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Contribution of the First Siberian forum of scientists to industrial modernization of edge

UDK 001.895:316.422 (09)


V.I. Nagornov, G.V. Yalovskaya

Tomsk Polytechnic University Е^У:

On the basis of documentary base (the of the 20th century of materials of the First Siberian research congress published in the late twenties) the condition of scientific capacity of Siberia to the middle of the 20th reveals the urgent need of increasing research work and association of scientific forces in connection with the industrial modernization of edge demanding scientific and technical, economic justification Is shown.

In the history of the Siberian science and its creators of uche-nykh-devotees, engineering, prosveshchenets and in general intellectual forces of edge the significant place is taken by the First Siberian research congress which took place from December 15 to December 21, 1926

This event involved historians, local historians, kulturoved long ago.

What research forces Siberia on the eve of work of a congress had and what caused its necessity?

To the middle of the 20th of the 20th century 6 higher education institutions were the share of all edge (without higher education institutions of Vladivostok).

The acute shortage of scientific shots was noted in the report at a congress "About training of scientists for Siberia" by the rector of the Siberian Institute of Technology N.V. Gutovsky (Tomsk). According to it in the Siberian higher education institutions worked: 157 professors, and on the state are necessary 271, associate professors 88, on the state - 132 [2. Page 13-14].

The main educational scientific center on preparation of engineering shots and researchers in the area it is natural - technical knowledge there was the Tomsk (Siberian) Institute of Technology (STI) [3]. To the middle of the 20th of the 20th century when the course towards industrialization was already announced, this higher education institution closely connected the scientific work with economic problems of edge.

Works of professors of STI were well known to scientific community: the founder of school "physicist of a solid body" B.P. Veynberg, the prominent metallurgist, the specialist in hot metal working N.V. Gutovsky, the founder of the Siberian school of sciences of geologists M.A. Usov who was engaged in the Uralo-Kuznetsky project since 1918 Being the member of council of the project created by "Society of the Siberian engineers" to the middle of the 20th professor M.A. Usov as the chairman of the Siberian office Geolkom carried out large-scale organizational work on research and examination of fields of coals in Kuzbass, in Eastern Siberia and in Kazakhstan.

In 1925 there was a classical work (assessment of prominent scientists) of the prof. V.Ya. Mostovich in the field of the theory of nonferrous metallurgy "Oxygen in mattes of copper melting (from metallurgical laboratory

STI), and in 1926 - scientific work of the young specialist of mountain faculty N.N. Gornostayev "A physiographic essay of Sibkraya".

Engineers and scientists Technological ensured functioning of electrotechnical trust which knew construction of all power plants in Western Siberia, acted as consultants and designers in reconstruction old and creation of the new enterprises, in service of railway transport. Practically all chemical productions of Siberia asked for the help in laboratory researches the staff of department of chemical technology.

Researches of professor M.K. Korovin in the field of geology of combustible minerals concerned many carboniferous areas and the Basins of Siberia which were given justification as industrial and significant.

By 1926 success in hydrogeological researches on reserves of salts for chemical industry (survey party of M.I. Kuchin) was achieved. By 1925. The Siberian technological was closely connected with work practically of all industries of edge and to it was with what to come to the First Siberian research congress.

Change in rates and volumes of research works in institute came by 1926 when the government decision on construction of Kuznetsk Metallurgical Combine on the basis of the Telbessky field of ores was made. Scientific STI directed Telbessbyuro created in Tomsk for preparatory and project works (the chairman - N.V. Gutovsky).

In Siberia by the end of the recovery period at problems of reconstruction of economy the network of research institutes was extremely weak. The first scientific research institutes in the region arose in 1922. It were: The Irkutsk biologo - geographical, Tomsk scientific research institute of applied physics (future SFTI) and the Vladivostok institute of study of local lore. All of them were organized at higher education institutions. In 1926 in Novosibirsk the office of the central institute of agricultural economy was open. Activity of scientific research institute had the academic character at weak communication with practical economic tasks. The independence of scientific research institute was found only in the late twenties by, and their growth and strengthening were connected with industrial modernization in days of the first five-years periods.

The broad scope in Sibkraye was gained by scientific researches on studying the region by the local history organizations, museums.

The large volume of research on studying the region was made by the Siberian departments of the Russian Geographical Society which arose in the 50th of the 19th century. Broad access to membership of Society attracted prosveshchenets who created sections of school study of local lore, developed programs for research circles at special attention to indigenous people. Various scientific organizations were connected with study of local lore, including: The Irkutsk society of scientists, Tomsk ornithological which together with the museums held conferences, congresses, exhibitions on the done research.

In 1925 in Novosibirsk the Siberian local history organization - "Society on Studying Productive Forces of Siberia" which acted as the initiator of convocation of the First Siberian scientific forum and got active support from the regional power was created.

Until the end of the 20th (before dissolution "for unreliability") in the region the Siberian organization of the All-Russian Association of engineers and the related society of the Siberian engineers (SSE) worked with the periodical "Vestnik Sibirskikh Inzhenerov". By 1926 from 105 members of AXIS 99 - engineers and scientists [4. Page 94-101]. Scientific and technical readings, discussion of reports, cooperation with Sibplan's commissions are the not exhaustive list of work of the AXIS confirming its scientific and practical importance.

Need of a scientific Siberian forum was caused by lag of organizational forms of research activity from major problems of industrial modernization of the country and edge.

The industrial period demanded not only scientific and technical progress in the field of the industry, but also the accelerated development of agriculture, rise in educational, common cultural and professional level of broad masses, i.e. profound sociocultural changes.

At a congress the largest scientific institutions of the center, including Academy of Sciences of the USSR, all main scientific organizations of edge, all higher education institutions of Siberia and departments of the Russian Geographical Society, the large museums and other local history organizations were presented. The importance and scale of a congress was confirmed by participation in its work of representatives of VSNKh, the State Planning Committee of the USSR and RSFSR, Glavnauki, the Siberian economic administrative agencies. All of them were united by problems of this forum: to reveal degree of study of productive forces and scientific potential, to prove ways of the maximum use of natural resources for the forthcoming reconstruction of the national economy.

The congress defined three main directions in the work: results of knowledge of Siberia that contacted degree of study of its productive forces and feature of living arrangement of the people of edge; rational use of natural resources; organizational forms of the research associations connected with problems of reconstruction of all national economy.

Following the results of scientific activity the report of the prof. V.I. Baranov "Methods of research work in Sibkraye" was discussed [5. Page 29-31].

The congress concentrated attention on organizational forms of research activity of Siberia what the report of the representative of regional administration G.I. Cheremnykh was devoted to. The concept of maintaining the principle of decentralization and independence of research establishments offered by the speaker at simultaneous coordination did not raise doubts them with activity of the Siberian regional center - the coordinator in planning of nauchnoissledovatelsky work, with questions of economic and cultural life. In the report of the rector of STI N.V. Gutovsky "Of training of scientists for Siberia" the question of division into districts of higher educational institutions for business contact in work between higher education institutions and the public, economic institutions which would promote systematic release of highly qualified specialists was raised. A solution of the problem of preparation of new scientific shots, the speaker considered, directly depends on change of a financial position of higher education institutions.

Professor M.A. Usov "A role of research works in development of the national economy and industrialization of Siberia" constructed the report, proceeding from international experience of a role of science in development of the social and economic sphere of public life and cultural development of communities. The speaker spoke about need to consider new opening in exploring of natural wealth and to quickly adjust tasks. Effective research work requires association of forces: state, economic, public, separate enterprises and private societies. B.P. Veynberg insisted on creation of scientific research institute on studying productive forces of edge. Higher education institutions, according to him, given study, cannot carry out such volume of researches which will be freely executed by scientific research institutes.

Problems of social and economic education, the organization of the new departments specializing in training of engineers - industria-fishing, rational use of a work practice of students, expansion of network of the scientific research institute training scientists and researchers were lifted by regional administration on national education.

Judging by reports and discussions the participants of a congress were minimum politized and ideologized. Even the speech of the secretary of Regional committee of the All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) S.I. Syrtsov tuning delegates into class approach to connection of science with economic tasks and on fight against those who do not want to notice ideological enemies did not find at most of delegates of response. In the thanksgiving published letters on behalf of participants of a congress there was no address to party bodies. At the same time most of speakers coordinated the problems with tasks of socialist construction. Such spirit can be explained with the professional importance of a forum for its participants and presence of Party members whom there were 18% as a part of delegations. Speeches of delegates - scientists confirmed the fact of recognition by the scientific intellectuals of economic policy of ruling party and there were no bases "to defame" professors of old school that took place in higher education institutions of Siberia the 20th and next years.

5 target sections worked at a congress: "Subsoil", "Surface", "Communication", "Person" and "Muzeynoarkhivnaya". "Subsoil" is a center of stars of the Siberian technical science: B.P. Veynberg, N.V. Gu-tovsky, M.K. Korovin, B.L. Stepanov, M.A. Usov, F.N. Shakhov, etc. Their performances were not limited to one section.

The resolution on M.A. Usov's report "An essay of a geological structure and minerals of Siberia" was developed by the commissions elected sections at an intersection meeting. Large industrial stocks of the natural minerals having practical value for various sectors of the economy were specifically listed and the scheme of additional, in-depth studies was given [6. Page 225].

The prospect of development of the Kuznetsk coal field was considered on the basis of several reports tied on the subject "Industrialization of Siberia". It was recognized: Kuzbass is a strong point for industrialization of Siberia. This role demands a constant research in the directions: mining, heattechnical, chemical and metallurgical [6. Page 229]. Having opened sources of the Uralo-Kuznetsky problem which arose because of a sharp disproportion between the industry and an ugleobespechennost of the Urals and need of ore for metallurgy of Siberia the scientists and practicians studying the industrial capacity of Kuzbass saw other its decision, than mutual transportations of coal and ore of two regions. The alternative option was connected with opening of the Pechersky coal field and deposits of potash salts "on that side of the Urals" [6. Page 98-102].

N.V. Gutovsky on the basis of results of geological researches came to a conclusion: reserves of high-quality ore and the coked coal are that that they can provide development of large-scale metallurgical industry not only Siberia, but also the Urals. Moreover, it gave the chance not only to melt cast iron or to produce section steel, but also to develop large-scale chemical industry, to carry out electrification of the leading branches of the national economy. The scientific forecast of "the practical scientist" was realized. As the Uralo-Kuznetsky project captured the most various industries (coal, metallurgical, chemical, the general and agricultural mechanical engineering), to the Siberian technical colleges, and first of all the Siberian technological, the major problem was coming the leader: to advance science in production and to conduct training of engineers for all specified branches of economy.

In the section "Surface" instead of the stated 14 reports it was twice more because of what it was necessary to be divided into subsections: production and natural-historical. The report of the prof. I.I. Osipov "Agriculture in Siberia and the prospects of its development" was a header performance in the first subsection. In it the detailed picture of a ratio of field husbandry and livestock production on the volume of the made products and on realization in the market in various areas, with different types of cultures and breeds of the cattle was given [7. Page 17].

The major economic factor of development of the Siberian agriculture seemed to researchers - agrarians in ensuring sales market of products that it is in turn connected with development of all means of transport and industrialization of agriculture, i.e. with construction of processing enterprises. As it was noted in the report, "the Siberian cargoes got to a transport bottle with a narrow throat in the Urals" [7. Page 27].

The problem of domestic and foreign market was one of central in justification of the main way of development of agriculture. There is its essence: favorable market conditions developed for the Siberian oil, however at the competition to Austria, New Zealand and Argentina Siberia will not be able to hold the oil market if does not raise quality and will not reduce the price of its production. Speakers gave the important place in this project to development of the cooperation in butter manufacture having long traditions. By 1925. "The Siberian maslodelka" united 4-5 thousand settlements, 500 thousand farms. Here worked 2885 creameries and 1550 creamy offices [7. Page 34]. Other recommendations were: thorough selection of the cattle, a travopolya, production mechanization, replenishment by its refrigeration units, carrying out land management works to bring closer the owner to the earth. These plans did not manage to be carried out equally.

Among the discussed scientific subjects connected with development of productive forces of Siberia in the section "Surface" it is necessary to call: development of forestry and the forest industry, huntings, water energy resources, soil and botanical researches, fishery, studying physiographic conditions of edge meliorative works, medical and sanitary and cultural and educational work on service of the colonized areas. The plan of capital construction of the railroads for Siberia (prof. S.A. Vvedensky), road construction, development of waterways was presented to the sections "Communication", including North Sea, radiofikation. Multidimensional problems which solutions defined the fate of Siberia, were discussed in the section "Person". The forthcoming industrialization affected traditions of tenor of life of indigenous people. In a performance of the prof. N.D. Bushmakin, M.K. Azadovsky the recommendation of need of training of local community for the forthcoming changes was heard, not to break the healthy beginning of living arrangement, to create the progressive, modern living environment. In two sections united by one meeting ("Person" and "Museum and archival") the speech of professor - the historian S.V. Bakhrushin who saw the prospect of studying edge in continuity with what was made in relation to practical tasks was significant.

The central place at the plenary session which was taking place under the chairmanship of N.V. Gutovsko-go was occupied by the report of the chairman Sibkrayplan A.M. Pevznera "National economy of Siberia and prospect of its development". Summing up briefly the results of the recovery period the speaker appealed to scientific community to put economic and technical knowledge on rationalization of all branches of the national economy for what it is necessary to focus attention not only on fuel and energy base and the heavy industry, but also on problems of transport, communication, processing of agricultural products, elimination dalnozemelya and a strip farming, life conditions that POSPISOK LITERATURY

1. V.L. Soskin Siberia, revolution, science. - Novosibirsk: Science, 1989. - 176 pages
2. The first Siberian regional research congress. Materials to reports. Plenum. - Novosibirsk, 1926. - 153 pages
3. Tomsk Polytechnic University of 1896-1996: A historical essay / Under the editorship of A.V. Gagarin. - Tomsk: TPU, 1996. - 448 pages
4. N.N. Gritsenko, V.F. Oranzhereeva, D.G. Alekseev, etc. Nauchnotekhnichesky societies in the USSR. Historical essay. - M.: Profizdat, 1968. - Page 94-101.

could carry out industrial reconstruction of the Siberian economy effectively.

At the end of 1927. "Society of studying Siberia and its productive forces" (OIC), held a plenum of the council elected a congress, representatives of local bureaus of the cities of edge at which the concept of a research role of study of local lore in studying conditions for industrialization consistently was defended. It coordinated forwarding activity (by the end of the 20th years more than 200 expeditions were organized), organized meetings on construction of the Kuznetsk plant, together with Sibplan developed materials to the 15-year plan of research works as parts of the master plan of industrialization and cultural development of edge. Economic organizations intensified the help to scientific expeditions of the humanitarian direction. There was a formation of research institutes of branch character. In days of the first five-years period at limited material resources and the shortages of intellectual forces the strengthening komandnoadministrativny system created a mutually exclusive situation when carrying out economic and scientific and technical policy. All forces were mobilized for strengthening of science with production and "affairs" on professors, the technical intellectuals were at the same time fabricated; active fight against bureaucracy was conducted and "the clamps" mandative style of the management, including in research work were put. The science and intense work became the most important factors of high achievements of a social and economic experiment, unique on scales, - industrial modernization of Siberia. The scientific forum of 1926 generally executed the function, focusing researchers on the applied nature of their activity.

5. Works of the First Siberian regional research congress. T. 6. - Novosibirsk, 1928. - Page 29-31.
6. The first Siberian research congress. T. 1.

Protocols and resolutions. - Novosibirsk, 1927. - 285 pages

7. Works of the First Siberian research congress. T. 3. - Novosibirsk, 1927. - 319 pages

Arrived 23.05.2006

Arnesen Anne-Marie
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