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Trade role in economic activity of Azerbaijanians of Dagestan (XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century)

UDK 94 (470.67)


© 2010 of Z.A. Magaramov

Institute of history, archeology and ethnography Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography

Dagestan scientific center RAS, of Dagestan Scientific Center of RAS,

M. Yaragsky St., 75, Makhachkala, 367030 M. Yaragskiy St., 75, Makhachkala, 367030

On the basis of written sources an attempt to light a trade role in economic activity of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians in XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century is made. Trade and economic contacts of Azerbaijanians of Dagestan with the next people are shown, the role of Derbent as intermediary in relationship of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians with the people of Dagestan and the outside world is opened.

On the basis of written sources the attempt is undertaken to illuminate a role of trade in economic activity of Dagestan&s Azerbaijani in XVIII - the begining of XIX with. The trade economic contacts of Azerbaijani of Dagestan with their neighbors are shown, role Derbent as intermediary in mutual relation Dagestan&s Azerbaijani with the peoples of Dagestan and external world is opened.

The Dagestan Azerbaijanians - ethnic group of the Azerbaijani ethnos forming the main population of Azerbaijan and Northwest Iran. Azerbaijanians of Dagestan are settled in Caspian and foothill parts of Southern Dagestan. On materials of the All-Russian population census of 2002, the Azerbaijanians living in Dagestan there are about 112 thousand that makes 4.3% of the population of the republic.

Azerbaijanians of Dagestan up to the end of the 30th of the 20th century in historical literature and documents were called the Transcaucasian, or Azerbaijani Tatars, Turkic peoples [1]. In their structure the special subethnic group of terekemeyets who up to the beginning of the 20th century were considered by separate ethnic group, and nowadays as it marks out S.Sh. Gadzhiyev is allocated, they call themselves Azerbaijanians not only by origin, but also on language [2, page 27]. Generally a zone of residence of Azerbaijanians in Dagestan are the Derbent district and a foothill part Tabasaran. About a half of them live in rural areas.

Agriculture and cattle breeding were major activities of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians in XVIII - the beginning of the 19th century, as well as other people of Dagestan. Not less important role in economic activity was played by trade. Being in the territory through which there passed the Great silk way from Western Asia to Eastern Europe and back, they felt all benefits of rich trade and civilized life.

The Dagestan Azerbaijanians during the studied period did brisk business the neighbors - Tabasarans, Lezgians, Kaitags, terekemeyets, Kumyks, traded in Derbent, went to the large cities of Transcaucasia (Noah, Shemakha, Baku, Tiflis) and the North Caucasus [2, page 72].

An important role in trade and economic life of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians was played by trade ways by which they were connected with the next people and adjacent regions. According to the available data, through the territory of their resettlement the main road from Northern to Southern Dagestan ran ", passing Derbent..., by Iran Harab, on Smaller Darbakh's valley, Bulak, through the village of Darbakh and, passing the Derbent wall and the steepness of the Tabasaran ridge on the valley to the Maidan Deremerzhler which was changed at the village Magraga in terrible deep by a fashion show tesnisty stony passes, to the natural boundary to Devich Magatan. From this place it was divided into two other roads: goes to Derbent and to the main road, Elchi of spinning tops of called. Other Tabasaran road goes from Bulak's Maidan up Smaller Darbakh's valley through the village of Zyl, the Derbent wall and the Tabasaran ridge, the village Penchi and further..." [3, page 154 - 155].

This way is mentioned also by S. Bronevsky noting that the main road from Northern went to Southern Dagestan and Shirvan across the territory of resettlement of Azerbaijanians, namely "on Smaller Darbakh's valley where it was divided into four: 1, road to the village Ersi; other three ways through the Tabasaran ridge to Shirvan are paved on the following places: 2, on Makhmet-bekova the village Mitakhi; 3, through Kadiyeva the village of Darbakh; 4, through Kadiyeva the village of Zyl..." [4, page 343 - 344].

A significant role in trade relations of neighboring Azerbaijani settlements Derbent - the most important trade and economic center of the Caucasus and all Middle East, one of the largest seaports on the Caspian Sea had, the transshipment and transit center of the international sea trade [5, page 25] around which were in essence located the earth of these settlements. Derbent played a role of the active intermediary in relationship of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians with other people of Dagestan. Dealers almost from all regions of Dagestan with the products gathered in this city. "The most part from residents of Derbent, - A.I. Akh-verdov notes, - are engaged in merchant trade, have in purchase and sale from different places the Persian goods brought to them with which in a small amount sell works and silk and the paper-mills which are available in the city" [6, page 219].

Trade operations were made also in large settlements which acted as shopping centers not only local, but also zone, regional value. Mutually advantageous trade and economic contacts within the territory of resettlement of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians were intensive and regular. The centers of domestic trade were such settlements as Darvag, Ersi, Pengik, Huchni [7].

Trade contacts of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians with the next people were the most brisk. They went with the goods to villages of the Samur valley, in particular to the settlement of Akhty which was the place of brisk trade of the people of Southern Dagestan [8, page 144] and also shopping centers of the Kaitag utsmiystvo and the Tabasaran possession.

The main sales market the Dagestan Azerbaijanians of products of agriculture, cattle breeding and craft products nevertheless was Derbent [9] in which there was a considerable local merchant layer which was engaged in trade operations and out of Derbent. It was explained first of all by proximity of Derbent and also the fact that here all conditions for trade were created. In 1796 P.G. Butkov counted in Derbent "caravanserais 6, benches of everyones 500, monetary house one" [10, page 202]. According to the plan, with -

to the 18th century, stavlenny at the beginning of the 20th, in Derbent from East side to "the lock the Persian yard adjoined" in which the caravanserai and the mosque are placed, and on L. Gertunga's plan the city was divided into three parts, in the second of them there were caravanserais and other malls [11, page 124, 127 - 128].

Besides, in this city the Dagestan Azerbaijanians had an opportunity to come into trade contacts with many people of the North Caucasus, Transcaucasia, Iran and other east countries as in Derbent merchant people from persiyan, armyan, Georgians and Indians" were engaged in trade much "[12, page 86]. "The most notable of them (merchants from Derbent. - Z.M.), - the Kizlyar commandant reported, - the having big auction, go to further places to Persia and with local Persians have commercial relations, bringing their goods" [6, page 217].

The academician S.G. Gmelin surveying Caspian areas from 1769 to 1774 fairly reported about extensive overland trade of Derbent and about participation in it of the mountain people, including Dagestan Azerbaijanians. The Province of Gilyanskaya and the city of Shemakha, he wrote, supplied Derbent "with different paper and silk materials as that kutneyu, kanavaty, a muslin and burmetyyu which exchange to Lezgians and mountain Tatars for one sort of thin cloth which them in mountains prepares" [13, page 19].

Shemakha, Baku, Noah, Cuba and other trade and economic centers of Azerbaijan were the main centers of sale of the products and purchase of necessary goods for the Dagestan Azerbaijanians, as well as for other people of Dagestan. As G.B. Abdullaev notes, "the mountain people on that side of Derbent partly deliver the living, works to Derbent, and partly in Baku where in exchange receive oil, salt and the Russian goods" [14, page 140]. In Shemakha for the Dagestan dealers there was the caravanserai called "lezgi-caravanserai" or "the Tatar house" where, according to the German traveler A. Oleariya, also Jews, the delivering finest of Tabasaran carpets stopped [15, page 102 - 103].

As the area of resettlement of Azerbaijanians was one of areas of rather developed agriculture, grain (wheat, barley, rice, etc.), and in a foothill part - walnuts and fruit as dried, and fresh was the main subject of trade of its inhabitants. A certain place in trade exchange was taken by the krupnorogaty cattle, salt, raw silk, a madder, oil, the wood, firewood. The list of goods which Azerbaijanians bought from mountaineers (Dargins, Tabasarans, Kubachins, kazikumukhets, the top Lezgians, Andi, etc.) was wider. It included sheep wool, cheese, fresh and air-dried meat, the potter's and wooden utensils, cold weapon, sickles, braids, felt cloaks, ready sheepskin fur coats for men, papakhas carried, etc. To the market to Derbent from Tabasaran and top Kaytaga there came masters in tailoring of fur coats and caps with full bullock carts

raw materials and preparations. They brought also ready fur coats and papakhas (from kurpeya, sheepskins). There were a fitting, the choice of goods to taste. Mountaineers generally changed the products for grain [2, page 72] in which they even in bumper-crop years felt an acute shortage, though put enormous work in agriculture, mastering and sowing the slightest plots of land, suitable for crops. With approach of time of harvesting the inhabitants of mountains dispersed on plane and foothill areas, including on the Azerbaijani villages to exchange products of livestock production or a product of house crafts for grain.

Residents of the neighboring Azerbaijani settlements of Derbent drove the cattle to the city, brought raw silk, charcoal, salt and other goods. In exchange bought goods of the Russian, Armenian, Georgian, Middle Eastern, Indian and Chinese merchants in Derbent. Among them there were various household goods from steel, iron, copper, a tree, paint, fabric (cotton, silk), ware (glass, faience, porcelain), writing paper, sugar, tea, soap, etc. [16, page 234].

One of highly profitable articles of trade of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians was made by a madder - a tinctorial plant which occupied the huge land plots. If to judge by data of a number of sources, the marenovodstvo role around resettlement of Azerbaijanians during the studied period was so big that "almost forced out arable farming" [17, page 433]. Crops of a madder were figuratively called even crops of "gold". Marenovodstvo gradually turned into economy with tovarotselevy appointment, becoming major activity of inhabitants. Trade in a madder made huge profit and to residents of Derbent. As F.M. Aliyev notes, "the richest of the merchants living now in Derbent are obliged by the wealth only to trade in a madder" [18, page 87].

Thus, the analysis of the above-stated actual material allows to note that trade and economic contacts of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians with the next people and adjacent regions were very close, mutually advantageous and mutually useful. Such nature of the relation with the next people helped the Dagestan Azerbaijanians to solve their many economic and economic problems, entered Azerbaijanians in economic and economic unity of Dagestan, in the economic community of Dagestan formed during the studied period.

Literature and notes

1. Ibragimov M.-R. A.K of the history of formation of the Dagestan Azerbaijanians//Historical and cultural and economic relations of the people of Dagestan and Azerbaijan: through past experience a look in the 21st century: materials Mezhdunar. nauch. - prakt. konf., devoted to the 110 anniversary since the birth of Aziz Aliyev.

on June 8, 2007 Makhachkala, 2007. Page 66.

2. Gadzhiyevo S.Sh. Dagestan Azerbaijanians. XIX - the beginning of the 20th century: historical and ethnographic research. M, 1999.
3. F.F. Simonovich. Description of Southern Dagestan. 1796//History, geography and ethnography of Dagestan the XVIII-XIX centuries: archive materials / under the editorship of M.O. Kosven and X. - M. Hashayeva. M, 1958. (Further - IGED).
4. S. Bronevsky. The latest geographical and historical news of the Caucasus. Part 2. M, 1823.
5. A.A. Kudryavtsev. City not subject to centuries. Makhachkala, 1976.
6. A.I. Akhverdov. Description of Dagestan. 1804//IGED.
7. The field material collected by the author in 2007 - 2008 in the Azerbaijani villages of Dagestan.
8. H.H. Ramazanov, A.R. Shikhsaidov. Essays of history of Southern Dagestan. Materials to history of the people of Dagestan since the most ancient times prior to the beginning of the 20th century Makhachkala, 1964.
9. The field material collected by the author in 2007 in the village Darvag of the Tabasaran area of the Republic of Dagestan.
10. Caravanserais served generally dealers and housing, sales of goods and in were used for the shelter and protection against robberies, under warehouses for storage of goods,

quality of the stable. P.G. Butkov. Data on the Cuban and Derbent possession. 1796//IGED.

11. L.A. Goldenberg. Hand-written cards of the 18th century as a source on the history of the city of Derbent//the Arkheografichesky year-book for 1963 of M., 1964.
12. I. Gerber - G. The description of the countries and the people along the west bank of the Caspian Sea. 1728//IGED.
13. S.G. Gmelin. A travel across Russia for a research of all three kingdoms in the nature. Part 3. SPb., 1785.
14. G.B. Abdullaev Azerbaijan in the 18th century and relationship with Russia. Baku, 1965.
15. Dagestan in news of the Russian and Western European authors of the XIII-XVIII centuries / sost., vved., will enter. article to texts and V.G. Gadzhiyev's notes. Makhachkala, 1992.
16. A.A. Kremsky. Excerpts from the description of Dagestan and Shirvan. 1806//IGED.
17. The acts collected by the Caucasian arkheografichesky commission. T. 12. Tiflis, 1904.
18. F.M. Aliyev. Mission of the envoy of the Russian state A.P. Volynsky in Azerbaijan. Baku, 1919.

Came to edition On June 26, 2009

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