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Old Belief monuments from a drevlekhranilishch of Alexander Nevsky Lavra in the Russian Museum collection

n. V. Pivovarova


Work is presented by department of Old Russian art of the State Russian Museum.

In article results of work on identification and studying the monuments of Old Belief art which are stored in the Russian Museum are stated. As an example icons from the former meeting of a drevlekhranilishch of Alexander Nevsky Lavra are chosen. Work with archival sources allowed to establish their origin, and the analysis of an iconography and style - the place and time of creation.

N. Pivovarova


The article presents the results of the work on revealing and studying the monuments of the Old Believers& art stored in the Russian museum. Icons from the former collection of the antiquities storehouse of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra in St. Petersburg are chosen as an example. The work with archival materials has helped to study the origin of these monuments. The analysis of iconography and style has made it possible to find out or specify the place and time of their creation.

In 1922 the meeting of a drevlekhranilishch of Holy Trinity Alexander Nevsky Lavra came to the State Russian Museum [12-16]. Registration and transfer of monuments was organized by representatives of the Public Museum foundation, and their direct reception was carried out by the staff of Office of Old Russian art. Monuments were admitted to the museum on the terms of temporary storage, without the right of introduction

in stocks, up to restoration of the museum in the territory of Alexander Nevsky Lavra.

The project of temporary preservation in the Russian Museum of the former drevlekhranilishch as a compulsory measure of protection of the lavrsky museum belonged to society "Old St. Petersburg" [15, l. 3-3 about.], assumed after the revolution care over Monastery. However plans of restoration of a drevlekhranilishch were not fated to be carried out. Gradual

closing of the operating churches and export of their property in Museum fund with the subsequent transfer of buildings in the territory of Monastery to various institutions and the organizations destroyed all illusions about revival of the museum. In the late twenties of a collection of a drevlekhranilishch were issued on permanent storage in the Russian Museum or transferred to other museums of Leningrad.

Drevlekhranilishche of Alexander Nevsky Lavra existed rather not for long [1, page 25-45, primech. 18-68 on page 106-108]. It was founded in 1909 at the initiative of the deputy of Monastery archimandrite Feofan (Tulyakov) and solemnly openly on March 16, 1910. The museum occupied the close room in a southwest tower of the Metropolitan case though had meeting, rather solid on number of exhibits. Its small popularity to public was explained by storage conditions. Also its catalog - the "Short Inventory" of a drevlekhranilishch published to its opening and containing the most general (and sometimes and total) data on exhibits did not promote public awareness of the museum [2]. In the inventory mostly datings, the sizes and data on origin of monuments were omitted.

Existence in a meeting of a drevlekhranilishch of objects of an Old Belief cult appeared from archival documents. In correspondence about distribution of the property seized in the middle - the second half of the 19th century from closed Old Belief molenny and monasteries, it was repeatedly mentioned their sending to Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The most considerable parties of icons were taken out to Monastery by definition of the St. Petersburg Spiritual consistory in 1859 from so-called Debt or Pikkiyevy molenny, being on Mokhovaya Street in St. Petersburg [6; 5], and at the beginning of 1879 from the Holy Synod. Receipt of 1859 contained 504 icons; in 1879 in the order of the Most eminent Isidor, metropolitan Novgorod and St. Petersburg 418 objects of "a raskolnichy cult" were provided [18].

In "The short inventory" of a drevlekhranilishch there are some mentions of hundred -

roobryadchesky monuments. So, in the section of icons with 419 on 456 number icons of "the Pomor letters" [2, page 64, No. 419-456] ** appear; at number 545 - "an icon-painting board (with the place which is cut out for a cross), with the image St. Tsar Konstantin and Sv. Queen Elena. 19th century" [2, page 65, No. 545]; are mentioned also Old Belief panagia [2, page 77, No. 836], "chains iron with raskolnichyago the Moscow Preobrazhensky cemeteries", arrived from the metropolitan Nicanor through Imperial Philanthropic Society in 1854 [2, page 77, No. 837], "copper cast obrazk and skladn" [2, page 65 No. 631-645], the marching antimension (odegon) consecrated at the Moscow Rogozhsky cemetery [2, page 5960, No. 181] ***.

The analysis of the archival documents connected with closing of Debt (Pikkiyeva) molenny in St. Petersburg allowed to establish that icons from this Old Belief temple were the center of the "Pomor" section of a lavrsky drevlekhranilishch [5].

In the fund of Alexander Nevsky Lavra which is stored in RGIA in St. Petersburg it was succeeded to find and identify one document, extremely important for our subject. The business heading spoke to the researcher little: "Inventories of the icons which were in the Lavrsky vestry stored. Apprx. 1880" [19]. However by the next comparison of inventories to the register of property molenny I.F. Dolgova [5, prilozh.] became obvious that the speech in both documents went about the same cult objects. Part of them was revealed in fund of Old Russian painting of the Russian Museum among the icons which came to GRM in 1922 from a drevlekhranilishch of the Aleksan-dro-Nevskoy monastery. Unfortunately, it is only a small part of an icon meeting of the drevlekhranilishch, in the 1930th given from the Russian Museum in Museum fund. Among remained in the Russian Museum the group of the works relating on style and an iconography to so-called Pomor letters - to the icons created in the north in Vygovsky the Pomor Old Belief desert is allocated. These are icons "Reverends Zosima and Savvaty the Solovki Wonder-workers", "Saint Conan

Gradar", "The guardian angel, the prince Mikhail of Tver and the martyr Tatiana", "The Reverend Anthony the Roman Wonder-worker in life", "Saint Basil the Great in life", "Annunciation", etc.

Studying the listed icons allowed to establish that they were written at the end of XVIII - the first third of the 19th century and got to molenny a part at its founder and the first owner - Ivan Feoktistovich Dolgy, a part at mentors molenny - Fedor Petrovich Babushkin and Vasily Erofeyev [5].

Emergence in its interior of icons "Reverends Zosima and Savvaty the Solovki Wonder-workers" and "Saint Conan Gradar", once being in a Friday number of an iconostasis can be connected with the founder of molenny. Points their style characteristic of the Pomor painting of icons of the third quarter to it - the end of the 18th century, and connection with dedication of the temple.

The inscription on the western wall Debt molenny, recorded at its inventory by officials of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, demonstrated that the Pomor temple had expanded dedication: "This svyaty prayful temple for Erection honest and live tvoryashchago Gospodn and Znameniya Pre-svyatyya Cross of the Virgin and Cathedral of the Archangel Michael and bodiless other heavenly powers and Svyatago great Predotechi and The Gospodn John and Svyatykh of the Supreme Apostles Pyotr and Pavel and Svyatitel Christoff Nikola Chudotvorts and St. Pravednago Alexy Chelovek Bozhiya and Reverends Zo-sima and Savvatiya Solovetskikh's father of wonder-workers, Alexander Svirsky Chudotvorts and Svyatago Pravednago of John Ustyuzhsky Chudotvorts is built..." [8, page 152, primech. 22 on page 155-156]. According to dedication also a local number of an iconostasis in which on the parties from the Royal gate, icons with similar images **** were located was organized. A peculiar program of a local row, as well as dedication molenny, certainly, were formulated in Vygovsky the Old Belief desert where long there lived representatives of family Long, and from where

subsequently mentors were sent in their St. Petersburg molenny. The dependence on Vyga was shown also in the device of a seven-level iconostasis, the next analogy to which served the iconostasis of the Bogoyavlensky cathedral chapel of Danilov of the monastery arranged after the fire of 1787 [5].

As appears from the inventory Debt molenny, as a part of its Friday row there was a considerable number of icons, on an iconography identical to local. Couples had images of Reverends Zosima and Savvatiya Solovetskikh, Saint Ioann Ustyuzhsky with the Guardian angel, Apostles Pyotr and Pavel, St. Alexy of the person Bozhiya, the Reverend Alexander Svirsky, composition Cathedral of the Archangel Michael, etc. The icon of the Solovki wonder-workers which is stored nowadays in the Russian Museum (inventory No. DRZh B-523) [4 also belonged to page 93 to such pair images, kat. 75].

Reverends Zosima and Savvaty are represented in three-quarter turns to the center, with monastery in hands, in prestanding to an image of the Mother of God "Sign". Throughout a long time the iconography of similar icons was not exposed to significant changes, only their sizes depending on the place taken in temple interiors varied. Group of the vygovsky icons of Reverends Zosima and Savvatiya which remained up to now (from the village Sheltoporog, KMII [3, page 96-97, kat. 1/8], from meeting TSMIAR [10, page 395, kat. 8, silt.], etc.) finds similarity of material signs and technology of execution, details of an iconography and the nature of inscriptions. Invariable is also an image of the monastery represented behind the powerful white walls with angular towers and travel gate in the foreground.

Honoring of the Solovki wonder-workers in Vygovsky the Pomor desert had deep roots. Conducted the origin of deserts from Solovetsky Monastery, the idea of continuity from which in 1719 was formulated by one of founders, and subsequently mentors of all-residence Andrey Denisov in "A funeral oration to Pyotr Pro-kopyevich": "Small this small river or. the general

this residence... to an istecha from a source order-kago Solovetskiya, I speak, Reverends the father and Zosima and Savvatiya's wordly prayer books of monastery of a yak blessing, taka a rank and the charter" [11, page 7].

The group of two icons treats the first third of the 19th century: "The Reverend Anthony the Roman Wonder-worker with life in 12 brands" and "Saint Basil the Great with life in 16 brands" (inventory No. DRZh B-77, DRZh B-310) [4, page 95, kat. 78; page 94, kat. 77]. The certificate to that not only their style, but also an inscription on the back of the first icon: "Vasilyyu Erof1evichyu | | about (t) Semyon Stefanov", pointing to a direct connection of an image with the mentor Dolgovoy molenny Vasily Erofeyev. Erofeyev - the native of Vygovsky all-residence - assumed management molenny in 1830. He corrected the position in 1841 when government officials began to collect the compromising information about pomorets. At this time the mentor was 75 years old [20, l. 91 about.-92].

Most likely, the called icons appeared in molenny together with the new mentor. In that case time of their creation is not beyond the first third of the XIX century - time of the last rise of vygovsky painting of icons. Icons of this time differ in special narration that is expressed not only in the choice of the plots allowing to transfer the coherent story but also in use of the extensive inscriptions accompanying images. The Saint Basil the Great's icon presenting the next analogy to St. Anthony Rimlyanin's image, most likely, was a patronalny image of Vasily Erofeyev, reproducing shape of his sacred soimennik.

The icon "Lady Day" accompanied with the tiny brands illustrating events from Virgin Mary's life (inventory No. DRZh B-137) [4 also belongs to page 96-97 to works of late vygovsky painting of icons, kat. 80]. The style of an icon also indicates the final stage in development of vygovsky painting of icons. Its characteristic signs are drier and grafichny, than before,

manner of performance, use brownish okhr in the personal letter, emergence on pozema of thin low fir-trees. As well as on two zhitiyny icons, the important part is assigned to the accompanying inscriptions commenting on almost each image on an icon.

Obvious signs of an iconography of the first decades of the XIX century can be noted on an icon "Saved Good silence" from a Friday row Debt molenny (inventory No. DRZh B-1273). The strict paleography of inscriptions, typical for earlier time, gaining lines of pretentiousness, and sometimes and negligences is transformed beyond recognition. Images of Christ Redeemer dressed in hierarchal attires with angelic wings behind the back, became widespread only at Old Believers [4, page 238-239, kat. 208]. One of characteristic signs of this iconographic type was the pose of Christ Redeemer represented with the hands crossed before a breast as a sign of humility and humility. In derogation from a traditional iconography on an icon from Debt molenny Isus Christ is represented with the blessing right hand and tools of passions in shuyets, than the subject of his sacrificial service is accented.

Two more icons from Debt molenny, come to the Russian Museum in 1922 through drevlekhranilishche Alexander Nevsky Lavra, were given in Museum fund subsequently (old numbers of the Russian Museum: 4449, 4743). These are images of a sacred soimennik of the founder molenny Ivan Feoktistovich Dolgov - the St. Ioann Ustyuzhsky presented accompanied by the Guardian angel. Possibly, compositions of these icons written in the second half of the XVIII century were close to the iconography of an image "The guardian angel, the prince Mikhail of Tver and the martyr Tatiana" coming from the same molenny (inventory No. DRZh B-113) [4, page 94, kat. 76]. Tradition of the image of sacred soimennik of customers accompanied by the Guardian angel - one of characteristic trends of Old Belief (Pomor) painting of icons.

In conclusion we will stop on features of one more icon - "Saints Vonifaty,

Moses the Black and Paisius Veliky" (inventory No. PM-6850) which origin remains still unknown. It got to Alexander Nevsky Lavra in 1879 among the objects of an Old Belief cult transferred from the Synod. The image was confiscated in the middle of the 19th century in one of molenny and brought to St. Petersburg, to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Numbers which are put down on its back and on a sticker serve as the evidences of movement of an icon.

Originally the icon was inserted into the frame with images of the elected Saints for some reason left in drevlekhranilishche (the icon size: 18 x 14.5; frame size: 50.3 x 40 cm). The icon was executed by the individual order, to what inscriptions on its back and specific selection of Saints serve as the evidence. Wishes of the customer are formulated in the following texts: "above prays... | | MChNK VMIFANTSH DEC (B), ©I (19) DM | | And PRP (D)BMAGO MOYSEYa of MURIN; AUG (C) KI (28) DM"; "from below Paissh conducted (j) a payasnov on (k) in (x) (?)".

The field of an icon is divided into two unequal parts. In top - on a gold background the martyr Vonifaty and the Reverend Moses the Black are represented. Saints are presented to growth, in a pose of prayful prestanding to Lord of Hosts written in the top part of an icon. Between their figures - with I oglavi-eat rectangular deepening for a copper and cast icon. In the lower part - a zone image of the Reverend Paisius Veliky.

The Saints represented on an icon were honored intercessors before God in concrete

troubles and everyday needs. Their names and occasions of the prayful address to them behind protection were given in the special compositions carrying the name: "To whom for what you pray" ("The legend, sacred which graces of healing from God are given by a cue and when their memory") [7, page 90, primech. 27 on page 94]. In the church calendar the days of remembrance of Saints Vonifatiya and Moses the Black fall on different numbers and months - on December 19 and on August 28, however the occasion of the prayful address to them was the same: prayed to Saints "for disposal of wine start singing-stva". At the same time the Reverend Paisius Veliky (memory on June 19) was considered as a deliverer from flour of the dead without repentance.

Similar icons with supplementary copper images became widespread in the Urals. Often they served stavrote-kam (krestokhranilishcham). In that case on the parties from a cross in the icon-painting equipment executed images coming on Golgotha. However quite often added to them also Saints from an arsenal of deliberate molebshchik. About options of combinations of icon-painting images and copper and cast icons it is possible to judge by publications [9, page 76, 200, kat. 334; page 77, 219, kat. 469; page 88, 201, kat. 343].

Only a part of the materials concerning monuments from a meeting of a drevlekhranilishch of Alexander Nevsky Lavra is presented in the present article. Prospects for further work are offered by studying works of Old Belief applied art and identification of the exhibits given in the 1930th on permanent storage out of limits of the Russian Museum.

* The research is executed with financial support RGNF, project No. 08-04-00428a "Traditions and innovations in the Old Belief fine arts of HU11-H1H of centuries: To an iconography of late Russian painting of icons".

** Judging by the inventory, also a part of the icons entering sections of "palekhovsky" and "mstersky" letters [2, page 64 No. 389-393 could belong to Old Belief icons; 387-388].

*** As it was succeeded to establish, odegon it was confiscated on July 15, 1855 in the village of Ivanovo of the Shuysky County of the Vladimir province from monks Konon and Pavel (b. peasants of the Kostroma province) also came to the Ministry of Internal Affairs through P.I. Melnikov. On October 3 the same year it was sent to the metropolitan Nicanor for storage in a vestry of Alexander Nevsky Lavra [17]. The modern location of a marching antimension is not established. The description of a subject is provided in the inventory of a drevlekhranilishch is inexact.

**** To the right of the Royal gate icons of Saviour oplechny, the Passion of the Christ with a supplementary cross, the Mother of God Znameniye, Nikola Chudotvorts, Zosima and Savvatiya Solovetskikh, Alexander Svirsky and Saint Michael the Archangel with 9 angelic hosts were located here; on the left - icons of the Mother of God Tikhvin, Trinities, the Assumption, Giovanni Battista, pervoverkhovny apostles Pyotr and Pavel, St. Ioann Ustyuzhsky with the Guardian angel and "image of the Sign of Blessed Virgin Mary in their top" and St. Alexy of the person Bozhiya [20, l. 28 about.-30].


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12. AGE. T. 4. 991: Inventories, acts and correspondence about transfer of all Alexander Nevsky Lavra to department of municipal services, about registration and export of historical and art objects and other things from Alexander Nevsky Lavra, metropolitan rooms and other premises of Alexander Nevsky Lavra in Muzfond and the museums. 24.11.1918-25.09.1923. 95 l.
13. AGE. T. 4. 994: Lists, inventories, acts and correspondence about export of things from Drevlekhranilishcha of Alexander Nevsky Lavra. 25.11.1918-01.09.1922. 57 l.
14. AGE. T. 4. 995: Lists, inventories, acts and correspondence about export of things from Drevlekhranilishcha of Alexander Nevsky Lavra. 20.07-08.08.1922. 47 l.
15. WA GRM. F. GRM (i). Op. 6. 270: Materials about transfer of historical and art property of Alexander Nevsky Lavra to the museum. 1922. 7 l.

Old Belief monuments from a drevlekhranilishch of Alexander Nevsky Lavra in the Russian Museum collection

16. WA GRM. F. GRM (i). Op. 6. 271: Materials about transfer of works of art to the museum... 16.07.1922-19.12.1923. 40 l.
17. RGIA. T. 796. Op. 136. 842: According to Iustin's report of the bishop Vladimir about capture of raskolnichy pseudo-monks Konon and Pavel and confiscation of their marching church. 42 l.
18. RGIA. T. 796. Op. 160. 2051: About transfer of the icons which are stored in Synod library in maintaining the metropolitan Novgorod and St. Petersburg. 21.01-06.02.1879. 11 l.
19. RGIA. T. 815. Op. 14. 37: Inventories of the icons which were in the Lavrsky vestry stored. Apprx. 1880 5 l.
20. RGIA. T. 1284. Op. 198 (1839). 77: On the Highest command about being in St. Petersburg dissenting molenny Kostsova. 17.08.1839-01.05.1852. 355 l.
21. RGIA. T. 1284. Op. 204 (1849). 971: About dissenting molenny in St. Petersburg in the house of the merchant Pikkiyev and in Shlisselburg in the house of the excise peasant Ivan Trofimov. 09.01.1849-15.03.1853. 60 l.
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