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Public initiatives of the Penza municipal public government

6 kopeks. On purchase of oxen and trucks from noble manors 399377 rub 60 kopeks arrived (on 1 rub 75 kopeks from revizsky soul). In a shortage 6579 rub appeared. On drawing up mobile shop from all podatny estates 128895 rub 74 kopeks are collected (on 32 kopeks from revizsky soul). In a shortage - 4472 rub 76 kopeks [8. L.3-4]

The amount of mandatory fees in the Saratov province was from landowner peasants (249653 persons) 1 rub 85 kopeks from revizsky soul (80 kopeks on acquisition of oxen, 80 kopeks on regimentals of the egersky regiment formed in Voronezh, 25 kopeks on purchase of horses), from "town societies" (22132 persons) on 2 rub 80 kopeks from revizsky soul (80 kopeks on acquisition of oxen, 2 rub on the device of a wagon train of an egersky regiment), from specific peasants (22735 people) on 1 rub 60 kopeks from revizsky soul (80 kopeks on acquisition of oxen and 80 kopeks on regimentals of an egersky regiment) and from the state peasants (160264 persons) on 80 kopeks from revizsky soul (on acquisition of oxen). Only 688414 rub 85 kopeks Besides, donations in Women's patriotic society and in "cash desk of disabled people" made not less than 45000 rub. Total 733414 rub 85 kopeks [21. L.2-5ob; 30. Page 27-33, 40-41]. On the Simbirsk province the money dues on a militia made 1276350 rub, on regimentals and the device of a wagon train of the infantry regiment which is formed in Ryazan, not less than 264541 rub on purchase of oxen and trucks - not less than 400000 rub. In total not less than 1940891 rub [22. Page 50; 27. Page 38]

Thus, okladny collecting and donations of the population of the Penza, Simbirsk and Saratov provinces made more than 5000000 rub

list of sources and literature

1. V.R. Apukhtin. An essay of formation by the nobility of the Penza province and actions of a militia in Domestic and liberating wars of 1812-1814. M, 1912. 48 pages
2. V.I. Babkin. A national militia in Patriotic war of 1812. M.: Publishing house sots. - ek. liters, 1962. 212 pages
3. V.S. Godin. An anti-serf revolt of ratnik of the Penza militia in December, 1812//Local history notes. Penza, 1963. Issue 1. Page 5-29.
4. State archive of the Penza region (further GAPO). F.5. Op.1. 8.
5. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 399.
6. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 408.
7. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 440.
8. GAPO. F.5. Op.1. 514.
9. GAPO. F.6. Op.1. 344.
10. GAPO. F.6. Op.1. 363.
11. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 145.
12. GAPO. F.132. Op.1. 225.
13. GAPO. F.182. Op.1. 641.
14. GAPO. F.383. Op.1. 7.
15. State archive of the Saratov province (further GASO). F.1. Op.1. 17.
16. GASO. F.179. Op.2. 18.
17. GASO. F.179. Op.1. 34.
18. GASO. F.180. Op.1. 40.
19. GASO. F.407. Op.1. 1626.
20. GASO. F.407. Op.1. 1629.
21. GASO. F.407. Op.1. 1661.
22. M.Yu. Ivanov. The Simbirsk militia in Patriotic war of 1812 and a foreign campaign of 1813-1814: Yew.... edging. east. sciences. Samara, 2002. 210 pages
23. M.I. Kutuzov. Collection of documents. M.: Voyenizdat, 1955. T.^. Ch.1-2.
24. S.B. perch. Russian people and Patriotic war of 1812//History USSR. 1962. No. 4. Page 52-65.
25. Russian state military and historical archive. F.VUA. Op.210. St. 1. 1.
26. A.R. Sokolov. Financial support of the population of Russia of army in 1812//history Questions. 1998. No. 9. Page 110-120.
27. M.S. Sudarev. The peasantry of the Mordovian edge in Patriotic war of 1812//Study of local lore of Mordovia. Saransk: Mordovian kN. Publishing house, 1973. Page 31-38.
28. V.P. Totfalushin. New about participation of the Saratov province in Patriotic war of 1812//Military and historical researches in the Volga region: Sb.nauch. works. Saratov: SGU publishing house, 1997. Issue 2. Page 75-78.
29. Troitsk N.A. 1812. Great year of Russia. M.: Thought, 1988. 348 pages
30. N.F. Khovansky. Participation of the Saratov province in Patriotic war of 1812 Saratov, 1912. 296 pages

UDC 947.081.12

public initiatives of the Penza municipal public government

A.V. Borisov

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky

department of history and right

In article the interaction of the Penza municipal public government with supreme authority, the relation of City Council to autocracy, events of the state scale and to persons of an imperial surname during city reforms of 1870 and 1892 is considered. Special attention is paid to manifestation by city society of "faithful feelings" and expression of a faithful position and loyal relation to a political policy.

The relation Penza city public surnames is of great interest. In dorevolyu-go managements to autocracy, to events gosudars-tsionny Russia all this joined in a concept "beliefs-tvennogo of scale and personally to persons to an imperial nopoddannicheskia of mood" that is one

from aspects of a problem of relationship of the power and provincial society.

The Penza city society always took active part in events of the state scale. One of reasons for expression of patriotic and faithful feelings by the Penza City Council was the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-1878. For the first time the Penza society expressed the relation to the beginning of fight of the Slavic people of the Balkan Peninsula with the Turkish dominion in October, 1876. The City Council movable by feeling of awe and delight, Penzenskaya hurried "to plunge to feet of Imperial Majesty the statement of deep faithful love and readiness from the Penza citizens to sacrifice the property and life for Vera and Svoboda of Slavs and for glory of the Russian Throne and the Fatherland" [1]. At a meeting on April 21, 1877 the thought unanimously decided to begin raising fund and medicines for assistance to the Slavic people. The special preparatory committee of City Council as a part of 11 vowels under the chairmanship of the mayor was for this purpose educated. The City Council readily responded to the proposal of the governor to accept care about families of the soldiers called from Penza "for satisfaction of a sacred duty of protection of the Throne and the Fatherland", having allocated 6 thousand rubles of financial support for these purposes. the thought also offered the considerable sum - 25 thousand rubles to "Society of the care about wounded and sick soldiers" which was under the patronage of the empress [2]. Having heard the imperial proclamation on declaration of war of Turkey at the same meeting, the thought decided to serve on the next Sunday in the Cathedral a prayer about talent of a victory to the Russian troops [3].

initiatives of city society were appreciated by the power. At a meeting of the Penza City Council in May, 1877 the thanksgiving telegram of the Grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevich and gratitude for generous donation from the empress was read. A bit later the telegram and on behalf of the emperor Alexander II with gratitude for generous donation and active support of the Russian troops came.

The Penza city society always with deep respect treated persons of an imperial surname. On December 7, 1877 Penzenskaya the thought in the regular meeting discussed an issue of commemoration of 100-year anniversary since the birth of the emperor Alexander I Blagoslovenny. The late monarch made a lot of things for Penza: he personally in 1801 included the city in number of the provincial cities of Russia, arranged near the city a state garden with school for gardeners, deducted the large sums on construction of a water supply system in it [4]. To honor memory of the deceased monarch taking huge care of the city, vowels gathered for an extraordinary, emergency meeting at which in the hall of a thought Grigory Preosvyashchenny, by the bishop Penza and Saransk, served a memorial service. In the hall of a thought it was put a time -

rubs Alexander I, with the inscription "The Patron of Penza Who Restored the Penza Province and Appointed Penza the Provincial City". besides, the Women's parish school and six-great men's Real school were called by the name of Alexander Blagoslovenny in the city of Penza [5].

The public of the city of Penza always with pleasure and gratitude spoke of Alexander II, first of all for talent of freedom: "You, the Sovereign, bared a sword on protection of the rights human, violated by ignorance and brute force. The released Slavs, by birth and belief our brothers, will not forget the name Togo to whom they are obliged by the release. The legend on glory of this name will pass from century to century, from generation to generation. Release of millions from serfdom, cancellation of corporal punishments, jury, territorial and city self-government, a general compulsory military service, development of education in the environment of a people at large - all this such giant reforms which in 25 years moved growth of the people for the whole century" [6]. In February, 1880 the celebration of the 25 anniversary of government of Alexander II was discussed at a meeting of the Penza thought. By vowels it was unanimously stated that the forthcoming celebration "should be immortalized the measure serving as a feasible competition of city society on the way of national education". Vowels supported the project of construction in Penza of six-great Real school and provided for this purpose the house of city society in which the thought and a justice, at the corner of Doctor and Nikolsky streets were located [7]. This initiative of the city was realized: in March, 1882 the ceremonial opening of the Real school constructed in honor of 25 years' reign of the Sovereign of the emperor was held. This day was also marked by free distribution to residents of brochures under the name "National Sheet".

The last rule of Alexander II was the tragic period in life of most august family and faithfully adjusted provincial public. With a heavy heart citizens learned about attempts at the tsar. Since 1866 annually in Penza molebstviye on the occasion of rescue of life of Alexander Nikolaevich were arranged on April 4. All this happened on the city square opposite to Cathedral. In February, 1880 the vowels of the Penza City Council took part in a thanksgiving prayer concerning disposal of most august family of the threatening danger at explosion in the Winter Palace [8]. The mayor devoted the solemn speech to soldiers and officers of leyb-guard of the Finnish regiment, the lives which protected the emperor and his family. Any of them did not allow to release himself from a duty, even despite wounds.

However all this was only the prolog to more terrible tragedy. On March 1, 1881 Alexander II, considering unworthy to care for personal security, tragically died. This event plunged provincial society into state of shock. & #34; У^ке on March 3 mournful news reached on telegraph the city of Penza, and on

a meeting of City Council the memorial service for the late emperor Alexander Nikolaevich was served. Then public thoughts expressed the devotion to the heir to the throne Alexander Aleksandrovich. The text of the telegram made by city vowels deserves attention. Except other there were also such words: "Let seditious enemies of the Fatherland know that no intrigues of villains pokoleblit boundless devotion of the Russian people to the Throne and that the belief in a prosperity of the State under wise and firm Government of God of the Monarch granted to us" is strong in us [9].

All City Councils of the provincial cities directed to delegation from 2-3 people for participation in a ceremony of a funeral of Alexander II and a congratulation of the emperor Alexander III concerning ascent to a praroditelsky throne. At the same time in all City Councils, molebstviye on the occasion of ascent of the successor on a throne after which conference halls were disclosed by numerous exclamations were made: "Hurrah!". let's note that practically all delegations received a task to get Alexander III's portraits to conference halls of thoughts and justices. Penzenskaya the City Council spent 600 rubles for these purposes [10].

Most of the population of Russia in own way reacted on the death of Alexander II: through the whole country the collecting donations on a construction of church in St. Petersburg, on the place of death of the emperor, and a monument to the Tsar-liberator in the Kremlin began. besides, across all Russia on means memorable chapels were under construction of different sources. The Penza city self-government was not limited to visit of mourning actions in St. Petersburg: in September, 1881 in a thought the issue of ways of worthy respect of memory of Alexander II was discussed, it was decided to construct at Cathedral Square a stone chapel in memory of the Tsar-liberator [11]. In total in the Penza province by the beginning of the 20th century there were 13 chapels in honor of Alexander II. The most part was constructed of them with active participation of City Councils.

In the city of Penza Alexander II's memory was immortalized construction of People's house of his name which became at the beginning of the 20th century the main theatrical platform of the city. For the first time the question of construction of People's house was considered in February, 1902, on implementation of this project 125 thousand rubles were required [12].

Thus, the Penza city society set an example of deep patriotism and a vernopod-dannichestvo. Alexander II's memory was also immortalized in names of grants, names of educational and charitable institutions. Monuments and chapels in honor of Alexander II are a fine reminder on great merits of the tsar-reformer.

The public position of vowels of the Penza City Council in relation to the new tsar Alexander III also was faithful. As before, it patriotically reacted to all events of nation-wide scale. For example, in May, 1883 it sent delegation from the mayor and two vowels to St. Petersburg on celebration of Svya-

shchenny coronation of their Imperial Majesties. Representatives from city society presented to the Sovereign Imperator and the Monarchess Imperatritse bread salt on a silver dish, and in reply listened to "monarchical favor" [13]. Festive events for a case of a crowning were held also in Penza. In day of a crowning, May 15, in the city the dosshouse shelter was open for poor city dwellers [14]. The Duma developed the special program of celebration by the city of day of Sacred coronation. She allocated 2500 rubles and organized a treat of officers, soldiers and pupils of parish schools, increased a salary of police and fire attendants, organized a festivity in the gardens with fireworks and illumination. In all city schools there took place celebrations, city buildings and the Cathedral Square were decorated with flags. Military music played the whole day on the square behind the river Penza and representations with acrobats and prize-winning columns were arranged. In the city square played orchestra of ball music [15].

Once again to Alexander III Penzenskaya the City Council expressed the faithful position in October, 1888, after the crash of the royal train and happy rescue of life of the emperor [16]. The Penza city society supported the idea of other provincial cities about construction of the temple and a chapel on the place of the crash of the imperial train and a construction of an iconostasis from the icons sacrificed by public and class institutions. The Duma from own means allocated money for acquisition of an icon and offered to its temple under construction [17].

In August, 1891 in Penza there was a significant event: the city was visited by the successor Crown Prince Nicholas II. The event, so rare for the province, caused sincere enthusiasm in city society. In total the emperor Nicholas II visited the Penza province twice: in 1891 and in 1904. In these visits we first of all are interested in activity of the municipal public government of preparation and holding celebrations and the direct attitude of deputies of city meetings towards the monarchical person. Preparation for the first visit began in July, 1891, future emperor then came back from a long travel over the countries of Asia through Siberia. Having hardly learned about the forthcoming visit of the successor Crown Prince Nikolay Aleksandrovich, Penzenskaya City Council addressed the governor A.A. Goryaynov with a request for a personal meeting with the emperor and present of bread salt to it. The governor answered it that the delegation from the city for a greeting of the emperor has to consist only of four people. The Duma unanimously decided that "the faithful feelings animating citizens will be expressed insufficiently solemnly" and decided to ask the Minister of Internal Affairs to allow the telegram to a ceremony all City Council [18]. The governor added to the telegram the explanation for a situation: the ceremony of a meeting will take place on the platform of the station of Penza, "very modest by the sizes", at the same time at a meeting bu-

here delegations from clergy, the nobility, from the cities and volosts of the province, thus, it is impossible to satisfy the petition of a thought. The answer of the Minister of Internal Affairs I.N. Durnovo was short: "The satisfaction of the petition of a thought as far as it is obviously possible is desirable". This resolution, certainly, encouraged faithful feelings of the municipal public government. As a result the governor and City Council agreed to increase the structure of delegation up to 10 people. And the structure of delegation is decided to be determined by a lot, the thought found a different way of appointment of deputies inconvenient in a type of the fact that "in patriotic feelings of all vowels there is no doubt, and the deviation of any given of them from honor to be the deputy could be considered as offensive" [19].

The faithful feelings expressed by the Penza city society impressed the heir to the throne favourably, he with gratitude spoke of them even in a confidential conversation with the governor. The second time Nikolay Aleksandrovich visited Penza being already the emperor on June-28, 1904, personally checking the military units which are preparing for sending to the Far East. As well as in the previous visit, the emperor had to spend several hours in the city, at the same time faithful moods of citizens were strong, as usual. Preparation for a visit was traditional: improvement, cleaning and decoration of streets and squares. On memoirs of eyewitnesses, podgotovleniye bore the concentrated character: "Even on suburban streets where the emperor could not come around, there were same preparations, as on central" [20]. Feature of this visit was one of initiatives of city society - to create a continuous chain of a live protection along all transit of the monarch. The protection was created from reliable volunteers, mainly from city elite. Moved volunteers not so much desire to see the tsar, but also desire to protect the sovereign's person from accidents.

Many thousands crowds of people came to have a look at the tsar on a need of the heart.

Thus, at the end of XIX - the beginning of the 20th century city self-government used all provided opportunities for expression of the faithful position and the loyal relation to a political policy. Not less favorable relation was to monarchical persons. Imperator in Russia was an embodiment of the autocratic power, and the provincial public expressed sincere honoring, respect and a worship for this power. Most distinctly it was shown during Nicholas II's visits to the Penza province. Circumstances of preparation of visits show sincerity of feelings and moods of city society. A characteristic example is the refusal of the Penza City Council to reduce the delegation at the emperor's meeting. Many educational and cult institutions were constructed by city society in memory of Alexander II.

list of sources and literature

1. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 658. L.218-about.
2. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L.102-about. - 103.
3. In the same place. L.102.
4. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L.402.
5. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 660. L. 414 - 414-about.
6. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 664. L.43-about.
7. In the same place. L.44-about.
8. In the same place. L.42.
9. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 665. L.68-about.
10. In the same place. L.291.
11. In the same place. L.263.
12. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 689. L.5.
13. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 668. L.206.
14. In the same place. L.180-181.
15. In the same place. L.183-183-about.
16. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 674. L.330-330-about.
17. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 679. L.221-221-about.
18. GAPO. F.108. Op.1. 676. L.278-278-about.
19. In the same place. L.294.
20. Penza provincial sheets. 1909. July 2. Page 3.

UDC 63.3(2)

administrative activity of m of m of SPERANSKY in the period of his governorship in PENZA

T.A. Druzhinina

Penza state pedagogical university of V.G. Belinsky Department of national history and technique of teaching history

On the basis of archival documentary sources the activities of the governor M.M. Speransky for improvement of roads, bridges, streets and squares of the cities, villages, villages, the organizations of fire service and to the solution of other economic problems of the Penza province are shown in article.

M.M. Speransky is an outstanding political figure of the 19th century, people with unique and surprising destiny. Having been born in family of the priest of the village of Cher-kutino of the Vladimir province, he made incredibly prompt career, became the closest adviser to the emperor Alexander I and the secretary of the State Council. Speransky had not equal in drawing up art

manifestos and decrees. Its feather possesses a set of the projects devoted to transformation of Russia. Speransky's career caused envy in the people surrounding it. He got at court the nickname "upstart". In 1812 Speransky was slandered, fell into disgrace and is sent into exile: at first to Nizhny Novgorod, then to Perm. On August 30, 1816 after

Thomas Watson
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