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Stalin's "long-distance truck drivers"



IZVESTIYA

PENZA STATE PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY of V.G. Belinsky GUMANITARNYE NAUKI № 11 (15)2009

IZVESTIA

PENZENSKOGO GOSUDARSTVENNOGO PEDAGOGICHESKOGO UNIVERSITETA imeni V. G. BELINSKOGO HUMANITIES No. 11 (15) 2009

UDC 629.113/115 (09)

STALIN'S "LONG-DISTANCE TRUCK DRIVERS"

© S. and. ILLIEV

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky, department of the contemporary history of Russia and study of local lore of e-mail: autoilliev@rambler.ru

S.I. Illiyev. - Stalin's "long-distance truck drivers"//PGPU News of V.G. Belinsky. 2009. No. 11 (15). Page 111-116 -

On materials of the Russian State Archive of Economy (RSAE), State Archive of the Penza Region (SAPR), museum funds of the city of Biysk of Altai Krai and also RGB funds process of formation of long-distance road haulage in Russia is investigated. In the course of development of a subject the conclusion that by the beginning of the fortieth years of the XX century of the USSR accumulated solid experience on the organization of dalnoreysny automobile communication is drawn. The modern infrastructure of road haulage which anticipated such phenomenon of the beginning of the 21st century as logistics was created.

Illiev S. I. - Stalin’s "truckers"//Izv. Penz. gos. pedagog. univ. im.i V.G. Belinskogo. 2009. No. 11 (15). P. 111-116. -

On materials of the Russian State Archive of Economy (RSAE), State Archive of the Penza area (SAP), museum funds of a city of Biisk of Altay territory, and also funds RGB formation process in Russia long-distance autotransportations is investigated. In the course of theme working out the conclusion that to the beginning of the fortieth years of the

XX th century of the USSR has saved up solid experience on the organization an automobile communication becomes. The modern infrastructure of the autotransportations which have anticipated such phenomenon of the beginning of the

XXI st century, as logistics was created.

"The destiny gave it destiny, Previous a gap.

It what dreamed the most courageous, But to it nobody swept away".

Boris Pasternak "Is that what say about: "Look, this new"; but it was in the centuries which were before us".

Ekklesiast 1, 11

Meanwhile the appeal to historical experience shows that the domestic automobile economy had already quite issued perspective practices in this direction in the period of the third five-years period interrupted with the Great Patriotic War. The ideas and the principles characterizing modern long-range trade were created in general to spring of 1941. Besides, in certain regions of the country the use of cars on long-distance and international cargo transportation began still in the late twenties. At once we will notice, the area there did not favor to fast and easy development of road haulage at all. On the contrary, local conditions

On a threshold of the 1917th

In the second half of the 20th age of expression "road train", "long-distance truck drivers", "long-distance autolines, Sovavtotrans became habitual in the Russian lexicon. The beginning of the 21st century was filled up by the automobile dictionary with the new term called logistics. What is it?

Modern dictionaries define the term "logistics" as "strategic management... supply, transportations and storage of materials, details and ready stock" (technicians and so forth). The concept includes also management of the corresponding flows of information.

works still for many years were considered as extreme, and were characterized by a zone of the increased risk for autotrips.

The idea of use of trucks and road trains for long-distance transportations appeared in Russia even prior to World War I. The specialized periodical press of those of years wrote about this business, new to an avtomobilizm, much. But recognitions of this phenomenon are farther as fact nothing occurred. Enthusiasts of autobusiness understood importance of development of motor transport for strengthening of industrial power of the country. From pages of magazines they appealed to all reading and conceiving public of Russia that automobilization - "is a question of large state value". So, settlement calculations on the organization of skilled motor depots are provided in article "Car as Necessary Means of Transportation of the Industry". The author convincingly shows in the comparative table that use of cars is much more favorable than horse draft. Among other things, it was supposed to draw close attention of military as transportations became faster and maneuverable to it. Actually, and that, rather sports, than industrial, experiments on replacement of horse draft by automobile also adapted specially to needs of the Defense Ministry. So, on the basis of practical data the colonel V. Boldyrev proved that for case food transport the most favorable business is use of three-ton trucks. First, advantage in speed, secondly, the staff of the lower ranks is considerably reduced (from 650 to 166) and thirdly, reduction of daily cash expenditures on the case was represented to not less considerable. When using horse draft only for an allowance of horses by the division daily spent 850 rubles. Transition to motor draft gave economy almost by 3 times - daily content was already about 330 rubles [1. Page 8]. The author of these courageous experiments and sober calculations thought of the future and understood: that the car brought real benefit to the national economy in general, and army in particular, it is necessary to liquidate many serious hindrances. First of all, Boldyrev notes need of improvement of the existing roads. Further it developed a number of valuable recommendations about an occasion of what has to be the car created especially for the Russian conditions and especially for needs of army. the book "Car and Its Tactical Application" prepared by it became synthesis of work of V. Boldyrev. The Defense Ministry considered councils of the Russian expert officer. Business turned back that by 1912th year the cars for the Russian army released by foreign firms came to the domestic market. The situation develops paradoxically: on the one hand - the skilled motor rally of 1912 organized by military proves reliability and practicality of domestic Russo-Balta [2. Page 31], and at the same time the domestic market is filled by the foreign equipment. This situation will become not paradoxical, and -

tastrofichesky with approach of August days 1914. Short-sightedness of the government of that time and the Defense Ministry in issues of automobilization of the country will prove cruelly. Many countries in which our Defense Ministry bought the equipment will appear in a state of war with Russia. Not only replenishment of vehicle fleet by new cars will stop, but even existing it will become almost impossible to reanimate due to the lack of spare parts, knots and units. Because our military vehicle fleet in the years of World War I will also begin to thaw whereas at the countries allies, on the contrary, to increase. A bright example for that is England [9. Page 14].

Military cars of the Russian army during World War I needed the most elementary spare parts, not to mention difficult hi-tech products. So, on 1500 three-ton UAYT trucks which were in field army according to "the table of needs for spare parts to cars" the lack of piston rings made 100%. For polutoratonny "UAYTov" of-25%. The PAKKARD cars had the scarce list of spare parts in 38 points. surprisingly but the Russian metal-working industry could not adjust for them even a forging of front springs.

It would be still possible to reconcile to lack of "overseas" spare parts quite if our mechanical engineering was at the appropriate level. the import car would be is real to be disassembled on a small screw, to make measurements, to make working drawings and to build if not entirely "piracy" cars then to market spare parts. By the way, in the early thirties thus one of the first Soviet motorcycles was created. At first - the copy from the German prototype, then - entirely a domestic product. From the German analog only the conceptual unity remained. Similar story and Soviet BT tank. The pre-revolutionary industry did not take out this loading. For expansion of a little large production of automobile spare parts for import cars there was neither experience, nor the necessary number of experts, nor the due equipment. What the Russian motor transport very much needed, namely: the magneto, radiators, speedometers, boxes of change of transfers were not issued in our fatherland up to the middle of the 1920th years. Already in the heat of war, in 1916, at Baltic Shipyard in Petrograd it was decided to create repair shop on 10 cars at the same time. The cost of machines and the equipment necessary for full repair of this minute quantity of cars poured out in the huge sum - 156 thousand rubles. In Russia it was impossible to buy the machine for cutting of teeths of conic gear wheels of the Cleason system cost in 25 thousand rubles. Domestic machine-tool factories of such cars just did not release. It would seem what it is simpler than - spark plug. This not so hi-tech product, as, let us assume, magneto, speedometer or radiator. But also such "trifle"

it was necessary to buy abroad up to start-up in 1931 of the special shop at the Penza plant of Frunze [5. Page 23]. Only with start-up and adjustment of production of candles on it the Soviet Union refused their import. Till this time of a spark plug were bought for currency.

Meanwhile the problem of development of transportations by means of cargo road trains acquired the increasing and big relevance. Enthusiasts of automobilization wrote in Russia about it, real steps were taken abroad. Even such state as Austria, economically undeveloped in comparison with the leading countries of Europe (England, France, Germany), made new business a principle of economic value. Use of road trains by private industrialists got in Austria from the government the centralized financial support [8. Page 13]. Again such close attention to this branch of automobile business was initiated first of all by military needs. In 1913 the Austrian Defense Ministry developed special rules of granting subsidies for delivery to wartime of the Austrian army of cargo trains by private owners. The quantity of the provided subsidies depended on the state allocations from the budget. The system of encouragement of car owners represented the following: The state treasury buys at the plant the truck, suitable for the military purposes, with the trailer at the established price. For example, for 26.5 thousand kroner that there corresponded at the rate of 1913 10.6 thousand Russian rubles. The acquired equipment then was on sale to the businessman wishing to be engaged in road haulage, with a considerable discount - for 16.5 thousand kroner (a concession made 10 thousand kroner or 4 thousand rubles). The concession sum was also a subsidy. For it the car owner according to the contract undertook to contain within 6 years the road train in faultless technical condition. For the acquired car it had to have the suitable and equipped with all necessary garage, to support the experienced driver and also to insure the road train from fire and damage. He had the right to sell the equipment in the period of the 6-year contract to other person only on special permission of the Defense Ministry with a translation of the contract. For contract time the military in return undertook to annoy hauler not too. Under the terms of the contract within these 6 years the Defense Ministry had the right to carry out checkup and test of the car, and only once to use it on exercises. And that no more than 14 days. Besides, the reward in the sum of 40 kroner (16 rubles) was paid to the owner of the road train for each day of maneuvers from treasury. If the technician on exercises needed to transport by rail on distance of more than 150 km, then and in this case expenses were incurred by the Austrian treasury. Transportation was by rail paid there and back. The state incurred also expenses on fuels and lubricants during the exercises. Having listed only these clauses of the contract, it is easy to draw a conclusion as far as they were pooshchritelna and neobremeni-

of a telna for development of road haulage in the Austro-Hungarian empire. However and that is not all. In case of breakage or failure of cars during the exercises (if it occurred not because of the driver or the car owner) the state paid monetary compensation. In the first year - 26.5 thousand kroner (total cost), in the second 85% of factory cost, in the third - 70%, in the fourth - 55%, in the fifth - 40% and in the sixth - 30%. In case of mobilization the subsidized road trains were subject deliveries to army on the basis of a general automobile compulsory military service. To owners of cars in this case indemnification in the above-stated sizes was provided. Special terms of the contract very in detail described necessary technical characteristics for purchase of cars at the plants. Loading capacity of the car - not less than 3 tons, the trailer - 2 tons. Engine capacity is not less than 35 horsepowers and so on.

In Russia on the eve of World War I there was a law on an automobile duty in case of mobilization, but any state measures in the development plan for transportations by means of road trains was not entered. Even during war when practice showed that new war it "war of motors", purchases of motor transport abroad were conducted extremely irrationally. The army management repeated a pre-war mistake. Cars were bought in various countries, rather small parties, various brands and systems, in the absence of interchangeability of details. For years of World War I only in the USA Russia placed automobile orders for 70 million dollars. As a result by 1916 the general vehicle fleet of our country had 39 thousand cars of several hundred various brands and systems. During wars (both world, and civil) the equipment became useless. Many cars from this payroll were not subject to at all recovery as it became already impossible to buy to them components. Foreign firms or already laid off these brands, or ceased to exist. It was extremely difficult to restore the national economy of the Soviet Russia destroyed by wars and intervention.

From "autocemeteries" to "autolines"

In postrevolutionary years the new power the decrees and resolutions generated literally automobile euphoria. For the first time in the country on motor transport paid attention as to important economic unit. V.I. Lenin's words that the one who has the best cars wins modern war became program for state policy on automobilization of the country. All cash a car - and motor-transport was taken on the state account [7. L. 4]. Specialized laboratories and scientific institutes of automobile orientation are created [10. Page 42]. Eloquently tell the following facts about what the operating vehicle fleet of the young Soviet republic was. In the mid-twenties to the provincial city of Penza of the settlement -

rebated 7 French Renault trucks. Renault already accumulated by then vast experience of automotive industry. However the cars received by the city yielded a loss, than profit more. They not so much worked how many stood idle, and eventually were sold through the Nizhny Novgorod office of Rudmetalltorg to Dnipropetrovsk [3. L. 78-79]. The reasons of frequent idle times it is possible to call the following: inexperience of drivers, big wear of cars (even then these trucks were already considered as outdated), lack of spare parts and bad, unadapted roads for the automovement. About roads a conversation special. In 1914 the Moscow merchant A.E. Gruzinov counted the annual sum of losses of the Russian economy from off road terrain. The figure turned out astronomical - 400 million rubles. The actual sum approached 1 billion rubles gold at all [6. Page 43].

Not better the situation and with the first passenger buses was. In Penza they appeared in the spring of 1926. Two 10-seater Fiats and two Dorman remade from armored cars. Technical condition of cars and that and other brand was not efficient. And for acquisition of two last Dorman buses at the Moscow nepman the director and the engineer of Avtoguzhtrest in general got on court. They were strictly forbidden to buy the equipment from individuals [4. L. 1]. To get spare parts to these cars in principle it was not represented possible. Similar history developed also in the center. Since August, 1917 in Moscow there begins the work motor transport MRFC (Moscow Regional Food Committee). Originally all operating MOPK vehicle fleet consisted of 10 cars. Accumulation and restoration of motor transport then was made as follows. The cars abandoned on fronts or evacuated together with other property were brought together for repair. In process of their restoration the trucks went to grain-producting provinces, organizing from them food motor depots and autogroups. At first work of this motor transport had no accurate planned character. The absence of competent experts in the matter on places did not give the chance to keep the correct account, and to prepare necessary recommendations about further development of road haulage. Was not proved in the reporting what brands of cars are most suitable for work on our roads, the exact quantity of the transported cargoes and percent of use of the tonnage was not considered. Account was adjusted only since 1919. Also there is quite sensible thought of regrouping in groups of cars by the principle of their seriality, road conditions began to undertake in attention. The well-known Siberian expedition of 1921 on preparation of bread became the first serious experience of dalnoreysny road haulage. From the central Russia deep into of the Akmola steppes 400 lorries with consumer goods were directed. In exchange for city goods the cars were required to be loaded food.

For the aid to Narkomprodu for implementation of this action special resolution HUNDRED transferred about 250 machines of the Defense Ministry which on completion of an expedition were returned the military. Experience of so distant automobile expedition showed: despite severe road conditions, very worn-out equipment, commission of similar flights business real and perspective. Here some indicators of work of food motor transport: if in 1919 it transported 3,694,288 poods of cargoes, then in 1921, taking into account work of the Siberian expedition of-12,718,195 poods. With introduction in the country of the New Economic Policy Narkomproda motor transport was transferred to cost accounting. By 1923 its general cargo tonnage made 750 tons, plus to everything was available passenger vehicles. The main structure of vehicle fleet consisted of the following foreign brands: "UAYT" loading capacity (/o) 5.3 and 1.5 tons, "PAKKARD" of / p 5.3 and 2 tons, FIAT of / p 3 and 1.5 tons, Federal of / p 3.5 and 1.5 tons, Berliye of / p 3 tons, Internatsio-nal of / p 1.5 tons, Pirles of / p 3 tons, "the Pier - Are-row" / p 5.3 and 2 tons. Two repair shops in the province were at the disposal of management of motor transport. And on May 1, 1920 in Moscow began to build the specialized car repair plant. Construction was finished by 5th anniversary of revolution. This enterprise was at Miusskaya square of the capital. The production base of the plant had 45 machines, with its help in a month it is possible to release up to 20 cars from capital repairs.

We gave the list of cars by brands above. Unfortunately, still in documents of the period of revolution and formation of the Soviet power it was not succeeded to find mentions of trucks of the most famous domestic brand of tsarist Russia anywhere - "Russo Balt". They were issued for needs of army, even very powerful, with a loading capacity of 5 tons. But their so insignificant quantity sank in the mass of the import equipment.

The first successful experience to adjust regular automobile communication on a long distance it was carried out in extremely severe conditions of Mountain Altai. The Chuya path lying from the city of Biysk to border with Mongolia has the extent of 600 kilometers. Since the XVIII century the path was generally used for transition on it merchant caravans. It the mountain track on which with big risk there could pass camels and horses loaded with cargoes was not even expensive, and. By the beginning of the 20th century it was hardly possible to call it passable. Here not only pack caravans, but also the horses harnessed in vehicles, so-called two-wheeled carts of the Altai type could move. Already at this time few motorists of Siberia as an experiment tried to conquer difficult roads of Mountain Altai by the cars. Commercial development of the Chuya path was a dream of some of them. So, A. Hakin petitioned for permission of car traffic for transportation of passengers between the cities of Barnaul and Semipalatinsk. In 1912 the newspaper "Life

Altai" reports: - "On the Chuya path from Biysk to Onguday the car of the merchant of Badu will for the first time proceed - it is new. If the first experience is successful, establishment of the correct automobile communication Biysk-Mongolia is possible. Same year the Altai Automobile Association for the message at first between Barnaul and Semipalatinsk, and then, depending on business development, and with the city True and Mongolia is created. Also it was supposed to include the Altai resorts to which it is possible to get only on the Chuya path in network of automobile communications. Business was started in a big way: the movement of cars of association was planned year-round, with breaks for an autumn and spring impassability of roads. Dreams and projects of enthusiasts of royal time were that. The question of automobilization of the Chuya path at the Soviet power was brought up in the mid-twenties again. Then too argued much: whether the Chuya path in its existing look is suitable or not? wishing to prove that on a path it is real to make road haulage, in the summer of 1925 the Managing director of the Chuya path passed on it on "Dodge" from Biysk to Khovd. He reported on the trip to the chairman of the Biysk Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies N. Kolbotin. The same year on a path seven trips of cars of Gostorg and JSC Sherst to the boundary settlement of Kosh-Agach and back were for the first time made. Each flight lasted from 15 to 20 days. In parallel with development of the automovement begin to strengthen and material base of road economy. For needs of construction of a path in 1926 the first Fordzon tractor is bought. Two years later after the first trade flights on the Chuya track the post message gets better. Already Soviet post AMO-F-15 cars make the first regular flights on the site the Tenginsky lake - Chibit in the winter, and up to Kosh-Agach - in the summer. Since the end of the 1920th years the Chuya path is under authority of the 3rd site guzhdorog Sibomesa (Siberian department of local transport). In April, 1926 at a meeting of the Biysk okrispolko-m the report "Of a possibility of the organization of automobile communication within the Biysk district" was heard. Among other Biysk an okrispolok makes the decision: "Loading capacity of road, access and ferry constructions on the state and district paths has to be calculated on free movement about three cars". At that time in West Siberia formed in 1927 there were only 464 vehicles (together with motorcycles). From them in working order 271 units.

In order that car traffic on a path its reconstruction developed, required. The ferries suitable for animal-drawn vehicles slowed down the movement of cars, it was required to expand and improve a roadbed, to build bridges and to cut down rocky ledges - Boma. According to the five-year development plan for the Chuya path since 1926 on

1930 year construction works on laying right-bank (on the right bank of the Katun River) path option as more successful for the movement of cars were conducted.

This option before revolution was offered by the writer Vyacheslav Shishkov working at Altai as the topographer.

During the 1920-1930th years more than 16 million rubles were invested in construction and reconstruction of the Chuya path. With adoption of the first all-Union five-year plan all private and joint-stock transport enterprises are liquidated. In Biysk those was two: JSC Rektran and JSC Pokotrans. In the spring of 1928 on their base the Biysk office of So-yuztransa at NKPS USSR is created. The new state organization created on the Chuya path especially for distant freight transportation in the summer of the same year received 12 Ford lorries bought for currency in the USA from Moscow. Before in the joint-stock enterprises trucks of the Lancia and Spa brands worked. The new equipment was overtaken to the settlement of Yingya where the new traktovy motor depot was just created. The settlement of Onguday reached week. In Yin the new cars arrived for the 12th day. The personnel question became the main problem in development of a path. They were not enough. Therefore in 1928 in Novosibirsk courses of drivers open. Sometimes happened so that the casual people able to start the car, to switch transfers and to stop came to work as drivers of distant flights. Such contingent was simply dangerous to the difficult mountain route. In the spring of 1930 the second, evening school of drivers opens. And the next year traktovy vehicle fleet is replenished with rather large consignment of the polutoratonny trucks assembled at the Moscow plant of the testing and assessment material. Drivers from Moscow, Leningrad, other cities came to work with this party. But, having faced unusual working conditions, many left home. There were cases when beginners asked local drivers to overtake the car through Pass Chiket - Aman. Over time professionalism of drivers increased, the road built, traktovy vehicle fleet increased.

Only on the Ininsky motor depot from 1929 to 1932 the number of cars increased from 13 up to 75 units. All pre-war period the route of the Chuya path was verified. It was necessary to create reliable conditions of driving through all its extent. Along with

1931 years began work five prospecting parties for laying of a final version of the right Katun track.

With development of the route not everything went well. Often low qualification of drivers resulted in untimely wear of already insufficient number of cars. Such case is remarkable: in June, 1933 on the Biysk motor depot from 75 cars of a payroll in working order there was only 16. Besides, on a path during this period the shortage of fuel was sharply felt. By 1933 on the Chuya path there was no fuel truck. Gasoline was transported in bodies of trucks in usual iron barrels which were not enough too though the Biysk car repair plant undertook their regular repair. Every day BARZ repaired up to 20 barrels. In August, 1933 due to the lack of fuel the Ininsky motor depot not rabo-

tala within 17 days. The ZIS-6 fuel trucks appeared only in a year, and in number of only two units. But even in this time full of deprivations and shortage for development of transportations on a path almost impossible is made. Somehow the equipped BARZ markets piston rings, entered rationalization: rubber couplings for "Electric trucks" were manufactured of old tires. The Biysk educational motor depot made the decision to increase the number of cadets from 110 to 254 people in 1934. And in new set there have to be not less than 50 Altaians. The management of the Chuya path in April, 1934 received three more tanker trucks. The problem of supply with fuel of autocaravans is gradually solved. In June of the same year 10 more fuel trucks come to the highway. Infrastructure of the road develops: new gas stations in the settlements of Mayma, Shabolino, Yingya, Chibit, Onguday, Kosh-Agach are under construction. Since spring of 1939 all scheduled repairs of the cars working at the Chuya path are carried out only on BARZE. Here all written-off cars for dismantling go to units and spare parts. Modular repair is entered. Running vehicle fleet crashes into four categories on run length. These progressive innovations, developing the skills of drivers, improvement of the condition of a path and continuous inflow of new cars allow to reach not emergency, but planned work on road haulage. By the beginning of 1939 more than 1000 cars, only in Biysk-400 trucks worked at the Chuya path in total.

It was hard to achieve these indicators in severe years of the first five-years periods. But thanks to the centralized state support, thanks to involvement of huge mass of the people in development of new business, and in difficult climatic conditions, was made much. In 1936 in the settlement of Yingya the first-ever two-rope bridge on the shaking poles became operational. Its flights were built from a larch, but, despite this, the bridge was capable to sustain a six-point earthquake. This bridge across the Katun River remained up to now.

By the beginning of the 1930th years in the Soviet Union rather wide experience on creation, management and development of road haulage as local value, and on a long distance was accumulated. Also foreign experience was studied. Contrary to common representations, for progressive ideas from the West of "Iron Curtain" did not exist. On pages of special periodicals the discussion of new approach to dalno-reysny transportations - creation of autolines was conducted. At the government level the relevant decisions were made. By 1941 in the USSR, several autolines constantly work: Moscow-Klien-Kalinin, Moscow-Orekhovo-Vladimir, Moscow-Ryazan, Moscow-Narofominsk and some other. Of course, in modern understanding it is difficult to call these routes "long-range", but, considering road conditions of that time, they quite corresponded to the vreme-

and to value. On these lines, road trains worked with the domestic YaG-6 trucks, with the general loading capacity of 10 tons, ZIS-5, with a loading capacity of 9 tons, German "Byussing", with a loading capacity of 11 tons. Pre-war motorists analyzed experience of distant transportations of Germany and the USA. In America there were in operation more than 1.5 million trailers of various type by then. In Germany in 1939 over 100 thousand road trains worked at long-distance autolines.

In 40 cities of pre-war Germany stopping points with repair shops, HUNDRED, gas stations, restaurants and hotels were constructed. The narcomat of motor transport planned to build before war new autolines in the Moscow-Yaroslavl, Tula, Gorky, Ryazan, Smolensk, Leningrad directions. The route Moscow-Tula had to become the first "civilized" autoline from all above-mentioned infrastruktory. Development of such project was charged to the design organization Avtotranstroypro-ekt. Typification made a reservation in the detailed design not accidentally: separate elements of the first standard line will have to extend on other routes. The organization of a bilateral conference circuit (similarly railway system, the American experience) was an innovation in this case. Except living conditions on border of traction sites it was supposed to create the cargo points providing cargo delivery according to the schedule. Besides, tracking cars in way by means of dispatching service reduced and in development excluded the unproductive empty movement. Thus, the Russian motor transport on the eve of the Great Patriotic War theoretically already was at the level of the end of the XX century when the economic thought rediscovered the new sphere - logistics.

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Matthew Arnold
Other scientific works: