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Category: History


 © 2005 A.G. Danilov


Higher educational institutions of Russia had noticeable impact on various aspects of life of society in XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. In August, 1917 it was specified in the report of the Ministry of national education of provisional government: "Development of national education at all steps and, in particular, development of the higher education as the general, and professional is the most powerful and strong means of revival of the country shaken by war and internal reorganization" [1, l. 131]. Analyzing a condition of education, health care, agriculture, various industries, the administrative and judicial sphere in Russia, authors of the document came to a conclusion that "there is no that industry of the public and public service in which the lack of persons with the higher education" [1, l would not be felt. 133 about]. For the Russian society in these conditions each university was "worth its weight in gold".

In 1907 - 1916. The area of army of Donskoy among the few provinces of Russia became one of the large centers of the higher school of the country. On the eve of revolutionary shocks of 1917 six higher educational institutions in which, by our calculations, about 5 thousand students studied acted on its territory.

From all higher educational institutions which worked in the region during this period most of all researches are devoted to the fate of the Warsaw university evacuated in 1915 to Don [2, 3].

At the same time a number of the moments from its history in 1915 - 1917 did not receive due lighting. It is unknown, for example, as far as it was succeeded to restore structural units and scales of activity of the university after its evacuation to Rostov; what was the professorial case (number, a social status, training, etc.) in 1915 - 1917; what was represented by the contingent of students (number, professional interests, social and national composition, etc.) these years and as it changed after moving to Don.

In the article we will try to meet the available lacks. The main sources on this subject - office work documentation of the Warsaw university which is stored in the State archive of the Rostov region and also the documents of various ministries and departments which are stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation (SARF) and in the Russian State Military and Historical Archive (RSMHA) in Moscow.

At the beginning of the 20th century the youth of the Don region, as well as the neighboring provinces, got higher education at the universities of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkiv, in technological, mountain, forest, boundary, agricultural, medical schools, in the Moscow and St. Petersburg conservatories, the Moscow school of painting.

Training of specialists outside edge did not satisfy either local authorities, or Don public. So, in 1915 outside Don in various higher educational institutions of the country of natives of the Don region 570 people of army estate (from them 59 - army scholars) and as much again not army estate studied [4]. How to assess such situation?

First, this figure should be divided at least into 4 - so many years at that time studied at most faculties. It turns out that the Don region could count at best (it is known that not all students ended a full course) on inflow of 250 - 300 experts in a year. It far did not correspond to needs of the region in which in 1915 3.5 million people lived and in which the industry, transport, banking, trade rapidly developed, sphere of formation, health care extended, requirements to level of training of officials of government, etc. raised

Secondly, the absence in the region of the higher educational institution or any other establishment capable to head scientific and practical and pedagogical activity in the region, led to the fact that not all graduates came back home for work. Part of them remained in the capital and big cities (where studied) - at departments, laboratories. Subsequently the scope of their scientific research was a little connected with the country South. It impoverished the spiritual and cultural capacity of the region. Except lack of an opportunity for creative self-realization that is important for the intellectuals, there was one more reason for which a part of the Don graduates of the higher school did not come back to itself to the province. It is the aspiration to do career. Thus, really the figure graduated outside the Don region and wishing to return for work for Don was even less.

Thirdly, study (road, residence, etc.) in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kharkiv, other university centers - business expensive. Training in the hometown or in the region - is much cheaper. It would allow to expand considerably preparation scales so of experts necessary for the region.

Fourthly, trying to obtain opening in the south of Russia of the higher educational institution, the local government cared not only for preparation of necessary number of qualified personnel, but also thought of how thereby to save local youth from revolutionary influence of the capitals, other large political centers. Fears of parents were added to it how to keep "weak souls the" of young people from the province who are during study without supervision of family from "noxious influence" of big cities with their temptations.

Realizing these negative factors, the local administration and the public of the region at the beginning of the 20th century repeatedly raised for the government a question of opening in the region of the university and other higher educational institutions.

We will give only one example. In 1910 the next petition was undertaken by the Rostov City Council. It was supported by efforts of local deputies of the State Duma, at different times Ekaterinodar, Stavropol, Novorossiysk, Vladikavkaz, Mariupol, Yeysk, Pyatigorsk, Anapa, Taganrog, Nakhchivan - on - Dona and some other cities joined it. This request as follows was reasoned. Rostov "both in geographical, and in cultural and economic the relations is the natural center of the extensive, gravitating to it area covering except Area of Army of Donskoy and a part of the Ekaterinoslavsky province all North Caucasus and also, especially until establishment of higher education institution in Tiflis - and other Areas of Caucasus and Transcaucasia. All this extensive area with the population over 17,000,000 inhabitants with 96 men's average educational institutions only on department of the ministry of national education is forced to send the youth on all university centers of the empire, tearing off it from a native situation and climatic conditions, habitual for it..." [3, page 6-7].

It is curious that 7 years later, in February, 1917 the Ministry of national education sent to the State Duma the formation document of the university in Rostov-on-Don. In this document above-mentioned arguments about expediency of opening of higher education institution in Rostov, and even the last phrase were literally repeated - about support of this idea by various cities [5].

Owing to defeats of the Russian armies at the front on June 23, 1915 to Moscow one of the oldest in the country the Warsaw university was quickly evacuated. The decree on its Alexander II institution signed on June 8, 1869 [6]. As V. Yesipov wrote in 1914, the university brought up already 45 generations of youth (over 6.5 thousand people), including about 60% of Poles [7, page 18]. Undoubtedly, this educational institution made much as for cultural spiritual development of the edge, and for development of education and science in Russia in general.

As in Moscow of sufficient rooms it did not appear (there was a war), intensive search new temporary as then thought, a residence for higher education institution began. Various projects were considered. Eventually Rostov was chosen.

In favor of this city there were following arguments: a) big need of the region for qualified personnel; b) long-term, including in the summer of 1915, active efforts of the public about opening of the university; c) an advantageous geographical location - "gate of the Caucasus", large port and the railway junction; d) the rich city which has funds for a higher educational institution - it was an argument, important for the government, when comparing with

other applicants; e) enough potential entrants - in general was talked of the region above, but only in one Don region in 1915 in 42 average educational institutions studied, by our calculations, there are no 14,300 pupils - about the number of graduates of data [8].

Circumstances of the transfer of educational institution from Moscow to Rostov in July - September, 1915 were widely covered in the local press [9] and also are described in historical literature [3, page 8-13; 10]. But it is not said anywhere about why almost all equipment and unique library which on richness of the funds was the third in the country (after the St. Petersburg public library - nowadays Russian national, and the Rumyantsev-sky museum - nowadays Russian state library) and the first among university, were left in Warsaw?

We managed to find some kind of explanatory note of I. Degtyarev (in the summer of 1915 he was the secretary of board of the university) about circumstances of moving of educational institution from Poland to Rostov in archive. In this document there are following curious facts. In the spring of 1915 the Warsaw governor general issued the orders suggesting to all officials to sit on places and to quietly go about the own business as about evacuation out of the question because Warsaw is strengthened, it is unapproachable. However the board of the university decided to make just in case a number of boxes in which it would be in case of need possible to take out property. This circumstance gave a reason to the governor general through the trustee of the educational district to reprimand the rector of the university professor S.I. Vekhov for the fact that "the university creates panic on the population, generating superficial rumors about possible evacuation". Nevertheless on June 22, 1915 at ten o'clock evenings at the university through the trustee of the district the urgent telephone message in which it was offered to start immediately packing of university property so that at 9 o'clock in the morning to be at the station for sending both property, and employees with their families [11, l was received from the Warsaw governor general. 42]. On all collecting 11 hours were given. I. Degtyarev describes how all structure of office led by and. of the rector professor A.A. Kolosov together with teachers all night long till the morning packed the equipment of the university (into those boxes for which the rector was reprimanded): "Thought only of getting ready to send to early morning driven in and connected to the station. Feverish work was continued till the morning: already there were carriers when there was still a packing" [11, l. 42 about]. Teachers and educational support personnel were devotees of the business, saving first of all not the personal property (most of them had families), and the educational and scientific equipment.

There is one more important point. From 57 professors who are on the staff of the university for January 1, 1915 [12, l. 113], in the night of June 23 according to documents from Warsaw evacuated 16 professors with families [11, l. 20 about] (all who were in the city and wanted uye-

huts). More than 40 professors at the time of evacuation were out of Warsaw, the majority - in academic trips. First, summer - traditional time of similar business trips. Secondly, probably, they believed the governor general that Warsaw is unapproachable. Later many of them will note that evacuation happened so promptly that the being absent teachers could not arrive to Warsaw for rescue at least of a part of the property, especially the libraries which were of quite often considerable value. For example, the library of the famous philosopher, professor of historical and philological faculty E.A. Bobrov (1867 - 1933) included about 4 thousand volumes, including unique domestic and foreign monuments of XVSh are the 19th centuries: the first editions of compositions of Leibniz, Fourier, Saint-Simon, K. Marx, other books forbidden by censorship and illegally published in Russia and also A.I. Polezhayev's manuscript, N.A. Nekrasova, researches about Izbornike 1076, archives of some scientists [13]. To lose the libraries which are brought together for years, and even decades was big loss for teachers.

Drama circumstances of evacuation of the university in June, 1915 from Warsaw to Moscow which explain why almost all equipment and library were left in Poland are that.

We especially want to mark out the high moral principles which were twice shown by teachers and the staff of the Warsaw university in the summer of 1915. The first time when all night long with 22 for June 23 they packed and saved at least a part of the university equipment. The second time - during stay of the university in Moscow from June 23 to September 17, 1915. At this time to his many professors among whom there were many outstanding scientists offers to work at the best universities, institutes, laboratories, clinics of the country became. But teachers did not leave the university at a difficult moment, arrived with it in Rostov, knowing about scales left in Warsaw and realizing that on the new place there will be no those terms which were offered to them in other university centers. It was the moral choice. Scientists, teachers put the interests of business, in this case the university, above personal interests.

The depressing material state in which the university on arrival to Rostov appeared fall of 1915 in detail reveals according to reports of library, offices, clinics, laboratories, astronomical observatory for 1915 [14]. Let's give only one figure. By our calculations, to Rostov took out less than 1% of funds of university library. Saved the most valuable - manuscripts, incunabulums, unique editions of compositions of Aristophanes, Dante, the first Polish newspapers.

Despite all difficulties which are especially connected with preparation of buildings for educational process on November [15], 10, 1915 after a prayer the ceremonial opening of the university on the new place was held. But there passed a month more before it was succeeded to adjust regular trainings.

What represented the Warsaw university after moving to Rostov-on-Don in 1915/16 academic year?

4 faculties were its part: historical and philological, physical and mathematical, legal and medical. The historical and philological faculty was divided into 3 offices: Slavic-and-Russian, classical and historical. The physical and mathematical faculty consisted of 2 offices: mathematical and natural. At medical faculty the training lasted 5 years, at other faculties - 4 years.

In Rostov the same educational and auxiliary structural units of the university, as in Warsaw were created and open: library, seminar libraries at each faculty (for carrying out a practical training), offices, astronomical observatory, various laboratories; started creation of a botanical garden. On the basis of the Rostov hospitals, clinics of medical faculty and medical assistant's school were open.

Intra-university life was regulated by the same, as in Warsaw, the charter. The former structure of management was kept: rector, vice rector, council and board of the university, deans, faculty meetings. In Rostov the release of "The Warsaw university news" continued, scientific organizations and student circles actively worked.

After moving to Rostov the university still was a part of the Warsaw educational district and till July 1, 1917 kept in contact with the Ministry of national education through the trustee of the district, the representative of the most ancient aristocratic family A. Kurakin whose office was in Moscow.

After the most difficult evacuation from Warsaw on arrival to Rostov-on-Don in 1915/16 academic year the university completely restored the main directions and scales of the activity (except for material resources). It is an undoubted merit of the rector of the university S.I. Vekhov, deans of faculties, all professorial and teaching case, educational and auxiliary structure and also the city authorities, and will remain in grateful memory of descendants.

How it is possible to characterize the professorial building of the university in 1915 - 1917 after moving to Rostov?

Teachers were divided into "seniors" (ordinary and extraordinary professors) and "younger" (associate professors, privatdozents, lecturers, anatomists, keepers of the museums, etc.). (tab. 1) [16].

The provided figures demonstrate that a number of positions remained vacant. And the reason - not in moving of the university to Rostov as some authors write about it. Follows from annually published reports of the Warsaw university that else before moving to Rostov from year to year a number of positions was free. For example, in the report of historical and philological faculty for 1915 it is specified that three positions of professors are vacant according to 1908, 1914 and 1915 and two positions of lecturers: Italian - since 1905, English - since 1912 [12, l. 97]. It polozhe-

ny things was typical both for the universities, and for all higher school of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century [17].

Table 1

The number of teachers of the Warsaw university in 1913 - 1916

A position It is necessary on the state Was in the service

01.01.13 01.01.14 01.01.15 01.01.16

in Warsaw in Rostov

Ordinary professor 29 38 40 43 44

Extraordinary professor 20 17 20 14 14

Associate professor 21 7 7 9 5

Total 70 62 67 66 63

At the Warsaw university, as well as at other institutes of the country that educational process did not suffer, used work of part-time workers. At the same time at the beginning of the 20th century as the main tool in elimination of shortage of shots for higher educational institutions was recognized (at all its imperfection) institute of "professorial scholars" (graduate students) who were engaged in preparation of master theses. At the Warsaw university in 1915 (already in Rostov-on-Don) consisted "professorial scholars" on historical philological faculty of 7 people, physical and mathematical - 2, legal - 4 persons [12, l. 75-76]. One scholar on department of general literature of the Warsaw university was attached to the Petrograd university of 1 July of 1915 till July 1, 1917 with a grant of 1,500 rubles a year. This fact demonstrates that training of future teachers of the university went not only in Rostov, but also in need of others scientific centers. It was succeeded to find the interesting fact in archive materials. "The professorial scholar" of historical and philological faculty Jan Ostrembsky got to the German captivity (there are no details). By some miracle he managed to send to Rostov to one of professors of faculty the letter in which wrote about the desire after release from captivity to continue to be engaged in scientific research and asked not to exclude it from the list of scholars. The letter came to Rostov in the spring of 1916. At the meeting on June 4, 1916, having discussed current situation, council of faculty decided to support the scholar and to petition before council of the university: a) about Jan Ostrembsky's leaving for one year at the university; b) about appointment to it a grant of 750 rub [18]. These facts demonstrate great attention and sympathy which the senior generation of professors paid to the young shift.

A curious detail which characterizes the teaching case. Scientific research continued at the university and in tragic 1917 - 1920: graduate students wrote master theses, and council of the university, for example, at one of the meetings in the spring of 1918 considered applications of teachers for financing of the academic trips planned by them.

In Russia there were always people ready to pursue science in any conditions.

In reports and official statistics of the beginning of the 20th century there are no data on a social origin and the national list of teachers of higher educational institutions. At the same time the analysis of the data submitted by the Warsaw university to the trustee of the district for annually published the Address calendar for 1916, allows to find out a social status of the teaching case (tab. 2) [19].

Table 2

A social status of teachers of the Warsaw university in 1916

Figures demonstrate that the bulk of teachers (59%) occupied in "Tables of ranks" high places 4 classes (it is the level of the department director or governor) and the 5th class (level of the vice-department director or vice governor). At the same time it did not guarantee high welfare. For most of teachers (except for doctors) pedagogical work was the only source of their existence. On the one hand, they (but not at all) had an opportunity to be engaged in combining jobs in the university and also to teach the High female courses and at the Rostov city women's medical institute. On the other hand, it is well known that not adequately estimate the state -

Class Number of teachers %

The 4th class (valid councilor of state) 21 31

The 5th class (councilor of state) 19 28

6 class (collegiate adviser) 7 class (outdoor adviser) 11 6 16,2 8,8

The 8th class (collegiate asessor) 1 1.4

The 9th class (titular counselor) Ne had ranks 2 8 2,9 11,7

Total 68 100.0

of a shaft (and it was expressed in compensation) activity of those who prepared shots of the top skills so necessary for the country [20]. It is necessary to remember also that at a considerable part of the teachers of the university who moved to Rostov all or almost all property acquired for years and even decades remained in Warsaw.

Among teachers who arrived in Rostov there were many outstanding scientists. At historical and philological faculty - professors E.F. Karsky (the linguist, subsequently the academician, worked at the university till 1916), N.N. Lyubovich (general history, till 1929), I.P. Kozlowski (the Russian history, till 1925), V.A. Frantsev (the Slavist, since 1915 - the member correspondent of AN), A.M. Evlakhov (history of the Western European literature, till 1927), P.N. Chernyaev (linguistics, till 1922), A.I. Yatsimirsky (Slavic philology, till 1923). At physical and mathematical faculty - professors D.I. Ivanovsky (virology, microbiology and physiology of plants, till 1920), N.A. Rozhansky (animal physiology, till 1951), P.I. Mitrofanov (histology, till 1920), Ya.P. Shchelkanovtsev (zoology of vertebrata, till 1937), B.N. Vershkovsky (botany, till 1946), D.D. Mora-dukhay-Boltovskoy (maty. the analysis, till 1950), V.P. Velmin (mathematics, till 1950), S.M. Kolli (physics, till 1918). At law department - professor F.F. Ziegel (the history of Slavic legislations, till 1921), V.V. Yesipov (criminal law, till 1923), P.I. Verkhovsky (history of ecclesiastical law). At medical faculty - professors N.A. Bogoraz (hospital surgery, till 1930), K.H. Orlov (ophthalmology, till 1926), etc. [3; 21].

Most of these teachers had to be engaged in scientific and pedagogical activity within several historical eras. Future famous historian-medievalist N.N. Lyubovich began to teach at the Warsaw university in 1880 at the age of 25 years. Together with the university in 1915, at the age of 60 years, it moved to Rostov and taught till 1926, died in 1935 [22]. Most longer from those who arrived in Rostov from Warsaw and on the new place actually anew created the university, the higher education institution worked out professor B.N. Vershkovsky - till 1946, D.D. Mordukhay-Boltovskoy and V.P. Velmin - till 1950, N.A. Rozhansky - till 1951. What link of times! There is also such fact. From 1938 to 1954 the rector of the Rostov university was S.E. Belozerov who then still for many years taught mathematics at the university and to the death in 1987 was engaged in study and promoting of its history. Binding thread of history.

Especially it is necessary to tell about Sergey Ivanovich Vekhov who in the most drama years for the university - from 1913 to 1919 - remained his permanent rector. War, a part of teachers and students goes to field army, evacuation to Moscow, the difficult choice of a new residence, reconstruction nearly from scratch of the university in Rostov, formidable trips to the capitals concerning opening to Dona of the university, change of a political regime in the country in February and October, 1917, change of the power with Dona in days of citizens -

sky war - as in these conditions to keep the center of culture and a civilization, not to allow it to die away? A lot of things depended on the rector. It is represented to us that if S.I. Vekhov made at least only one of the listed affairs, he would deserve respect of contemporaries and descendants. He managed to make much more. He suddenly died from typhus in March, 1919 [23].

Literature and notes

1. GARF, t. 2315 (Ministry of national education of Provisional government), op. 1, 10.
2. The XX years Rostov - on - Don of the state university: Scientific notes (anniversary release). Rostov N / D, 1935; Rostov - on - Don the state university of V.M. Molotov: Anniversary collection. 1915 - 1940 / Under the editorship of S.E. Belozerov. Rostov N / D, 1941; S.E. Belozerov. Essays of history of the Rostov university. Rostov N / D, 1959; Rostov state university. 1915 - 1965: Articles, memoirs, documents / Otv. edition S.E. Belozerov. Rostov N / D, 1965; Rostov state university (1915 - 1985): Essays. Rostov N / D, 1985; Sidorov B.C. The Warsaw university//Encyclopedia of old Rostov and Nakhchivan - on - Don.

T. 3. Rostov N / D, 1995. Page 108-143.

3. Chronicle of university life. Part 1. The beginning of university education in the south of Russia: the imperial Warsaw university in Rostov-on-Don (1915 - 1917). Establishment of the Don university and its activity in 1917 - 1919 / Sost. A.A. Pushkarenko, An. A. Pushkarenko. Rostov N / D, 1997.
4. The report of the Army nakazny ataman on a condition of Area of army Donskoy for 1915. Novocherkassk, 1916. Page 29.
5. See: GARO, t. 527 (Warsaw university), op. 1, 103, l. 194-194 about.
6. The decree and the Charter of the university are published: Warsaw university news. 1883. No. 2. You should not forget that in Warsaw the university as a part of 5 faculties worked in 1817 - 1831 and it was closed in connection with a revolt in Poland 1830 - 1831
7. V.V. Yesipov. The higher education in the Kingdom Polish in hundred years (1815 - 1915). Warsaw university. Pg., 1914.
8. The report of the Army nakazny ataman on a condition of Area of army Donskoy for 1915. Sheet No. 11 "Number of educational institutions and pupils in them for 1915". Our calculations.
9. See, for example: Azov region. 1915. August 11, 12, 14, 15 and 28.
10. The XX years Rostov - on - Don of the state university. Page 39 - 42; S.E. Belozerov. Decree. soch. Page 45 - 49; Sidorov B.C. Decree. soch. T. 3. Page 111-121.
11. GARO, t. 527, op. 1, 274.
12. In the same place, 198.
13. Z.N. Lipatova, A.N. Shakhanov. Fate of hand-written department and archives of professors of the Warsaw university//Domestic archives. 1992. No. 3. Page 27.
14. Reports see: GARO, t. 527, op. 1, 79, 198.
15. Correspondence of the deans of faculties managing offices with council of the university and the city authorities on this matter in September - December, 1915 see: GARO, t. 527, op. 1, 103.
16. The table is made by the author on the basis of data: Warsaw university news. 1915. Prince 6. Page 3, 7; GARO, t. 527, op. 1, 198, l. 113, 44-45. In the table data on the number of anatomists, lecturers, etc. are not used
17. In more detail about it see: A.E. Ivanov. The higher school of Russia at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century. M, 1991. Page 207-210.
18. GARO, t. 527, op. 1, of 124 l. 4 about.-5.
19. The table is made by the author on the basis of data: GARO, t. 527, op. 1, of 63 l 27-27 about - 3020. In more detail about a state with compensation of teachers of the higher school see: V.R. Leykina-Svirskaya. Russian intelligentsia in 1900 - 1917. M, 1981. Page 98-100; Ivanov.E. Decree. soch. Page 243-245.
21. Biographies of the called and many other teachers of the Warsaw university working in Dews -

North Caucasian academy of public service

a tova in 1915 - 1917 and the next years see: Rostov state university: 1915 - 1965: Articles, memoirs, documents / Otv. edition S.E. Belozerov. Rostov N / D, 1965. In the State archive of the Rostov region, personal records of most of the teachers who arrived from Warsaw remained. These materials are still poorly introduced for scientific use.

22. Its personal record see: GARO, t. 527, op. 2, 3221. About it see: A.G. A.G. Corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR N.N. Lyubovich (1855 - 1935)//Rostov state university. 1915 - 1965: Articles, memoirs, documents / Otv. edition S.E. Belozerov. Rostov N / D, 1965. Page 221-227.
23. The obituary about it see: Azov region. 1919. 16 on March (29). Its personal record: GARO, t. 527, op. 3, 755; P.N. Chernyaev Sergey Ivanovich Vekhov//Materials for the history of the former Warsaw university. Manuscript. Rostov N / D, 1919. Page 228-250; N.A. Re-shetova. It conducted the university ship among reeves and rocks / Donskoy a vremennik. The 1997th year. Rostov N / D, 1996. Page 150-152.

On April 5, 2005

Rudolf Joseph
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