors of speeches. This point of view is represented to me no more than witty conclusion. First, Thucydides meant prosaic writers, originators of fabulous stories. Therefore he also hinted at Herodotus in whose composition there are many fabulous stories, myths and legends. Secondly, I.E. Surikov at all does not take into account of the interpretation of the term "logographs" given by Dionysius Galikarnassky (De Tucydide, 5) and Strabo (I. 21.1). Meanwhile, they do not differ from how Thucydides understood this term, unless that their information more extensive according to the contents.

ARCHAIC SOCIETY AND GENESIS OF EARLY GREEC HISTORIOGRAPHY

V.№. Strogetsky

Nizny Novgorod Linguistic University

e-mail:strogetsk@lunn.ru

At this work research a Genesis of early Greece History. An Author see a beginning of History in social institutions of Archaic Greece Society 8-6 BC. A Foundation and Development of Polis and Born of Individuality too, go to phenomenon of social necessary in memory about important facts. But Early History from her Beginning receive a clear individual character. Texts of First Historians Logographs were narrowly connected with epos and lyric and are reflected the social processes in Early Polis too.

Polis.

Grace Melina
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