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Church and monarchic peasants party



History of one of oppositional groups of extremist orientation - the Tserkovnomonarkhichesky peasants party which arose because of rejection of a church political policy of the metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky) and modernization of the state and connected with the Victorian current in Russian Orthodox Church is covered in article. The article is dedicated to the history of one of the extremist groups known as The Church and monarchic peasant’s party. This organization is related with the Victorian trend in Russian Orthodox Church. It disapproved of the official church political course of the metropolitan Sergiy (Stargorodsky) loyal to the Soviet state.

bishops Victor (Ostrovidov) and Nektary (Trezvinsky), the Victorian current in church, a political position of believers, Church and Monarchic Peasants Party; bishop Victor (Ostrovidov), bishop Nektariy (Trezvinsky), Victorian trend in Russian Orthodox Church, political position of believers, Church and monarchic peasant’s party.

Alexey Gennadyevich — to. and. N, associate professor of the Kirov branch of the Moscow state industrial university

The Victorian current in the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) — the first and the most radical of church oppositions to a political policy of the deputy patriarchal locum tenens metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky). His leader was the bishop Izhevsk and Victor Votsky (Ostrovidov). There was it in the fall of 1927 and was mainly widespread in the Vyatka province and partially in the Votsky autonomous region. In October

1928 supported by of the bishop Victor in the Vyatka province 150 arrivals from 554, or nearly a third of all prikhodov1.

Fall of 1927 — at the beginning of 1928 the bishop Victor in the territory of the Vyatka diocese created parallel sergiansky church management. After arrest of the bishop Victor in the middle of 1928 in the territory of the Vyatka region there were two chains of command the Victorian arrivals: the first — in the territory of the Vyatka and Kotelnichsky episkopiya, and the second — in the Yaransky epi-skopiya. Distribution and mass support of a viktorianstvo was explained by the fact that the politician metropolitan Sergius and an obnovlenchestvo it were presented to believers as the phenomena of one order, namely as "red" church. In the conditions of folding of "the religious New Economic Policy" and the begun forced modernization of the country the sergiansky church could not satisfy ideological needs of the people oppositional to the Soviet state. In turn, loyal and apolitical views of the bishop Victor more often began to be treated by his adherents and temporal power as refusal (or an appeal to refusal) from submission to the state. Anti-Soviet politicization viktorian was promoted also by activity of the bishop Yaransky Nektariya (Trezvinsky). His views, unlike the bishop Victor, carried coloring, oppositional to the government, and focused wide groups of clergy and believers on underground existence. A part yaransky anti-sergian in the early thirties began to rank themselves as adherents of "viktoro-nektariyevsky orientation".

Against the background of the archival and investigative affairs devoted to exposure of antigovernmental activity of representatives viktorian-

1 State Archive of the Kirov Region (SAKR), t. 237, op. 77, 1, l. 93; State Archive of Socio-political History of the Kirov Region (SASPHKR), t. 6799, op. 8, of SU-10261, t. 5, l. 3; Vyatka Diocesan Archive (VDA), t. 28, op. 1, 3, l. 82; L. Or. Enemy forces//Vyatka truth, Oct. 1928, 14, page 2.

a sky current in ROC, case of the so-called Church and Monarchic Peasants Party (CMPP) is allocated. Alexander Fedotovich Vinogradov was her leader, he is Ivan Dmitrievich Milyutin.

On arrival in 1928 to the Vyatka province Vinogradov before wandering on different areas contacted supporters of bishops Victor and Nektariya and began to organize around himself clergy and monkhood. The bishop Nektary authorized him to operate the Victorian arrivals of the Yaransky episkopiya. Believers perceived Vinogradov in this status. Given out on June 2

1929 to Mr. Vinogradov the bishop the document called parish councils and pricht to render to Vinogradov any contents and if it is required, material support.

A.F. Vinogradov went on villages and villages "for accusation of Sergiyevsky recreancy" and "novoobnovlenchestvo", carried on propaganda and extended literature. It organized general meetings of believers. As a rule, the illegal, "closed" meetings to which 15 — 20 especially authorized representatives were invited were held. At meetings Vinogradov urged believers to be organized "on protection of religion against the godless devilish power", at the same time emphasized the "readiness to lay down life for orthodox belief". Vinogradov called for that peasants sabotaged collective farms and communes, did not send the children to schools, did not trust "the apostate Sergius who was sold by Sovvlasti".

Declaring to believers: "I will turn all Russia", it could entrain quite considerable groups of the peasantry quickly. So, women of page. The swarms coming to it to the apartment called him "the world lawyer". His ideas especially well perceived and conventuals, fists, the former dealers extended.

Vinogradov strongly extended so-called church "International" among the population: "Lenin all shouted freedom of the rich to plunder, the earth to take and god-loving in basements to put all people to a wall..."

Spring of 1930 Vinogradov condemned for anti-Soviet activity was imprisoned in the Murmansk concentration camp from where the same year ran. According to the priest Konovalov,

Vinogradov some time lived in Leningrad, then in the Caucasus (presumably in Pyatigorsk). At the beginning of 1931 he appeared in Kotelniche under a surname of Ivan Dmitrievich Milyutin and prior to the beginning of September illegally lived at a psalomshchitsa of cathedral church of the conventual U.F. Sergeyeva.

Vinogradov (Milyutin) began to hold secret meetings among peasants on whom the issue

was discussed

about support of the organization which leader was Vinogradov. In investigative business there are instructions on the name of the organization — "monarchist party". To it the fact that Vinogradov positioned himself as the leader of "monarchist party" is given to confirmation and this organization had a program written to notebooks. At the same time at characteristic of the purposes and tasks of the organization in investigative business not materials of this program, and conclusions from the carried-out analysis of activity of the organization and testimonies of defendants and witnesses are used.

In our opinion, it there was rather quite successful attempt from Vinogradov to create effect of the importance of the activity as opposed to simple wrecking. At meetings he said that he is the head of monarchist party which puts a task fight against the Soviet power. The party program was in providing to the people freedom of religious beliefs, freedom of the private market, a private property on the earth, to give to use of peasants of the wood, to lower to peasants taxes.

We consider quite admissible to use as the name of the organization that formulation offered by investigating authorities — "church and monarchic peasants party". CMKP was some kind of organizational and ideological registration of the developed kulak groups which were already practicing single "acts of retaliation" in respect of authorities. With the advent of "party" the similar actions began to have more systematic character. In September, 1931 in Kotelnichsky district the group of the member of CMKP I. Skurikhin conducted terrorist attacks and gangster attacks: murder of the operative Svechinsky

regional management of militia of F.M. Yarovikov, collective farmer activist P.A. Lysykh; the armed raid and defeat of the Vaginsky Village Council, office and bench of general store, post agency in the village of Tronich. The armed raids and murders of collective farmers were committed also in the territory of Shabalinsky district.

These facts were widely used by Vinogradov (Milyutin) in the performances at meetings as bright examples of force of CMKP. Besides, issues of carrying out act of sabotage — blasting the railroad for the purpose of causing economic damage of the power were discussed at meetings. It was repeatedly asked about need of arms of the organization. There was an instigation to the organization of raids for the purpose of robbery ("destruction of the Soviet capitals") and also to murder of active public and Soviet workers. So, at one of meetings Vinogradov (Milyutin) raised a question of murder of the member of the Petukhovsky Village Council A.I. Glukhova who was carrying out active work against prosperous peasants. All attendees with need of murder of Glukhova

agreed. Skurikhin and Rozhkin undertook to fulfill this obligation.

In 1931. Church and Monarchic Peasants Party was liquidated by bodies of OGPU. The organization of "church and monarchic peasants party" and the counterrevolutionary activity directed "to preparation and overthrow of the existing Soviet system" 1 was imputed to defendants. Five people admitted the guilt completely, and four, including and A.V. Konovalov — partially. Other, disappeared defendants, including the leader of "party" A.F. Vinogradov (Milyutin), were put on the wanted list.

Thus, antigovernmental moods and organized activity of extremist orientation of representatives of the Victorian current of ROC at the end of 1920 — the beginning of the 1930th destabilized an obshchestvennopolitichesky situation and, in fact, implementation of domestic policy of the Soviet state counteracted that caused quite justified response from the last.

1 GASPI CO, t. 6799, op. 8, of SU-10210, t. 2, l. 120-151.
Thomas Williams
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