The Science Work
Site is for sale:
Category: History

Ethnomigration processes and sociocultural portrait of the population of the Republic of Karelia

15. Sokolov M. M. Russian National Unity: An Analysis of the Political Style of a Radical Nationalist Organization. Russian Politics and Law, 2008. No. 46(4). P. 62-75.


1. Bans V. Stenogramma lektsii professora Kornell&skogo universiteta Valeri Bans "Tsvetnye "revoljutsii cherez vybory": pochemu oni proizoshli i kto sledujuschij?". 2006 / / 27_02_ok1.doc
2. Barkova A. L. Tolkinisty: pjatnadcat& let razvitija subkul&tury. Molodezhnye subkul&tury Moskvy/Sost. D. V.Gromov; Otv. red. M. Ju. Martynova. M.: IJEA RAN, 2009.
3. Geodakjan V. G., Kon I. S. i dr. Net nichego slozhnee ochevidnogo //Znanija — sila. 1985. No. 11.
4. DolotE. Dover&te im delo//Molodoj kommunist. 1983. No. 4.
5. Dontsov A. I. O ponjatii "gruppa" v social&noj psihologii// Vestnik Mosk. un-ta. Ser. 14: Psihologija.
1997. No. 4.
6. Kirgizskij bunt. Mnenija jekspertov. 2005 / / http://www.polit. ru/analytics/2005/03/22/kyr.html
7. Kordonskij M. Kak delajutsja molodjozhnye revoljucii: putch grantoedov. 2005 //

8. Kostjushev V. V. Molodezhnye soobschestva i dvizhenija v pole politiki//Tolerantnost& kak obraz zhizni: Uchebno-metodicheskoe posobie/Pod red. G. L. Bardier, A. Ju. Sungurova. SPb.: Jutas, 2008. S. 44-66.
9. Kratkij psihologicheskij slovar&. Rostov n/D: Feniks, 1999.
10. Morozovskij R. Lider i zakony neformal&nyh grupp, sajt "Al&truizm". 2010 / / sengine.cgi/5/29/1
11. Neformal&nye molodjozhnye organizacii Peterburga/V. S .Guschin, I. S. Bugakov i dr; Pod red. A. A. Kozlova, V. A. Kanajana. SPb: Mar-Sof, 2008.
12. Perechen& obschestvennyh i religioznyh objedinenij, inyh nekommercheskih organizatsij, v otnoshenii kotoryh sudom prinjato vstupivshee v zakonnuju silu reshenie o likvidacii ili zaprete dejatel&nosti po osnovani-jam, predusmotrennym Federal&nym zakonom "O protivodejstvii ekstremistskoj dejatel&nosti". Ministerstvo justicii. 2010 / /
13. Pochepcov G. G. Osnovy protestnoj inzhenerii. M.: Evropa, 2005.
14. Toporova A. "Nacboly" v Sankt-Peterburge: obrazy i povsednevnost&. Sajt "RosMolodjozh&\", 2008//
15. Sokolov M. M. Russian National Unity: An Analysis of the Political Style of a Radical Nationalist Organization. Russian Politics and Law, 2008. No. 46(4). P. 62-75.

E.A. Dzheglav


The Republic of Karelia was not always the multinational region, difficult ethnic (national) and religious structure — result of the migration processes which began in the XX century and continuing still. The last decade in the republic the active policy on harmonization of the international and interfaith relations and formation of values of tolerance in society is pursued, the projects promoting adaptation of migrants and their integration into the accepting community are carried out.


The Republic of Karelia has not always been a multinational region. Diverse ethnic (national) and religious population is a result of ongoing migration that has started in the twentieth century. During the last decade the Karelian government has been providing an active policy directed to harmonization of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations and to the creation of tolerance values in the society. There are many projects that contribute to the adaptation of migrants and their integration into the host community.

The population of the Republic of Karelia, as well as in many regions of the country, has complex ethnic (national) and religious structure. In the republic, according to the All-Russian population census of 2002, at total population a little more than 700 thousand people, about 150 nationalities are recorded [3]. The most part from them — the people living in the territory of Russia. But Karelia was not always the multiethnic region, active resettlement to the republic begins only in the 20th century.

For all XX century the Republic of Karelia was the region, attractive to migrants, that was caused developed social and economic

situation and purposeful work of the government on involvement of migrants. Karelia keeps the status of the region, attractive to migration, for many reasons also now: (1) relative stability in social and economic and social and political spheres; (2) proximity to the central industrial and advanced regions of Russia and Western Europe; (3) a favorable situation in the field of labor migration, owing to entry into force of the new legislation; (4) existence of a possibility of receiving vocational and higher education, etc.

The history of formation of ethnic structure of the Republic of Karelia can be divided into several stages: the first stage (till 20th years of the 20th century) — to this stage the migration processes were insignificant and not strongly affected ethnic structure of the republic; the second stage (the 20th — the 30th years of the 20th century) in the period of which industrial resettlement was organized; the third stage (the 30th — the 90th years of the 20th century) over which there are extensive migration processes which strongly influenced ethnic structure of the republic; the fourth stage (from the 90th the 20th century so far) — in Karelia appears considerable number of immigrants from Baku, Nagorno-Karabakh, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, etc. thereof Karelia becomes even more polietnichny.

At the first stage (till 20th years of the 20th century) formations of ethnic structure Karelia the Karelians, Veps and Russians making practically all resident population of edge — *

mainly inhabited

of 98.7%. According to a census of 1897, in the territory of present Karelia the number of Russians was 120,341 persons, the Karelian — 75,168 thousand, Veps — 7096 people, Finns — 1470 people, Ukrainians — 42 persons, Belarusians — 7, predstvitel of other nationalities — 584 persons [1, page 86-93].

At the second stage — 20-3 0 years of the 20th century — in the Karelian Labour Commune (KLC) formed on June 8, 1920 by the decree of VTsIK most of the population, namely 98.4%, were presented only by Karelians and Russians. In the late twenties — the beginning of the 30th years reorganization of resettlement matter in Karelia was undertaken. At Council of People's Commissars of the republic created special Resettlement management for which the organizations of industrial resettlement of constant personnel for the increasing needs of the industry set the task, first of all — forest. Creation of new jobs in the region attracted the population from the neighboring areas of RSFSR, later — from the western and central regions of the country.

From 30th years of the 20th century it is possible to speak about the beginning of the third stage in formation of ethnic structure of the republic when migration processes began to stimulate with a number of special measures actively: privileges for the persons working in the remote areas of the USSR and out of large city settlements, a privilege to industrial immigrants, etc. Inflow of the inonatsionalny population since the middle of the 20th century led to considerable mixture of ethnic groups, to growth of number of Belarusians, Ukrainians, Finns and Russians and to decrease in a share of Karelians and Veps in places of their traditional accommodation.

In the early nineties — the fourth stage — the new diasporas before dissolved in the lump of the population and which were imperceptible declared themselves. To this period to Karelia there arrived several hundreds of Armenians (refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh and Baku) and the Georgian (refugees from South Ossetia, and especially from Abkhazia), to the same time arrived many Russians who left hot spots. At the same time Karelia was left by Russians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Tatars and a considerable part of the Finns who left on permanent residence to Finland. With

the middle of the 90th years the number of Azerbaijanians among whom there are many natives of Georgia and the Chechens who left the combat zone increases. In general migration of the 90th years, having added national color, practically did not influence the ethnic structure of the population which developed in the middle of the century.

According to the All-Russian population census of 2002, Karelia remains the multinational republic with prevalence of Russians, all nationalities there are about 150. The number of Russians is made by 548,941 persons, the second largest there are Karelians — 65,651 persons, the third — Belarusians (37,681 persons), on the fourth place — Ukrainians, numbering 19,248 people, the number of Finns and Veps is 14,156 and 4870 people respectively. Also It should be noted nationalities which number was more than 2000 people - it is Poles (3022 persons) and Tatars (2628 people). The most significant nationalities among those which number is less than 2000 people are: Azerbaijanians (1753 persons), Armenians (1599 people), Chuvashs (1298 people), Roma (1098 people), Lithuanians (1074 persons). Other nationalities are presented numbering less than 1000 people. The number of the persons who did not specify nationality in the questionnaire was 4886 people [3].

Taking into account the history of formation of ethnic structure of Karelia and proceeding from the number of the nationalities presented in the republic, at the present stage in Karelia it is possible to allocate five main groups of the people: (1) indigenous people — Karelians and Veps (it is also worth carrying Sami whom, according to a census of 2002, in Karelia there are 7 people to number of indigenous people of Karelia); (2) the ethnic majority — Russians; (3) the people populating Karelia in XIX — the head

The 20th century which number is more than 2000 people. — Belarusians, Ukrainians, Finns, Poles, Tatars; (4) the people populating Karelia in the 20th century which number is up to 2000 people; (5) the people, the presented numbering up to 20 people.

The first group of the people — Karelians and Veps — are indigenous people of Karelia. According to a population census of 2002, in the territory of the Russian Federation was Karelians 93,344, and the number of Veps was 4870 people. The Karelian and Veps languages (and also Finnish) make national property of the Republic of Karelia and are under its protection.

In 2004 the Legislative assembly of the Republic of Karelia in the third reading adopted the law "About the State Support of the Karelian, Veps and Finnish Languages in the Republic of Karelia", and in 2006 in the republic the republican target program "The State Support of the Karelian, Veps and Finnish Languages in the Republic of Karelia for 2006-2010" within which work on several directions is conducted was approved: 1) the organization and improvement of a system of training, education in the Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages; 2) support of information activities and activity of the mass media (MM) in the Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages; 3) publishing. Improvement of process of formation of literature in the Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages; 4) support of scientific research, holdings of conferences, seminars and workshops; 5) formation and development of national culture of Karelians, Veps and Finns; 6) implementation of a package of measures for ensuring safety of onomastics in the Karelian, Veps and Finnish languages (in territories of compact accommodation of Karelians, Veps and

Finns); 7) international, interregional cooperation and assistance of activity of public organizations in development of national languages; 8) support of activity of public organizations and movements of the Karelians, Veps and Finns aimed at the development of language and culture in the Republic of Karelia.

Thus, it is possible to claim that in the republic purposeful activities for preservation of language, culture and traditions of indigenous people by means of realization various sotsio- and ethnocultural, public and scientific projects, actions and competitions are conducted.

The second group of the people — the ethnic majority of Karelia presented by Russians. Following the results of the All-Russian census of 2002, the number of Russians in the Republic of Karelia was 548,941 persons. The number and a share of Russians in the population of Karelia (76.6%) are one of the highest among republics within the Russian Federation.

The third group of the people — the people populating Karelia in XIX — the head of the 20th century whose number is more than 2000 people — Belarusians, Ukrainians, Finns, Poles, Tatars.

Karelia takes the fifth place on the number of the Belarusians living in territorial subjects of the Russian Federation. Now Belarusians as ethnic group remain in Karelia mainly at the expense of the population of advanced ages. If to take more than 90% international brachnost of the Belarusian youth and its consequence into account, then at the remaining ethnodemographic and ethnocultural situation there are all bases to assume that Belarusians, most likely, will be assimilated by Russians already in the near future [2].

Following the results of the All-Russian census of 2002, the number of Ukrainians in the Republic of Karelia was 19,248 people. The general

the stvo of the Ukrainian culture "Guelder-rose" created on March 7, 1993 is one of the most active national public organizations in the republic today. Since 1994 annually in March the society organized Days of the Ukrainian culture. Almost annually society participated in celebration of Day of Slavic writing and the culture, the City Day of Petrozavodsk. At the moment society takes active part in development and the implementation of the state target programs and projects of the government of the republic and local governments directed to harmonization of the national and confessional relations, formation in the republic of the tolerant attitude towards migrants and on adaptation of migrants. At Society of the Ukrainian culture "Guelder-rose" Ukrainian courses, chorus of the Ukrainian song work, weekly there take place meetings of members of society, etc.

Karelia is in the first place among other subjects on the number of Finns — 14,156 people. The modern Finnish diaspora approximately on 5/6 consists of the ingermanlandsky Finns and their descendants who were born in Karelia and considering it the homeland. Since 1989 the Inger-manlandsky union of Finns of Karelia uniting an active part of diaspora works. In the republic the Finnish which is given the state support functions. The finnoyazychny press (there is a Karyalan Sano-mat newspaper, the Karelia and Kipinya magazines) remains, are conducted by radio - and telecasts, theater productions are carried out. Finnish is learned at schools and higher education institutions of Karelia. In 1993 at the Petrozavodsk state university the faculty of the Baltic-Finnish philology and culture is open.

Poles and Tatars are not so numerous in comparison with Belarusians, Ukrainians and Finns. The number of Poles, on

given to a census of 2002, made 3022 people. Tatars in Karelia there are 2628 people (including Tatars Siberian — 1 people, Tatars Crimean — 3 people).

The people populating Karelia in the 20th century numbering up to 2000 people make 2.8% of the total population of Karelia. Treat to this group of the people: Azerbaijanians, Armenians, Lithuanians, mordva, Germans, Jews, Moldavians, Georgians.

The group of the people numbering up to 20 people is presented more than a half of the nationalities listed at a census of 2002. From them more than 20 people are presented to Karelia by one person.

In the conditions of a social, national, religious variety of the population of Karelia the hard work of the state and municipal authorities and also institutes of civil society directed to formation of tolerance is necessary as instrument of ensuring consent between certain people and groups with various value orientations, otherwise increase of social and economic, social and political, interethnic and interreligious intolerance is possible. These forms of manifestation of intolerance can be used by the extremist movements inciting hatred, national discord and the social conflicts in society.

In case of a situation of social tension migrants — one of groups of the population which can get under the greatest blow. Especially those who arrived in Karelia quite recently — at the end of the XX century. For example, as it happened in 2006 in Kondopoga when the household conflict in restaurant between visitors and the waiter, the illegal migrant, turned into a large fight as a result of which two persons died. The local community apprehended the conflict

as interethnic then in the night of the first for September second were burned several cafe, grocery tents and garages belonging to natives from the Caucasus. In the next days in the city there were mass riots, meetings with requirements to move from the city of illegal migrants were organized. More than 60 migrants were evacuated from Kondopoga to Petrozavodsk.

Mass riots in Kondopoga — the only interethnic conflict of such scale in the republic. This case showed that in the republic purposeful full-time work on harmonization of the interethnic relations and formation of tolerance is necessary. At the end of 2006 in Karelia the development of the target programs and projects solving this problem, and about 2007 active participation in begins

this activity begin to accept national public organizations and other institutes of civil society.

By the present moment in Karelia for ensuring ethnopolitical, ethnosocial and ethnocultural rights of the people of the Russian Federation living in the territory of the republic the complex system of events providing realization of the rights for the free choice of language of communication, education, creativity, maintaining traditions, welfare adaptation to local conditions is held. In Karelia there are positive tendencies to development of civil society — creation of the public associations representing the interests of the people and ethnic minorities of the Russian Federation living in the republic.

In counties of Olonets and Arkhangelsk provinces which were later a part Karelian the ASSR. (Calculated on: The first general population census of the Russian Empire 1897 of XXVII. Olonets province. T. 1. Page 86-93; 1. Arkhangelsk province. T. 2. Page 104-107).

Petrozavodsk, Olonets, Povenetsky, Pudozhsky Counties of the Olonets province and Kemsky County of the Arkhangelsk province.

The absence as a part of KTK of the Sheltozersko-Berezhkovsky volost affected the number of Veps whom there were only 52 persons.


1. The first General population census of the Russian Empire 1897 of XXVII: Olonets province. A notebook 2 / Under the editorship of N.A. Troynitsky. B. m: Prod. center. To become. committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 1900.
2. Reference information about historical, cultural, demographic and national peculiarities of the Areas of Republic of Karelia. Electronic resource. Access mode:
3. The number and the structure of the population of the Republic of Karelia according to the All-Russian population census of 2002: Statistical collection. Issue 1. Petrozavodsk: Komstat of RK, 2004.


1. Pervaja Vseobschaja perepis& naselenija Rossijskoj Imperii 1897 g. XXVII: Olonetskaja gubernija. Tetrad& 2/Pod red. N. A. Trojnitskogo. B. m.: Izd. Centr. stat. Komiteta MVD, 1900.
2. Spravochnaja informatsija ob istoricheskih, kul&turnyh, demograficheskih i natsional&nyh osobennostjah rajonov Respubliki Karelija. Elektronnyj resurs. Rezhim dostupa: National/district07.html
3. Chislennost& i sostav naselenija Respubliki Karelija po dannym Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2002 goda: Statisticheskij sbornik. Vyp. 1. Petrozavodsk: Komstat RK, 2004.
Heather Santiago
Other scientific works: