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Category: History

Ethnonym of "chorus"

l. P. Gerasimova


Work is presented by department of folklore and the national culture of the Yakut state university of M.K. Ammosov.

The research supervisor - the Doctor of Philology, professor V.V. Illarionov

Article is devoted to studying the Mongolian structure of the Yakut ethnos. For the first time the ethnonym of "chorus" is considered in the context of all tyurko-Mongolian people, covers all folklore material of Yakuts. Characteristics of legends and legends of horolor are revealed.

L. Gerasimova


The paper is devoted to studying of the Mongol components in the Yakut ethnos. For the first time the ethnonym "khoro" is considered in the context of all Turkic-Mongolian nations and covers the whole folklore material of the Yakuts. The characteristic features of legends and stories of the Khorolors are revealed.

By 17th century when the huge region of the Central Yakutia fell within a sphere of influence of the Russian state, processes of ethnogenetic character generally came to the end. During the long and difficult ethnic stadial modifications proceeding throughout the late Middle Ages in the territory of Yakutia appeared Turkic Sakha (Yakuts) and tungusoyazychny Evens and Evenks.

Today the earliest evidence of penetration of Turkic-speaking groups on the Lena River is "the most northern Old Turkic inscription found at page. Petrovsky, only in 200 km from Yakutsk". A.P. Okladnikov assumed that the inscription was left certain forest Turkic people in the valley of the Lena River, being a branch of kurykan [4, page 338]. Developing A.P. Okladnikov's assumptions and supporting with its materials N.V. Kyuner, other researcher noted that "the territory of Yakutia was not for the Turkic-speaking people of the top Lena and the region of Baikal unfamiliar territories" [6, page 50].

The Yakut ethnographer F.F. Vasilyev considers that the earliest Turkic ethnic layer are tribal formations the Kyrgyz, chorus and tumat. These tribes are mentioned in all historical legends as pervopribyvshy on the Lena River. He considers that modern are most known drill - the Mongolian ethnonyms - to the general name of drevnemongolsky tribes chorus [7, page 121-128]. In Yakutia, settlements under Horo and Horintsa's name in the Olyokma and Suntar uluses the Village Councils in Ust-Aldansky, Suntar, Olyokma and Verkhnevi-lyuysky uluses remained so far. According to the majority, the Yakut horolor have the Mongolian origin. Historical legends about the tribe of chorus in the time were in details considered by A.P. Okladnikov. One of highlights, as if proving a mongoloyazychnost, horolor the saying "Horoluu of a sanarym, sakhalya of sa-plank beds is" - do not say on-horinski, and speak in Yakut. Also the version about "akayushchy dialects" designed to prove is not rather convincing

mongoloyazychnost of far ancestors of carriers of these dialects.

The oral tradition occurring in the central Uluses of Yakutia, legends of the northern people where horolor are mentioned, at all variety of plots, emphasizes one general moment - horinets are represented by the earliest settlers of any given area. The legendary old man Uluu Horo, the leader of horinsky childbirth, surely sits on a swift-footed bull - it is already essential entoukazuyushchy detail because a bull as it is considered to be, an object of generation of the mongoloyazychny people. For us it is important one more devil legendary chorus - eagerness to fight. Kind of in confirmation to it two complete sets of protective arms were found in the territory of Ust-Aldansky horinets.

There are no doubts only in one - the ethnonym of "chorus" is one of the most ancient in Siberia and Central Asia. The assumption of an initial tyurkoyazychnost of ancestors of chorus, subsequently entirely omongolivshikh-sya, was stated at first by S.A. Tokarev, and then supported B.A. Dolgikh and A.P. Okladnikov [3, page 38-43; 8, 4, page 359]. Except Buryats and Yakuts, an ethnonym of "chorus" in shape "chorus" meets at modern Udege. The reason of so wide circulation of ancient ethnonyms at various modern people should be looked for in historical peripetias of the Middle Ages of the Eurasian steppe and forest-steppe open spaces setting all population in motion from time to time.

There is a lot of literature in different languages on ancient Mongolian history. Undoubtedly, the main source are the Chinese chronicles. Polecats - an ancient name of Mongols. About it B.B. Dashibalov mentions and claims more than once. According to him, when reading the Chinese chronicles it is necessary to remember that authors of these historical chronicles wrote the state story of the Chinese dynasties. Therefore they ennobled Chinese, and all world surrounding Celestial Empire the empire in their description was barbaric. In the Chinese chronicles the ancestors of Mongols look

only barbarians nomads though data of Mongolian, folklore and the latest archaeological discoveries allow to speak about the most ancient settled and agricultural life of Mongols.

Outstanding Chinese historian Sima Qian (145? — 87 BC) described the next people including to a dunkh in official history. Under this name the whole group of the related people disappears. The first mention about a dunkha belongs 307 BC. It was specified in one of chronicles that they live on east borders of the country and show aggression. In other source it is said that to a dunkh live to the north of the state of Yan, i.e. near Liaodong. Become world history well-known to a hunn were related to a dunkh, but subsequently were divided and began to be at enmity with each other.

Hunnov Chinese called hu, i.e. barbarians therefore the dunkha is meant east hu as "дун" in Chinese "East" means. Some researchers consider that they to a dunkh and a hunn at early stages made one people, the name hu was their self-name. In our opinion, the Tibetan scientist Minchzhul Hutukhta who believed that the self-name of the people was chorus is closer to the truth. Subsequently under the influence of Chinese turned in hu. One of founders of the Russian Sinology V.P. Vasilyev also agreed with it. He wrote that chorus - the name long since serving in China for designation of the Mongolian tribes. Clarification of addition of an ethnonym "chorus" was engaged in G.E. Grum-Grzhimaylo. It supported opinion of the Japanese researcher K. Siratori claiming what to a dunkh is east hu. Also Yu.N. Roerich when compared Chinese hu with Tibetan chorus was close to the truth. He wrote: "The Tibetan breeding name chorus - nothing but the Tibetan transcription Chinese hu - names which designated the Central Asian tribes Iranian and the tyurko-Mongolian roots". This tradition was supported also by L.N. Gumilev, also comparing a dunkha and chorus.

Thus, we see that many scientists inclined that the self-name to a dunkh and a hunn was a name chorus. Who were on

to language these ancient polecats? On this matter the unambiguous opinion was not expressed. All researchers came to a conclusion that it were the mixed people, the Iranian origin is not excluded it, and subsequently he became the ancestor of Turkic peoples and Mongols. From the Mongolian languages the ethnonym "polecats" does not speak. Then with what people it could be connected? The phenomenon when the ethnonym comes from other language is rather widespread. For example, Slavs Bulgarians received a name from the Turkic peoples of the same name or China (in Russia) is called by name Mongols - kidany. Relatives on sounding to "chorus" of the name are available in Central Asia and Europe. Let's call, for example, Khurasan that the earth of the sun and Croatia means. According to linguists, the ethnonym "Croats" has the Iranian origin. It arose in the environment where Slavs closely adjoined to the iranoyazychny population. Attempts of comparison of the English name of a horse of hors to a name of the Slavic deity of the Sun - Hors were made. Let's note that in mythology the images of the sun and a horse are interconnected.

It is possible that a name of ancient Mongols - polecats, could also have the Iranian roots. Ancient Mongols are polecats, could also have the Iranian roots. Ancient Mongols - polecats developed as the people on border of the Eurasian steppe and east plains. Kochevnichestvo to this region, most likely, it was brought by ancient Indo-Europeans of the Iranian origin with whom the name of "chorus" could be connected.

When we concern syanbiysky history polecats, they were monogoloyazych-ny for a long time. It is thought, G.N. Rumyantsev when he wrote was right: "Chorus, it was probable the general name of big group of ancient protomongolian tribes". Such assumption is spoken well by the remained ancient expressions connected with this name. Hungarian mongoloved D. Cara in the monograph "Book by the Mongolian Nomads" noted that "chorus-yig" means "the Mongolian letters". Yu.N. Roerich expression "chorus that" calls the Mongolian account. The academician Ts. Damdusuren wrote that expression meets at Mongols

"a shouting the Mongol hele" that means "radical, real" Mongolian. He noted that the word "shouting" in the ancient time could sound as "chorus". Let's add to it that Yakuts of Mongols call chorus, chorus, and Buryats of Mongols who lived before their arrival called Mongol polecats.

Thus, the available material allows to say that polecats were an ancient name of Mongols. N. Bichurin who made an invaluable contribution to understanding of ancient Mongolian history wrote: "So, origin of the Mongolian people and House the Mongol from whom these people received the national name, an essence two things, absolutely various between itself. The beginning of the Mongolian people leaves for twenty five centuries B.C., the House the Mongol, on the contrary, arose at the beginning of IX, amplified at the beginning of XII, founded the Mongolian empire at the beginning of the XIII century after Christmas Christoff".

Now we will consider etymology of a word of "chorus" in E.V. Pavlov's interpretation. It is remarkable, at Yakuts at the diseases which are allegedly caused by anger of spirits of fire, the person only of their horinsky tribe (Yakut choruses) could be a vysekatel of fire. At S.V. Yastremsky we find the text of the address to fire deity with the following contents:

Khoro tordo, Khoro tordo!

Uot itche, kurul tusumet, kurul tusumet!


Ancestor of horinets, Ancestor of horinets, Master of fire respectable and important!

That is horinets (at Yakuts also drill) were considered as the people allocated with sacrality (charisma) having the fiery/solar nature.

The corresponding interpretation allows to approach interpretation of an ethnonym "polecats". According to V.B. Tsyrempilov, polecats it is connected with a lexeme "chorus" which etymology is not clear [1, page 27-32]. Considering conclusions according to the semantic analysis of the horoinsky ethno-gonichesky myth, it is possible to assume that it goes back to the drevneiransky term hvar

("fran") - the sun. Dialektno it can sound as suras / hur - sun: in Indo-Aryan languages (Surya - the deity of the sun in Vedic mythology, on the other hand, suras dzhavkhalan - sacrality of the ancestor at Mongols): as hur (hir) in the Iranian language [5]. In this regard it is necessary to remember names of childbirth prebaikal drill hurdut/hornut, hurnut and also kurykan - early medieval monks predbaykalya and also the kurkan mentioned at Rasheed-ad-Dina. In turn drevnei-wounds. Khors, Persian. Horsed - sun, the name of the ancient Aryan country of Khwarezm - "the country of the sun" [2] and also allow to consider the solar deity Hors in a pagan pantheon of east Slavs borrowed from the Iranian religious and mythological tradition [2] that the lexeme "хур" dialektno could is said as chorus. In this regard, rather interestingly to note. That ancient iranoyazychny groups took part in ethnogenesis of a number of the Slavic people about what as it is considered, ethnonyms Iranian by origin the Croat, Slovenes, the horutena demonstrate. By the way, the etymology of these words (possessing "farnom / chorus") coincides the remained idea of sacral communication of horinets with fire.

The Yakut ethnographer F.F. Vasilyev pays attention to work of researchers on etymology of the word "kurykan". The peculiar interpretation of G.N. Rumyantsev caused to prove a mongoloyazychnost kurykan gains the certain sense supporting its version.

G.N. Rumyantsev's creation "kurykan (the Uke or the Fury) - polecats, horlos, horchin, a huurumsha - "chorus" rather close to a phrase "horo-haan". In this case chorus, the word "haan" known to us is the suffix designating belonging to the specific kinship group showing unity of many related tribes and childbirth. In this value the word "haan" is explainable only proceeding from Turkic languages. Once again we pay attention to B.B. Dashibalov, food-shchego that the Yakut horolor are natives of the tribe polecats differing in the language from Yakut.

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2. F.F. Vasilyev. Military science of Yakuts. Yakutsk, 1995.
3. Long B.O. Some questions of ancient history western//KSE, 1953.
4. I.V. Konstantinov. Origin of the Yakut people and its culture//Yakutia and its neighbors in the ancient time. Yakutsk, 1986.
5. B.I. Kuznetsov. Ancient Iran and Tibet. History of religion Bon. SPb., 1998.
6. G.N. Rumyantsev. Origins of horinsky drill. Ulan-Ude, 1962.
7. Tokarev S.A. About origin of the Buryat people//CA 1953. No. 2.
8. V.P. Tsyrempilov. About etymology of ethnonyms "Mongol", "polecats", "drill"//Topical issues of history of Buryatia. Ulan-Ude, 1990.
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