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At the beginning of the 20th Berlin became the largest cultural center of the Russian abroad. Here a considerable part of the scientists, public figures, publishers, writers, journalists, musicians, actors, artists, most famous in Russia, concentrated. The Russian emigrants with irony said about it that in the capital of Germany (recent opponent) the Russian speech you will meet more often than the German.

At the beginning of the 20th in Berlin two Russian gymnasiums were open. The first was based by the Russian academic group in 1921. Classes in it were given in the second half of day in the German private school. The St. Georgy's school created on a sample of the German schools in St. Petersburg by the pastor I.A. Mazing, which had classical and commercial offices and also a boarding school was the second. Graduates of these gymnasiums had rights to come to higher educational institutions of Germany. Besides, in Berlin elementary school for children of poor emigrants worked.

Activity of scientists was vigorous. In the German capital they created various nauchnoissledovatelsky institutions and public organizations of scientists: Russian

the academic group, Free spiritual and philosophical academy, the Russian scientific and philosophical society, the Russian scientific institute, Society of the Russian engineers in Germany, Society of the Russian doctors, the Economic office.

Since 1920 the Russian book publishing quickly developed. According to different data, by 1924 from 40 to 87 emigrant publishing houses worked there. From them I.P. Ladyzhnikov, O. Dyakova, Z.I. Grzhebin's publishing houses, Slovo, Petropolis, "Bronze Horseman" were the largest, each of which produced more than one thousand titles of books. Works by the Russian classics and writers emigrants of the senior generation were republished (D.S. Merezhkovsky, I.A. Bunin, A.N. Tolstoy, Z.N. Gippius, V.F. Khodasevich, N.A. Berdyaev and others). Except a large number of works of art, Slovo published a number of the most valuable memoirs and documentary books.

The editor of Slovo publishing house I.V. Gessen in cooperation with the German publishing house of Ulstein released 22 volumes of "Archive of the Russian revolution". The Petropolis publishing house released the first complete works of I.A. Bunin, the collection of verses of O.E. Mandelstam forbidden in the Soviet Russia "Mahogany" of B.A. Pilnyak, L.D. Trotsky's reminiscence "My life". Publishing house 3. I. Grzhebina published M. Gorky, V.F. Khodasevich, S.A. Yesenin, B.D. Pasternak's books.

In Berlin there were several daily newspapers: "Voice of Russia", "Wheel", "The day before". The magazines which found broad popularity were issued: "Life" under V.B. Stankievich's edition, "The new Russian book", "Socialist the messenger", "Dawn" (body of the right Mensheviks-plekhanovtsev), "Career" (body of the Russian anarcho-syndicalists), "The Russian truth" (national and monarchic body under S. Sokolov and P.N. Krasnov's edition). The Russian periodical press reflected practically all palette of parties and movements of the Russian abroad - from monarchists to anarchists, and literary and art magazines — from "Firebird" (the body of the World of Art group edited by S. Cherny) to the magazine of constructivists "Thing" under editorial office E. Lissitsky - incorporated all variety of the literaturnokhudozhestvenny directions of the Silver age.

In Berlin, besides the Union of journalists and writers, there were two writer's associations - "Club of Writers" and "House of Arts". The club was created in 1922 by representatives of the senior generation of writers emigrants. Except them, in club, writers and artists from the Soviet Russia often acted. "The house of arts" was founded in 1921 by analogy with St. Petersburg. Along with writers emigrants in it B.L. Pasternak coming from Moscow, B.A. Pilnyak, S.A. Yesenin, V.V. Mayakovsky acted. Here discussions, readings, exhibitions, etc. were held

In the 20th in Berlin there were three constant Russian theaters: "Russian romantic ballet" (head B.G. Romanov), "Bluebird of happiness" (head Yakov Youzhny), Vanka-Vstanka. Theater & #34; Blue птица" on the style and the repertoire resembled on & #34; Flying мышь" Nikita Belyaev. In this theater the famous variety singer of satiric songs Victor Henkin acted. The famous poet N.Ya. Agnivtsev, the author of the poetic collections "My Songs" which appeared in Berlin and

was soul of Vanka-Vstanki

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"Brilliant St. Petersburg". From drama theater productions in Berlin performances of the so-called "Prague troupe the" of actors of Moscow Art Theatre who did not come back to the USSR became the noticeable phenomenon. Among them — Mikhail Chekhov, Varvara and Lev Bulgakov, Nicolai Colin, Vera Greek

The Russian musical art quickly won the German scene. Berlin was visited by the famous composers N.K. Metner, A.K. Glazunov, A.T. Grechaninov, conductors E.A. Cooper, Yu.N. Pomerantsev. Pianists A.K. Borovsky, A.I. Ziloti gave concerts. Here the famous chamber singer Polina Dobert, a baritone of the Bolshoi Theatre G.V. Baklanov, the famous tenor D.A. Smirnov, F.I. Shalyapin acted. Thanks to such singers as Zinaida Yuryevskaya who became the singer of the German opera and Dmitry Smirnov, on the German stage the Russian operas "Eugene Onegin", "Boris Godunov", "Royal Bride" appeared.

In the German capital personal exhibitions of the Russian artists living there often were organized: Ivan Puni, Georgy Lukomsky, Lissitsky, Pavel Chelishchev, Vasily Kandinsky's Ale. Marc Chagall, Marianna Verevkina, Alexey Yavlensky's pictures were exposed. Most of them were supporters of pointless art and semi-subject symbolism.

Berlin remained the leading center of the Russian abroad up to the middle of the 1920th. As a result of the hardest economic crisis which struck Germany, Russian intelligentsia began to leave the city to Spree. The Russian theaters were closed, scientific and public organizations stopped the existence.


S.S. Ippolitov, A.G. Katayeva. "I cannot come off Russia..." The Russian publishers in Germany in the 1920th of M.,2000.

S.S. Ippolitov, V.M. Nedbayevsky, Yu.I. Rudentsova. Three capitals of exile: Constantinople, Berlin, Paris: The centers of foreign Russia the 1920th - the 1930th of M.,1999.

M. Rayev Russia abroad: Cultural history of the Russian emigration, 1919 - 1939. M.,1994.

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