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The power and the Cossacks in the south of Russia at the end of XX beginning of the 21st V.: from confrontation to cooperation

olga of RVAChEVA

The POWER AND the COSSACKS in the south of RUSSIA at the end of XX - the BEGINNING of the 21st century: FROM CONFRONTATION TO COOPERATION

In article relationship of the Cossacks and a vpasta at the end of XX - the beginning of the 21st century are considered. The author analyzes the problems and contradictions arising in interaction of these subjects of socio-political process in the south of Russia and reveals trends of development of forms of cooperation.

Relations between the Cossacks the and power in the end of 20th - the beginning of 21st centuries are considered. The author analyses the problems and contradictions existing in the process of interaction of this two subjects of social and political process in the South of Russia, and also reveals tendencies of development of their forms of cooperation.

revival of the Cossacks, register Cossack societies, Russian power, confrontation, cooperation, Cossack service; Cossacks rebirth, register Cossacks societies, Russian authorities, confrontation, cooperation, Cossacks service.


Vladimirovna — to. and. N, doctoral candidate of department of history of Russia of the Volgograd state university

When at the end of the 20th century the process of revival of the Cossacks began, also the special relationship of Cossacks both with federal, and with the regional power began to be built up practically at once. The periods of confrontation were replaced by search of consensus. Cossacks were extremists, showed loyalty of the power and appeared it patriots and "saviors of Russia". In the south of Russia the processes of confrontation of Cossacks with the power developed sometimes very sharply. However by the beginning of the 21st century these relations passed into a stage of cooperation and were fixed in such state. In no small measure it was promoted by a certain policy of power structures during which implementation "the Cossack outlaws" of the end of the 20th century were gradually got rid and control of the power over the Cossack organizations was established. In turn and Cossacks began to interact more closely with the power, having possibly seen in it a certain benefit for themselves. Thus, the purpose of our article is the analysis of relationship of the power and the Cossacks in the south of Russia at the end of XX — the beginning of the 21st century and identification of trends of their development.

Party structures paid attention to the movement for revival of the Cossacks at once. It is probable that the orientation of policy of the Central Committee of the CPSU on establishment of contacts with the Cossack organizations arose already in the end of 1990 — to the beginning of 1991. According to T.V. Tabolina's researches, since spring of 1991 in Kuban and Don there were obkomovsky and raykomovsky instructions for work with the Cossacks, the task to enter associations of Cossacks and to head ikh1 was set. Exorcized about need of support of the Cossack movement also the Soviet authorities. So, in 1990 the historical and cultural traditions of the Cossacks appeared in the decision of presidium of the Rostov regional council of People's Deputies "an example of high understanding of a debt to the Fatherland" and it was told about need "in every possible way to support manifestations of patriotic feelings of Cossacks" 2. In 1991. The Volgograd regional council of People's Deputies recommended to regional councils "to support in every possible way the Cossack movement supporting revival of Russia as

1 T.V. Tabolina. Cossacks: drama of revival. 1980 — the 1990th years. — M, 1999, page 64.
2 About the relation of Councils of People's Deputies, their executive committees to the reviving Cossacks. The decision of the Rostov regional council of People's Deputies of 13.12.1990 No. 95//the State acts concerning the Russian and Don Cossacks. In 2 t. — Rostov N / D, 2001, t. 2, page 4 — 6.

Great Power". Deputies addressed the Supreme Council of the Russian Federation concerning development and adoption of law of direct action "About rehabilitation of the Cossacks" 1. With assistance of the first secretary of the Stavropol regional committee of the CPSU, the chairman of regional Council of People's Deputies I.S. Boldyrev, secretaries of regional committee of party of Yu.S. Davydov and I.I. Nikishin, the chairman of the Stavropol Executive Committee of the City Soviet of People's Deputies E.S. Kuznetsov on September 28 — 29, 1990 in Stavropol the congress of Cossacks of Stavropol Krai at which public organization "Stavropol Regional Union of Cossacks" (SRUC) 2 was founded was held. After a release in 1991 of the law on rehabilitation of the repressed people and also the decree of the president on implementation of this law concerning the Cossacks in 1992 there was obvious a support of the Cossack movement and from the federal authority.

The reasons of such support of the Cossack movement from the power are multiple. Played a role including perception of Cossacks as patriots, defenders of the Middle name and besides carriers of democratic tradition. Both it was very important in the conditions of the beginning of the 1990th, in the conditions of transformation of political system and at the same time formed calls of regional separatism. There was an idea of the Cossack factor as about extremely important for arrangement of Rossii3. However the particularism of the Cossack movement was soon shown, the idea of national-state self-determination of the Cossacks began to become stronger and to be made the demands similar to requirements North Caucasian narodov4.

Researchers noted polity-more than once

1 About the relation of the Volgograd regional council to social movement of the Don Cossacks. The decision of the Volgograd regional council of People's Deputies of 19.12.1991 No. 9/179-s//the State acts concerning the Russian and Don Cossacks, t. 2, page 364.
2 A. Masalov. The Modern Cossacks in Stavropol Krai. An analytical note (as the manuscript). — Rostov N / D, 2009, page 21.
3 A.A. Ozerov, A.G. Kiblitsky. Don Cossacks: problems of revival and prospect of development. In 2 h - Rostov N / D, 2003, Part 1, page 9-13.
4 Kislitsyn S.A., A.V. Kirichenko, V.L. Sholokhov.

The South Russian Cossacks and ethnopolitical conflicts on Don and the North Caucasus//

The conflicts in the North Caucasus and a way of their permission. Materials of the international round table. - Rostov N / D, 2003, page 222.

chesky extremism of the Cossack organizations in the early nineties, their strict requirements and claims to the power, the actions contradicting the legislation. As examples of the sharpest actions of Cossacks in relation to the existing power it is possible to call picketing the armed Cossacks of the Rostov regional council with the purpose to force deputies to make the decision on recovery of national state entity as a part of RSFSR (1991); the conflict between the Union of Cossacks of Area of Army of Donskoy (UCAAD) and the city administration of Rostov-on-Don concerning transfer of SKOVD of the mansion of E. Paramonov which was followed by his armed capture by members of SKOVD; attempts on Don, Kuban and in Stavropol Territory to create special Cossack control systems and, at last, the known contract on cooperation between the management of SKOVD and Chechen respublikoy5. According to S.M. Markedonov, concepts of the movement for Cossack "revival", extremism and the interethnic conflicts "as if are rhymed by the contemporary Russian history", and "the conflicts and confrontation became peculiar political "know-how" of the neocossacks" 6.

It should be noted that to some extent the conflict capacity of the Cossack movement was caused by the Law of RSFSR "About Rehabilitation of the Repressed People" (1991) assigning to Cossacks the status of repressed cultural and ethnic community with the relevant rights on territorial, political and cultural rehabilitation. This law and subsequently the decree of the Russian President on rehabilitation of the Cossacks created legal grounds for claims of Cossacks for return of territories of traditional accommodation to them, that is on creation of "the Cossack republics" here. For example, in December

1991 heads of SKOVD put forward
5 See: A. Verkhovsky, Pappus A., V. Pribylovsky. Political extremism in Russia. — M, 1996, page 185 — 187, S.M. Markedonov. Monarchic servants or rebels destroyers? (to a question of the political relations of the Don Cossacks and the Russian state)//Conservatism and traditionalism in the south of Russia. South Russian review, 2002, No. 9, page 158.
6 Markedonov of S.M. Neokazachestvo in the south of Russia: ideology, values, political practice//Central Asia and Caucasus. Magazine of socio-political researches, 2003, No. 5(29), page 163.

the requirement to the Rostov regional council of People's Deputies about transformation of the Rostov region into national state entity "Area of army of Donskoy" or "The Don republic" with establishment atamansky pravleniya1. Two Cossack republics — Zelenchuko-Urupskaya and Batalpashinskaya — were proclaimed in the territory of the Karachay-Cherkess autonomous region; it is declarative was declared about creation Armavir respubliki2.

The new stage of relationship of the power and the Cossacks in the south of Russia begins after 1995 with adoption of decrees of the Russian President "About the State Register of the Cossack Societies in the Russian Federation" (1995) and "About Head department of the Cossack troops (GUKV — O.R.) under the President of the Russian Federation" (1996). The main meaning of these normative legal acts is to enter more rigid legal framework for the Cossack movement, to establish real control over it. It was offered to Cossacks to create farm, stanitsa and other societies on the basis of acceptance on itself obligations for service and to include such societies in the state register. As a result of action of these legal documents a peculiar vertical of the Cossack societies (from farm to army), controlled GUKV, and respectively, and the power was built. The Cossack societies had to be created with a definite purpose now — to fulfill obligations for public service.

Thus, process which some researchers characterize as "nationalization" kazachestva3, and others as it institutsionalizatsiyu4 develops. In relation to both treatments it is possible to speak about creation of the control system over the Cossack movement from the state allowing to discharge, for example, of service of political extremists and to put at the head of army societies of atamans loyal to the power, korrektiro-

1 E.I. Dulimov, I.I. Zolotarev. Self-government of Cossacks: history and present. — Rostov N / D, 1998, page 59.
2 T.V. Tabolina. Decree. soch., page 73.
3 S.M. Markedonov. Decree. soch., page 171 — 173.
4 A.G. Masalov. The Russian Cossacks at the beginning

The 21st century. — Stavropol, 2008, 300 of pages, A.A. Ozerov.

Political and legal institutionalization sovre-

mine Cossacks. — Rostov N / D, 2006, 162 pages

to vat functions and tasks of the Cossack societies. Objectively the power also promoted transformation of the ethnic nature of the Cossack revival in social (partly the reminding nature of voyennosluzhily estate).

Process of a "nationalization"/institutionalization intensified relationship of the Cossacks with the power, especially regional. The greatest activity of the power on creation of the legal framework for Cossacks falls on the middle of the 90th of the 20th century. For 1996 — 1997 the peak of adoption of regulations of the Russian Federation on questions kazachestva5 is necessary. In the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions and also in the Rostov Region the greatest number of documents of legal character is also accepted in 1995 — 1997 6 In our opinion, exactly thanks to active support of the power the Cossacks as a social phenomenon gradually become an integral part of socio-political and cultural space of a number of regions of the South of Russia.

In the Rostov Region in the 1990-2000th various commissions and the working groups which are engaged in preparation of documents and programs of revival of social and economic and spiritual Cossack traditions to Dona are created. The approximate charter of the Cossack society is drafted, offers on formation of special land fund for investment with the earth of the Cossack societies are prepared. Documents on formation traditional Cossack samoupravleniya7 are studied. Similar processes happen in the Volgograd Region, Krasnodar Krai.

With assistance of the regional and regional authorities the idea of a number of regions of the South of Russia as about the ethnic homeland of the Cossacks is formed. Charters of the Rostov region and Krasnodar Krai actually announced the territories territories of traditional accommodation of the Cossacks. So, in edition of 2005 Krasnodar Krai appears in the Charter of Krasnodar Krai "the historical territory of formation of the Kuban Cossacks, the primordial place of residence of the Russian people,

5 T.V. Tabolina. Decree. soch., page 97.
6 In the same place, page 99.
7 A.A. Ozerov, A.G. Kiblitsky. Decree. soch., page 18, 20-21, etc.

the population of the region making the majority" 1, and in edition of 1997 it was offered to consider also this circumstance during the forming and activity of public authorities and local samoupravleniya2. In the Charter of the Rostov region as a part of the multinational population, first of all, the Cossacks as historically developed here obshchnost3 are also allocated. In the Volgograd Region in 2001 the region duma adopted the law on the Cossack societies which recognized the Don Cossacks as historically developed cultural and ethical community having the historical territory of accommodation that is indirectly confirmed the right of Cossacks for the territory in this subject federatsii4. In 2007. The regional Committee on Ethnic Matters and the Cossacks of the Volgograd region took the initiative to make the amendment to the Charter and yet to recognize the area as the place of traditional accommodation of the Cossacks, but the offer was rejected by region duma with reference to a polikulturalizm situation in oblasti5. Thus, the idea of "the earth" reproduced by Cossacks, "the watered blood of ancestors", at the end of the 20th century received justification in basic laws of territorial subjects of the federation.

0 priority support of the Cossacks at the regional level the situation with adoption of laws on the Cossacks and also formation of special structures in the regional and regional organizations testify, in our opinion. In 1995 in
1 The charter of Krasnodar Krai (with changes from
6 June, 2005). Extraction//the Legislation of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar Krai concerning the Cossacks. The collection of normative legal acts with the introductory comment. — Krasnodar, 2005, page 105.
2 See: D.V. shade. "Controllers of memory" and ethno-genetic constructions: to a question of a role of historical myths in "memory wars"//the History of the region as the field of designing of regional identity: seminar materials / under the editorship of. I.I. Kuriles. - Volgograd, 2008, page 39.
3 A.A. Ozerov, A.G. Kiblitsky. Decree. soch., page 37.
4 The law of the Volgograd region of 26.05.2000 No. 404-OD "About the Cossack Societies Which Assumed Obligations for Execution of the Public and Other Service in the territory of the Volgograd Region"//the State acts concerning the Russian and Don Cossacks, t. 2., page 431.
5 M.A. Ryblova. The Cossack ethnicity in formiro-

vaniya of regional identity Volgograd

areas//History of the region as field of designing of regional identity: materials

a seminar / under the editorship of. I.I. Kuriles. — Volgograd,

2008, page 57-58.

Krasnodar Krai the law "About Rehabilitation of the Kuban Cossacks" which has to promote "to expansion of opportunities of self-realization of the Cossacks in various spheres of the state construction is adopted... development of self-government, culture, recovery of specifics of traditions, customs and life" 6. In 1997 the Law of the Republic of Kalmykia "About the Cossacks of Kalmykia" (No. 95-1-3), in 2001 is adopted. The Volgograd region duma adopted the law on the Cossack societies which, according to some researchers, can be considered a law analog about kazachestve7. The bill "About Army Cossack Societies" in the Rostov Region, and in Stavropol Krai in 1996 was prepared. The Duma approved "The provision on the Cossacks in Stavropol Krai" 8.

At different times in regional and regional administrations the structures dealing with Cossacks issues are created. In

1992 in administration of the Rostov Region the Committee on the Cossacks is created, in 1997 there is a resolution of the head of administration of Krasnodar Krai recommending to enter a position into structures of executive body of local government (at the level of the deputy head of the municipality) for monitoring of questions for the Cossacks and to create special department of work with the Cossack societies. Later, in 2001, in structure of regional administration the Department for the Cossacks, to military matters and education of preinduction youth will be created. In 2001 the Committee on Ethnic Matters and the Cossacks was created also within administration of the Volgograd Region. At the beginning of the 2000th in the system of the Stavropol regional administration the department of interaction worked with military units and the Cossacks of Management on ensuring activity of Council for economic and public security Stavropol kraya9.
6 The law of Krasnodar Krai of October 9, 1995 No. 15-KZ "About Rehabilitation of the Kuban Cossacks"//the Legislation of the Russian Federation and Krasnodar Krai concerning the Cossacks. The collection of normative legal acts with the introductory comment. — Krasnodar, 2005, page 111.
7 A.A. Ozerov, A.G. Kiblitsky. Decree. soch., page 44.
8 T.V. Tabolina. Decree. soch., page 98.
9 Russian Cossacks: scientific reference media / otv. edition of T.V. Tabolin. — M, 2003, page 560 — 561.

So, the Cossacks in the specified regions receive in the systems of regional executive power special administrative structures which one ethnic group did not have more in these regions. However because of the special status of the Cossacks which though were considered as ethnic or ethnocultural community, but appeared in the federal legislation, first of all, as register public organization with special functions, the specified committees and departments resolved issues not of ethnic community, but the organization allocated with obligations for execution of public service that, by the way, was reflected also in names of data of structures. Nevertheless the Cossack register organizations of all levels (from farm to army) just also appeared those legal forms through which revival of the Cossack ethnos will go.

After creation of the register of the Cossack organizations and establishment of control over the Cossack movement the process of merging of the Cossack structures with bodies of authority and management in regions of the South of Russia gradually develops. Members of the Cossack organizations are entered into structures of committees and departments concerning the Cossacks as employees and heads (first of all, atamans, chiefs of the Cossack headquarters).

So, for example, most of employees of Committee on Ethnic Matters and the Cossacks (KDNIK) in the Volgograd Region is a part of Army Cossack society Vseveliky Army Don (VKO VVD). Until recently A.A. Biryukov — the Cossack general, the deputy of the ataman of VKO VVD for the Volgograd Region headed KDNIK. The new head KDNIK V.N. Seleznyov heads the register Cossack organization Volgograd District. The ataman of VKO VVD V.N. Vodolatsky till 2007 headed Department on the Cossacks in administration of the Rostov Region and was the deputy governor of the Rostov Region (now — the deputy of the State Duma of the Russian Federation). The similar situation can be observed also in Krasnodar Krai. There till 2006. The department for the Cossacks was headed by the ataman of the Kuban Cossack Army (KCA), the Cossack general V.P. Gromov (now — the deputy Zakonodatelnogo

meetings of Krasnodar Krai). In 2007 the vice governor N. Doluda became the new ataman of KKV.

So, for the 20-year period of the Cossack revival in ideological and organizational spheres of the movement there were serious changes. "The Cossack outlaws" of the first half of the 1990th gave way to cooperation with the power and patriotic service to the state. Such position in a sense was advantageous to advance by members of the Cossack societies of the interests in regions of the South of Russia as predetermined the loyal attitude towards Cossacks from the state. Thanks to support of the regional authorities, the Cossacks which are present at political and legal realities of the present in the form of specific Cossack societies, but understood by many as ethnocultural community could secure, at least formally, the priority rights in a number of regions of the South of Russia and to create here a favorable situation for lobbying of interests of the Cossack community. However, in our opinion, it is necessary to tell as well about folding trends of bureaucratization of the Cossack movement and transformation of register Cossack societies into an element of an administrative and managerial system in regions in recent years that seriously lowers their potential on accumulation of a public initiative within civil society. The power and members of the Cossack societies need to consider the negative consequences of bureaucratization and nationalization of the Cossack structures consisting, first of all, in short circuit of interests of the Cossack societies on themselves, their distancing from other population of regions of the South of Russia and, first of all, from the Cossacks who are out of official structure of the Cossack societies.

Work is performed within the "Cossacks of the South of Russia in Modern Regional Social and Political Processes" project of the subprogramme of basic researches of "A problem of social and economic and ethnopolitical development of the southern macroregion" programs of basic researches of Presidium of RAS "Fundamental problems of spatial development of the Russian Federation: cross-disciplinary synthesis".

Victoria Chandler
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